Abstract and Keywords
Based on available archaeological and ethnohistorical data, this chapter examines the nature of Inca presence in the norther portion of the empire. Located in present-day Ecuador, this region had a singular importance in the last phases of Inca imperial expansion. This contribution provides an overview of the Inca occupation and the different forms of integration that the populations dwelling in the sierra, coast, and tropical oriente experienced. The discussion also highlights the importance of the Inca centers of Tomebamba and Quito in the imperial politics, and the system of defensive fortifications along the imperial frontiers. It also discusses the complex relations that the Inca established with competing polities like the Caranqui and Cañari among many others. Altogether, this illustrates the complexity of the complexity of the Inca conquest in the Northern region, and the remaining work to be done in the future.
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