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date: 15 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Peru’s Zona de Vilcabamba was the scene of the post-Conquest 35-year struggle by the Inca to remain free of Spanish domination, and the base from which they fought to regain their empire. This chapter discusses that conflict and the physical and historical setting in which it occurred, including Pachacuti’s 1440 conquest of the region, his royal estate at Vitcos, Manco Inca’s retreat there from Spanish pursuit in 1537, and his withdrawal to Vilcabamba, in the jungles of Espíritu Pampa in 1539. Also discussed are the burning of the sun temple at Ñusta Ispanan in 1570, the death of Titu Cusi and martyrdom of Padre Diego Ortiz in 1571, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo’s conquest of the province, and the capture and execution of Tupac Amaru Inca in 1572. Finally, the modern explorations of Hiram Bingham, Gene Savoy, and the Lees and the scholarly work of John Hemming are noted.

Keywords: Vilcabamba, Peru, Vitcos, Espíritu Pampa, Ñyusta Ispanan, Pachacuti, Manco Inca, Titu Cusi, Tupac Amaru

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