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date: 10 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Since their introduction into the literature over 30 years ago, the interest paid to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has dramatically increased. One reason for this is the relatively recent focus placed by researchers on identifying unit-level antecedents of individual-level OCBs. Unfortunately, our understanding of this growing area of research has been limited by the absence of strong and consistent conceptual foundations, and the lack of sufficient attention to appropriate methods for gathering and analyzing multilevel data. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to (a) provide a summary of research examining how unit-level factors influence individual-level OCBs, with particular attention to the mediators and moderators of these effects; (b) offer recommendations designed to provide stronger conceptual grounding for identifying antecedents, mediators, and moderators in this domain; and (c) suggest improvements to the methods and analytical techniques used for testing hypotheses regarding multilevel antecedents of OCB.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior, contextual performance, multilevel, unit-level data, data aggregation, individual differences, leader behaviors, climate, mediation, moderation

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