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date: 27 June 2019

Index

Index

Note: Page references followed by a “b” indicate box; “t” indicate table; “f” indicate figure.

A
accidents (unintentional injuries), Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 202t, 205t, 208
acculturation. See also specific types
ABC model of, 3
assimilation theories compared to, 2, 328
asylum seekers and challenges of, 4
bidimensional framework for globalization and, 158
Boas on universal process of, 76
changing context for, 29–30, 423–24
college student alcohol abuse and, 264
colonization and, 17–18
contact, 24
cultural diffusion and, 78
cultural stress process distinguished from process of, 293
definition of, 1–3, 15–16, 21, 76–80, 98, 104, 119, 178, 303–4, 328
democratic, 82
dimensions of, 16–17
ethnicity and, 4
etymology of, 76
food, RA and, 168–69
framework for study of, 16, 16f, 18–21
fusion, 81
gender as moderator between illicit drug use and, 291–92
global psychology of, 18
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
history of construct of, 76–80
illicit drug use by adults and youth linked with, 282
illicit drug use relationship with, mechanisms underlying, 288–91
as interactive, 5
as intergroup process, 4–6
Latino/a mental health care and low levels of, 380–81
law and, 80–81
long term, 17
models of, 2
multiculturalism complicating study of, 17
mutual characterization of, 24
negative, 210
operationalizing meanings of, 3–4
paradox of, 136
RA differentiated from globalization-based, 158
as reciprocal accommodation, 81
refugees and challenges of, 4
scholarship on, 239–40
second-culture acquisition and, 80
socioeconomic status and, 4
sojourners and challenges of, 4
specifying meanings of, 3–4
street culture shaping, 223
of suicidal Latina adolescents, 221
acculturation conceptualization
acculturation and health comparative research issues with, 177–83
bidimensional scales for, 99–102, 328
categories of, 104
changing, 423–24
complexity in, 2, 135–36
current state of, 98–103
as developmental process, 112
disconnect between practice and, 450
labels for, 102–3
methods and approaches to, 97–98
multidimensional scales for, 102–3, 140–41, 282–83, 303–4
as multilevel phenomenon, 111–12
as one-factor personal trait, 424
original, 423
proxy measures and, 99, 103
for RA, 157–59
racism and demeaning, 78–80
tiered approach to, 103
as trajectories of culture change, 424
as two-factor personal trait, 424
unidimensional scales for, 98–99, 282, 328
acculturation conditions
for comparative research, 180–82, 181f
RA and, 163–64, 166f
acculturation expectations, 24
acculturation gap hypothesis, 122, 125
acculturation hypothesis, 210
Acculturation Index (AI), 99
acculturation orientation
assimilationist, 53f, 57–60, 100, 100f
exclusionist, 53f, 58–60
individualist, 53f, 57–59
integrationism, 53f, 57–59, 100, 100f
integrationism-transformation, 53f, 58
linguistic majority and minority groups in, 53f, 56–60
marginalization, 53f, 57, 100, 100f
political party affiliation and, 59
RA and, 164, 166f
relational outcomes and, 53f, 60–61
segregationist, 53f, 58–59
separatism, 53f, 57, 100, 100f
acculturation outcomes, RA and, 164, 166f
Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA), 111, 178
Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II (ARSMA-II), 244, 265–68, 364
Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II Short Version (ARSMA-II-SV), 243–44
acculturation strategies, 136, 179
assimilation as, 23, 328
assimilation differentiated from other, 21
components of, 21
contact and, 21
cultural continuity and, 21
developing, 20
expectations in, 24
integration as, 23
level of support in, 24
marginalization and, 23
original frameworks for, 22–23, 22f
power and, 21
separation as, 23
unidimensional approach to, 21–22, 22f
acculturation theory. See acculturation conceptualization
acculturative competence, single case measure of, 89
acculturative press
assimilation and, 31–32
education and, 41
acculturative stress, 20, 281
from assimilation restrictions, 23
college students and, 125–26
conceptualization of, 120–21
coping with, 126–27
definition of, 120
depression and, 127
family cultural conflict and, 122–23
health outcomes and, 424–25
(p. 454) Hispanic youth health disparities and, 394
illicit drug use and, 137
intergroup discrimination and, 121–22
intragroup marginalization and, 122
measurement of, 119, 123
mental health impact of, 119, 124–25
preventive interventions for decreasing, 434
psychodrama for, 433–34
research on, 120
research on adult Hispanic immigrants and, 136–40, 140t
sexual behavior and, 137
stress-illness paradigm and, 137
US immigration policy, BCIS and, 127–28
vulnerability in coping with, 126–27
youth violence and, 337
adaptation. See also culturally adapted preventive interventions
of comparative research test, 190
contact hypothesis for, 26
cultural, 17, 415
ecological, 415
integration hypothesis for, 25–26
intercultural, 20, 25–26
linguistic, 415
multiculturalism hypothesis for, 26
psychological, 17, 20, 25–26
sociocultural, 20, 25–26
types of, 24–25
well-being and, 20–21
ADAPT-ITT model, 399
additive bilingualism, 56
ad hoc sampling, 185
adolescent RSB and acculturation, 301–2
APMSE and, 311t
collectivism and, 312t
contraception compliance and, 307t, 308t, 314t, 318–19
cultural practices and, 305t
education achievement and, 310t, 315–16
English proficiency at home and, 314t
familismo and, 309t, 314t
future research implications for, 321–22
gender and, 320–21
individualism and, 312t
interpersonal mediators for, 316–19
intervention implications for, 322–23
intrapersonal mediators for, 315–16
male promiscuity and, 321
mediators in, 315–19
moderators in, 319–21
parental approval and, 310t
parental attachment and, 310t
parental disapproval and, 311t
parent-child communication and, 306t, 308t, 314t, 317–18, 323
partner influence in, 318–19
peer influence and, 318
pregnancy and, 307t
pregnancy prevention and, 308t
religiosity and, 306t, 313t, 314t, 319–20
sexual attitudes and, 305t
sexual decision-making and, 306t
sexual initiation and, 311t
sexual intentions and, 307t, 309t, 316
sexual knowledge and, 306t, 316
study selection criteria for, 304, 315
summary of review article findings on, 305t314t
theoretical model for, 315, 315f
adolescent’s perceived maternal sexual expectations (APMSE), 311t
adoption, of comparative research test, 190
adult mortality, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 200, 201t, 203
advanced society, concept of, 77–78
affect, 3
affect-behavior-cognition (ABC) model, 3
African American youth, violence and, 327–28
Alaskan Native. See American Indian/Alaskan Native
alcohol abuse, 10. See also Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use; Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use; Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation
acculturation and college student, 264
college students and, 263–64
suicidal Latina adolescents and, 231
youth violence and, 336–37
alcohol laws, in US-Mexico border region, 248
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 264
Allophones, in Quebec, 67–68
alternating biculturalism, 32, 36, 43
American Indian/ Alaskan Native (AI/AN) adolescents
dating violence and, 329–30, 336
limited knowledge on violence and, 338
US population of, 327
youth violence in, 330, 336
Americanization studies, 161–62
Anglophones. See also bilingual healthcare
definition of, 61
egocentric beliefs of, 52
in New Brunswick bilingual healthcare case study, 63–64
in Ontario bilingual healthcare case study, 64–67
in Quebec bilingual healthcare case study, 67–70
Apgar score, 89
Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use, 263
ethnic group membership in, 271
future research directions for, 273–75
gender and, 270–71
indirect effects of, 270
main effects of, 269–70
measurement considerations for, 265
national samples compared to, 271–72
preventive intervention for, 275–76
research design and analysis recommendations for, 274–75
risk factors in, 264
studies on, 269–71
summary of research literature on, 272–73
terminology and assessment recommendations for, 273
theoretical considerations for, 265, 273–74
within-group considerations for, 274
Asian American Family Conflicts scale, 122
Asian American Multidimensional Scale (AAMS), 102, 109
Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory, 149
Asian Americans, foreigner objectification of, 143. See also Latino/a and Asian immigrant health
American disinterest in indignations of, 147
awareness of, 149
depression and, 150
identity assertion and, 151
identity denial and health issues of, 151
racial triangulation theory and, 147–48
stress from, 149
Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) adolescents
dating violence and, 329, 334, 336
US population of, 327
violence and acculturation study methods for, 333–34
youth violence in, 330, 334–35, 336–37
Asian Values Scale (AVS), 311t
assembly, of comparative research test, 190
(p. 455) assimilation
acculturation strategies differentiated from, 21, 328
as acculturation strategy, 23
acculturation theories compared to, 2
acculturative press and, 31–32
acculturative stress from restrictions of, 23
“culture shedding” and, 2
definition of, 434
EDM creation and, 434–40
melting pot and, 24
in Netherlands, 5
RA LGB culture and, 170
segmented, 2, 38, 366–69, 367f, 425–26
US 20th century expectations for, 29–30
youth violence and, 336–37
assimilation ideology, in IAM, 53f, 55
assimilationist acculturation orientation, 53f, 57–60, 100, 100f
asylum seekers
acculturation challenges for, 4
basic characteristics of, 19–20
definition of, 3
AUD and acculturation of Mexican-origin persons at US-Mexico border
acculturation variables in, 250
aims and hypotheses of, 249–50
alcohol use variables in, 250–51
analysis plan for, 251–52
conclusions and recommendations from, 257
correlation matrix of associations in, 252, 255t
drinking motives in, 251
English proficiency and, 254, 256
mental health in, 251
multivariate logistic regression models testing associations in, 252, 254, 256t
perceived drinking norms in, 251
results of, 252, 253t256t, 254, 256
sociodemographic characteristics in, 250
study design and participants in, 250
study limitations of, 256
Awareness of the Perpetual Foreigner Stereotype Scale, 149
B
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), 251
behavioral changes, 20
behaviors, 3
Berry Boxes, 22
Between Two Worlds. See Entre Dos Mundos
bicultural effectiveness training (BET), 41, 436
bicultural identity integration (BII), 9
adjustment and, 36
biculturalism theory and, 36–37, 43
cognitive advantages of, 36
conception and definition of, 35
creativity and, 168
globalization and, 40
in intervention settings, 42, 43
liberal ideology and, 86
psychodrama and, 439, 439f
research advocating forms of, 82–83
research on cues and, 35–36
RSB and, 304
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale, 107
bicultural immigrants, 3
biculturalism, 9
alternating, 32, 36, 43
BII and theory of, 36–37, 43
blended, 32, 36, 43
contexts encouraging or discouraging, 31, 42
cultural frame-switching and, 33–35
definition of, 30, 42
domains of measuring, 32–33, 33f
EDM creation and, 434–40
empirical evidence against, 83–84
as endorsement of two cultures, 30–32
ethnogenesis and, 37
family relationships and, 41
globalization in triculturalism compared to, 38–40
health advantages of, 41
as heterogeneous label, 32–33
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
historical concept of, 78
intervention programs promoting, 41–42
language use challenges and, 32
laws blocking complete, 83
opportunity challenges for, 37
practical implications of, 40–42
religion issues with, 83
remote, 168
research conclusions on, 31, 83–85
research on globalization and, 39–40
triculturalism compared to, 37–38
well-being and, 83–85
bicultural skills training programs, 435–37
bicultural stress, 9
adolescents and, 125
conceptualization of, 121
coping with, 126–27
definition of, 120
family cultural conflict and, 122–23
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and, 273
intergroup discrimination and, 121–22
intragroup marginalization and, 122
measurement of, 123–24
mental health impact of, 124–25
sources of, 124
Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS), 206
bidimensional scales
for acculturation conceptualization, 99–102, 328
for acculturation measurement, 179, 180b
critics of, 102
endorsement format in, 101–2
frequency format in, 101–2
for Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use, 267–69
for Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use, 287–88
for Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use, 285
independence criterion for, 101–2
multicomponent, 3
typological compared to dimensional, 99–101, 100f
Bilingual Belt, of Canada, 50, 52
bilingual healthcare case studies in, 61–70
Vitality of Official Language Minorities survey on, 70–71
bilingual healthcare
Bilingual Belt of Canada case studies on, 61–70
efficiency in, 53
future research on, 71
New Brunswick case study on, 63–64
Ontario case study on, 64–67
Quebec case study on, 67–70
Vitality of Official Language Minorities survey on, 70–71
bilingualism, 34
additive, 56
Canada rates of, 61–62
cognitive advantages of, 36
in Quebec, 61–62
subtractive, 56
birth outcomes, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 201t, 203, 204t
birth rates, adolescent, by ethnicity, 302f
blended biculturalism, 32, 36, 43
blended individuals, LGB culture and, 169
Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development, 400
Boas, Franz, 76
body mass index (BMI), 207
LTPA and, 346
body shape, cultural attitudes on gender and, 347–48
Boolean logic, 87
(p. 456) border communities, international
drug trafficking and, 257
environmental contexts and, 240
Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation in, 240–41, 247–49
border community and immigration stress (BCIS), 127–28
Bracero Program, 144
Brazil, Japanese migration to. See Japanese migration to Brazil
Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire, 275
brief strategic family therapy (BSFT), 436
Buchanan, Pat, 144
C
caballerismo, RSB and, 321
California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), 365–66, 369
California Proposition 187, 145
Canada. See also Bilingual Belt, of Canada
Bilingual Belt of, bilingual healthcare case studies in, 61–70
bilingualism rates in, 61–62
healthcare system of, 62
language and integration policies in, 61
language barriers to healthcare services in, 62–63
Multiculturalism Act of 1988 in, 54
multiculturalism in, 5
Official Languages Act of, 54, 61
Vitality of Official Language Minorities survey in, 70–71
Canada Health Act of 1984, 62
cancer, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 201t, 203, 204t205t, 206
cardiovascular disease (CVD), 207
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10), 251
cerebrovascular disease, 207
Chamberlain, Alexander, 76
Charter of the French Language (Quebec), 68–69
children, as immigrants, 4. See also specific topics
Chile, Familias Unidas in, 405
China, research proposal for rural-urban migration in, 88–89
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (US), 144
chlamydia rates, by ethnicity, 303f
chronic disease, acculturation and, 11
comorbidities and, 358
cost of care and management for, 358
worldwide incidence of, 357–58
chronic disease, after migration to US
cross-cultural research methodological issues with, 369–70
diabetes and, 361–65, 362t, 363f364f
diet and, 370–71
evidence for, 359–67
healthy immigrant effect erosion and, 359
obesity and, 359–61, 360t
PA and, 365–66
segmented assimilation theory and, 366–69, 367f
sibling studies and, 371
theoretically-driven global perspective for, 370–72
urbanization in origin country and, 370–71
chronic stress, 137
cigarette use, 10. See also Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use
familism, respeto and, 284
circulatory disease, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 204t, 206–8
civic ideology, in IAM, 53f, 54–55
closed-ended questions, for RA instruments, 164–65
cluster sampling, 185
cocaine, language use and, 286
coethnic community, health and, 368–69
coethnics, concentration of, 368
cognition, 3
cognitive interviewing, 189
collective efficacy, 368
collectivism, 226
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 312t
families and, 227–28
individualism threatening, 227–28
sexual intentions and, 316
college students. See also Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use; Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use
acculturation and alcohol abuse of, 264
acculturative stress and, 125–26
alcohol abuse and, 263–64
colonization, acculturation and, 17–18
Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN), 62, 69
comparative research. See also cross-cultural research; cross-ethnic research
acculturation and health conceptual and measurement issues in, 177–83
in acculturation and health outcomes, 214
acculturation conditions and context for, 180–82, 181f
adaptation of test of, 190
adoption of test of, 190
assembly of test of, 190
challenges in, 190–91
cultural bias sources in, 188–89
culture in, 184b
data equivalence issues in, 187–88
defining populations in, 183–84
designing, 185–87
ethnicity in, 184b
extraneous variable control for, 185–86
future of, 190–91
group characteristics in, 181–82
health definitions and measurements in, 182–83
instrument transfer and adaptation for, 189–90
issues in conducting, 183–90
longitudinal, 186–87, 294
methodological challenges of, 175
perceived context of reception and, 181
perceived discrimination and, 181
poverty impact on, 183–84
revision of test of, 190
selecting samples and data collection in, 184–85
societal multiculturalism in, 180–81
types of, 176–77, 176t
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 182, 251
concentration of coethnics, 368
condom use, 305t
configural invariance, 188
confirmation bias
ignorance of history and, 76
liberal ideology and, 86–88
in research, 82, 84–85, 88
conflictual relational outcomes, 53f, 60–61
construct bias, 188
contact, acculturation strategies and, 21
contact acculturation, 24
contact hypothesis, for intercultural adaptation, 26
contact relationships, 18–19
contraception
adolescent RSB and acculturation and compliance with, 307t, 308t, 314t, 318–19
machismo and, 319
parent-child communication about, 308t
convenience sampling, 185
coronary heart disease (CHD), 207
(p. 457) cosmopolitanism, 158, 159
RA and, 163
creativity, BII and, 168
Criando con Amor: Promoviendo Armonia y Superación (CAPAS), 400–402
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, 82
cross-cultural research, 10
on acculturation and health outcomes, 176–77, 176t
approaches to, 176
chronic disease after migration to US and methodological issues with, 369–70
cultural bias sources in, 188–89
data equivalence issues in, 187–88
defining populations in, 183–84
extraneous variable control for, 185–86
instrument transfer and adaptation for, 189–90
issues in conducting, 183–90
on Latino acculturation and PA, 351
longitudinal, 186–87
selecting samples and data collection in, 184–85
cross-ethnic research
on acculturation and health outcomes, 176–77, 176t
approaches to, 176
cultural bias sources in, 188–89
data equivalence issues in, 187–88
defining populations in, 183–84
extraneous variable control for, 185–86
instrument transfer and adaptation for, 189–90
issues in conducting, 183–90
longitudinal, 186–87
selecting samples and data collection in, 184–85
cultural adaptation, 17, 415. See also culturally adapted preventive interventions
cultural assets, youth violence and, 337
cultural attitudes, 135
on gender and body shape, 347–48
illicit drug use and, 290–91
in Latino acculturation and PA, 347–48
Latino/a mental health care treatment and, 382
cultural bias sources, in comparative research, 188–89
cultural changes
domains of, 135
in ethnocultural groups, 20
cultural competence
cultural fit and, 106
cultural schemata and, 106–7
definition of, 104
language variables and, 104–6
measurement of, 104–7
cultural continuity, acculturation strategies and, 21
cultural day reconstruction method (C-DRM), 110
cultural diffusion
acculturation and, 78
Internet and, 163
media and, 163
RA and, 16–17, 159
cultural essentialism, 184b
cultural fit, cultural competence and, 106
cultural flex, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
cultural frame-switching, biculturalism and, 33–35
cultural freezing, 122
cultural groups, features of, 18
cultural identities, 135, 282
formation of, 107
Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use and, 287
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use and, 284–85
implicit aspects of, 107–8
culturally adapted preventive interventions, 394
adaptive designs for, 416–17
community advisory committee approach to, 417
conventional experimental trial approach to, 416
cultural approach for development of, 418–26
cultural etiology and foundations for, 411–12
deep structure, 399–400
determining need for, 398–99
emergent principles and guidelines for, 427–28
features of, 398
fidelity-adaptation dilemma and, 415
fundamentals of, 414–16
Hispanic/Latino cultural constructs in, 419–20, 421t
identifying process for making, 399
increasing impact of, 406
logic model of, 412–13, 413f, 417–18
macro-level contexts for, 421–22
major considerations in, 426–28
micro-level contexts for, 422–23
new environment adjustment in, 420–21
parent-child acculturation gaps in, 423
PMTO example of, 400–402
push-pull model and, 422
risks and protective factors from parents and peers in, 423
segmented assimilation approach to, 425–26
social networks and, 422
sociocultural challenges to, 420–22
structural unbalancing and, 422
subcultural group in, 414–15
successful factors in, 426
types of, 415–16
culturally grounded preventive interventions, 402–5
cultural maintenance, 23–24
cultural norms
illicit drug use and, 290–91
in Latino acculturation and PA, 347–48
cultural participation
behaviors and practices in, 109–10
daily life protocols and, 110–11
definition of, 109
measurement of, 109–11
social networks and, 111
cultural positioning
definition of, 107
identity scales and, 107
implicit aspects of, 107–8
ISA and, 108
life story narratives and, 108–9
measurement of, 107–9
cultural practices, 135, 282
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 305t
Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use and, 286–87
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use and, 283–84
cultural reification, 184b
cultural schemata, cultural competence and, 106–7
cultural security, 26
cultural self-identity, 107
cultural stress
acculturation process distinguished from process of, 293
illicit drug use and, 288–89, 292–93
cultural tailoring, of preventive interventions, 400
cultural targeting, of preventive interventions, 400
cultural values, 135, 282
Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use and, 287
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use and, 284
culture
acculturation conceptualization as trajectories of change in, 424
in comparative research, 184b
definition of, 394, 419
preventive interventions applying, 419
“culture shedding,” 2–3
culture shock, 288
D
daily life protocols, cultural participation and, 110–11
data analysis, in suicidal Latina adolescents study, 225–26
(p. 458) data collection, in comparative research, 184–85
data equivalence, comparative research issues with, 187–88
dating violence
AI/AN adolescents and, 329–30, 336
A/PI adolescents and, 329, 334, 336
Latino adolescents and, 329–30, 332, 336
death certificates, misclassification of ethnicity on, 213
“decentering,” 190
deep structure adaptations, for preventive interventions, 396, 399–400
demographic factors, in ethnolinguistic vitality, 50–51
depression
acculturative stress and, 127
EE fotonovela, 383–87, 384t, 386t
foreigner objectifications causing, 150
Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 202t, 205t, 209
suicidal Latina adolescents and, 230
“Depression” brochure, of NIMH compared to Secret Feelings, 385
descriptive norms, 291
diabetes, 344
comorbidities of, 358
cost of care and management for, 358
globalization and, 370
Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 202t, 204t, 208–9
Mexican migration to US and, 361–65
PA and, 365
SES factors with, 364–65
worldwide incidence of, 357–58
diary methods, 110
diet, chronic disease after migration to US and, 370–71
differential acculturation theory (DAT), 289–90
differential item functioning (DIF), 189
dignity, in street culture, 231, 234
dimensional scales, typological scales compared to, 99–101, 100f
discrimination
in acculturation research, 78, 136
characteristics of, 121
comparative research and perceived, 181
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and ethnic, 267–68
intergroup, acculturative and bicultural stress and, 121–22
psychological consequences of, 150
“dominant” label, in acculturation research, 79
double-barreled psychometrics, 86–87, 179
“double loyalty,” 82
drug trafficking, international border communities and, 257
“dual orientation,” 83
E
ecodevelopmental theory, Familias Unidas grounded in, 403
ecological adaptation, 415
economic security, 26
Ecuador, Familias Unidas in, 404–5
education. See also entertainment-education
acculturative press and, 41
adolescent RSB and acculturation and achievement in, 310t, 315–16
Latino/a mental health care campaigns promoting, 389
street culture threatening, 230–31
suicidal Latina adolescent problems in, 229–31
egalitarianism, race in US and, 146
egocentric beliefs, 52
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 (US), 144
emotional fit, 106
empirical evidence, against biculturalism, 83–84
empirically validated treatments (EVTs), 414
enculturation, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
endorsement format, in acculturation measurement, 101–2
English Only movement, 55–56, 144
English proficiency
in AUD and acculturation of Mexican-origin persons at US-Mexico border, 254, 256
at home and adolescent RSB and acculturation, 314t
Latinos/as foreigner objectification and, 147
entertainment-education (EE). See also Secret Feelings
audience engagement and identification with, 384–85
depression fotonovela, 383–87, 384t, 386t
impact and reach of, 389–90
for Latino/a mental health care, 379
Secret Feelings framework of, 384
Entre Dos Mundos (EDM)
action-oriented groups using psychodrama techniques in, 438–40
assimilation, biculturalism and creation of, 434–40
circular model continuity in, 444
conceptual model of, 437, 437f
effectiveness of, 444–45
example session of, 440–44, 440f443f
goal of, 434–35
programs informing creation of, 435–37
spectrogram in, 438–44, 440f443f
themes in, 437–38, 438t
environment, culturally adapted preventive interventions and new, 420–21
environmental contexts, acculturation and
border communities and, 240
in Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 247–49
in Latino PA, 350
epidemiological paradox, 198
epidemiological studies
on acculturation and health, 176–77, 176t
data types for, 182
for Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug/tobacco/cigarette use, 294
purpose of, 182
Epidemiology Catchment Area Study (ECA), 294
essentialism, cultural, 184b
ethnic identity, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
ethnicity. See also cross-ethnic research
acculturation and, 4
adolescent birth rates by, 302f
Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use by, 271
chlamydia rates by, 303f
in comparative research, 184b
death certificates and misclassification of, 213
gonorrhea rates by, 302f
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and discrimination by, 267–68
prejudice and stereotypes based on, 145–46
syphilis rates by, 303f
xenophobia on basis of, 145
ethnic pride, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
ethnist ideology, in IAM, 53f, 55–56
ethnocultural groups, 19–20
ethnogenesis, 37–38
ethnolinguistic vitality
of linguistic minority and majority groups, 50–53
SVQ and, 52
Euler diagrams, 87
Europe, Islamic immigrants as threatening in, 4–5
Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), 148
evidence-based interventions (EBIs), 394. See also culturally adapted preventive interventions
challenges with, 398
design components of, 412–13, 413f
determining need for, 398–99
(p. 459) dissemination of, 412
frameworks for, 399
generalizability of, 414
increasing impact of, 406
Incredible Years Parent Program, 397
logic model of adapted, 412–13, 413f, 417–18
MOST for, 406, 416
PMTO example of, 400–402
retention of, 414
structure and organization of, 399–400
exclusion, marginalization and, 24
exclusionist acculturation orientation, 53f, 58–60
exocentric beliefs, 52
Exoticization/Assumptions of Similarity subscale, 148–49
experience sampling method, 110
Experiences of Discrimination Scale (EOD), 148
F
Facebook, 126
familial ethnic socialization, 292
Familias Unidas, 403–5, 416, 436–37
families, acculturation and
biculturalism and relationships of, 41
collectivism and, 227–28
cultural conflict of, acculturative and bicultural stress and, 122–23
cultural influences on suicidal Latina adolescents and, 222–23
globalization impact on, 39–40
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette and illicit drug use studies on, 292
illicit drug use, parent-child acculturation gap and, 289–90
individualism frustrations with, 229
issues facing, 136
Latino PA and support of, 349–50
obesity of, 136
parent-child acculturation gaps and, 167
RA and relationships with, 167
restraints of, 232
street culture endorsed by, 230
suicidal Latina adolescents and violence in, 235
familism
cigarette use and, 284
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
illicit drug use and, 287
in Latino acculturation and PA, 348–49
familismo
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 309t, 314t
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420
family-economic stress, 293
family effectiveness training (FET), 436
family injunctive norms, 291
family interactional theory (FIT), 289–90
fatalism, Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and, 268
fidelity-adaptation dilemma, 415
Flannery LIsting Protocol (FLIP), 109
Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey (FYSAS), 286
food acculturation, RA and, 168–69
forced migrants, 19–20
foreigner objectification, 9–10. See also Asian Americans, foreigner objectification of; Latinos/as, foreigner objectification of
awareness of, 149
common examples of, 147
contextualizing, 143–46
definition of, 143, 146–47
depression from, 150
identity assertion and, 151
identity denial and, 150–51
measurement of, 148–49
mental health impact of, 150
moderators of health relationship with, 151–52
psychological and physical health correlates of, 149–52
racial triangulation theory and, 147–48
racism compared to, 147, 148
self-reports for, 148–49
stress from, 149
xenophobia and, 144–45
Foreigner Objectification Scale, 149
fotonovelas. See also Secret Feelings
EE depression, 383–87, 384t, 386t
impact and reach of, 389–90
intervention, 11
theoretical framework, 387, 388f
Francophones. See also bilingual healthcare
definition of, 61
egocentric beliefs of, 52
in New Brunswick bilingual healthcare case study, 63–64
in Ontario bilingual healthcare case study, 64–67
in Quebec bilingual healthcare case study, 67–70
French Language Services Act of 1986 (Ontario), 65–66
frequency format, in acculturation measurement, 101–2
fusion acculturation, 81
G
gangs, street culture and, 330
gender
as acculturation and illicit drug use moderator, 291–92
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 320–21
adult mortality and, 200
in Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use, 270–71
cancer and, 206
cultural attitudes on body shape and, 347–48
diabetes and, 208
family cultural conflict and, 122–23
health patterns and, 212, 213
in Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use, 266, 267
Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use and, 291–92
inner city safety issues and, 228, 235
in Latino acculturation and PA, 347
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 183
globalization, 43
backlash to, 40
bidimensional framework for acculturation through, 158
BII and, 40
definition of, 38
diabetes and, 370
family impact of, 39–40
Internet spreading, 38
Ladakh research study on, 39–40, 162
marginalization and, 158
obesity and, 370
RA and, 157
RA differentiated from acculturation based on, 158
research on biculturalism and, 39–40
trends in spread of, 38–39
in triculturalism compared to biculturalism, 38–40
gonorrhea rates, by ethnicity, 302f
H
Haiti, Americanization studies and RA in, 161
hard illicit drug use, 286–87
harmonious relational outcomes, 53f, 60
health. See also Latino/a and Asian immigrant health
biculturalism advantages in, 41
coethnic community and, 368–69
comparative research, defining and measuring, 182–83
definition of, 182
foreigner objectification correlates with psychological and physical, 149–52
(p. 460) gender and patterns in, 212, 213
identity denial impact on Asian American and Latino/a, 151
moderators of foreigner objectification relationship with, 151–52
PA promoting, 343–44
provider biases with race and, 151–52
psychological adaptation and, 25
health outcomes, acculturation and. See also cross-cultural research; health; healthcare services; Latino/a and Asian immigrant health
acculturative stress and, 424–25
comparative research in, 214
conceptual and measurement issues in comparative research on, 177–83
cross-ethnic and cross-cultural research on, 176–77, 176t
epidemiological studies on, 176–77, 176t
future directions for, 449–51
immigrant paradox in, 7
intersectionality studies on, 213–14
longitudinal research on, 186–87
place-based factors in, 214
RA and, 157, 165–70, 166f
research on, 6
sociobehavioral studies on, 176t, 177
study of, 6
in US, 240–41
healthcare services. See also bilingual healthcare
Canadian system of, 62
language barriers to, 62–63
linguistic minority group challenges with, 49
health disparities, in Hispanic youth. See Hispanic youth health disparities
health literacy
definition of, 382
EE depression fotonovela for, 383–87, 384t, 386t
Latino/a mental health care and low, 382–83
healthy immigrant effect, 358–59
healthy migrant hypothesis, 211–12
heart disease, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and, 204t, 206–8
heritage-culture retention
for acculturation measurement, 8
reasons for, 30
Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS), 243, 246
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use, 263
alcohol cognitions in, 265–66, 268–69
bicultural stress and, 273
bidimensional studies on, 267–69
contextual factors for, 274
ethnic discrimination and, 267–68
fatalism and, 268
future research directions for, 273–75
indirect effects in, 266–68
machismo and, 268–69
measurement considerations for, 265
national samples compared to, 271–72
personalismo and, 268–69
preventive intervention for, 275–76
research design and analysis recommendations for, 274–75
risk factors in, 264
summary of research literature on, 272–73
terminology and assessment recommendations for, 273
theoretical considerations for, 265, 273–74
unidimensional studies on, 265–67
within-group considerations for, 274
Hispanic Community Health Study, 369–70
Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (HEPESE), 361, 363–64, 363f364f, 370
Hispanic Health and Nutrition Survey (HHANES), 294
Hispanic immigrants. See also specific studies
research on, 8
research on acculturative stress in adult, 136–40, 140t
as threatening in US, 4–5
Hispanic/Latino cultural constructs, in culturally adapted preventive interventions, 419–20, 421t
Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI), 123
contexts in, 138
impact of, 137
phase I, 138–39, 140t
phase II national study of, 139–40, 140t
research approach in, 138
stress-illness paradigm and, 137–38
Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use
bidimensional scales for, 287–88
context of reception in, 293
cultural identities and, 287
cultural practices and, 286–87
cultural values and, 287
disentangling key stressors in, 292–93
epidemiological, longitudinal comparative research for, 294
family studies needed for, 292
gender and, 291–92
measurement considerations for, 294–95
methodological concerns for study of, 293–95
motivations for study on, 281–82
unidimensional scales for, 286
within-group diversity and, 294
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use
bidimensional scales for, 285
conceptual problems of studies on, 283
context of reception in, 293
cultural identification and, 284–85
cultural practices and, 283–84
cultural values and, 284
disentangling key stressors in, 292–93
epidemiological, longitudinal comparative research for, 294
family studies needed for, 292
language use and, 284
methodological concerns for study of, 293–95
motivations for study on, 281–82
unidimensional scales for, 285
within-group diversity and, 294
Hispanic youth health disparities, 393–95. See also preventive interventions
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 206
homophobia, 123
Horizon Network, New Brunswick, 63–64
host community acculturation scale (HCAS), 57–58
host nationals, immigrant attitudes of, 4
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 301, 316
hybrid cultures, 2, 3
I
identification
race and American, 145–46
reactive, 31
identity assertion, foreigner objectification and, 151
“identity chameleons,” LGB culture and, 169
identity denial, 31
Asian American and Latino/a health impact of, 151
foreigner objectification and, 150–51
identity scales, cultural positioning and, 107
identity structure analysis (ISA), 108
illicit drug use, 10. See also Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use
acculturation of adults and youth linked with, 282
acculturation relationship with, mechanisms underlying, 288–91
(p. 461) acculturative stress and, 137
cultural attitudes and norms and, 290–91
cultural stress and, 288–89, 292–93
familism and, 287
family functioning, parent-child acculturation gap and, 289–90
gender as moderator between acculturation and, 291–92
hard, 286–87
intentions and, 290–91
TPB and, 290–91
TRA and, 290–91
immigrant paradox, 10, 79–80
in acculturation and health outcomes, 7
contemporary explanations for, 209–13, 212f
contemporary literature on, 199
definition of, 198–99
health trajectories and, 210–11
healthy migrant hypothesis and, 211–12
initial nativity differences in, 210
methodological explanations of, 212f, 213
psychosocial and behavioral explanations for, 210–11, 212f
salmon bias or return migration hypothesis and, 212–13
SES and, 197
sociological explanations of, 211–13, 212f
terminology origins of, 198
immigrants. See also chronic disease, after migration to US; Islamic immigrants; Latino/a and Asian immigrant health; migration
bicultural, 3
children as, 4
healthy immigrant effect and, 358–59
host national attitudes on, 4
legal, 4
push and pull factors for, 19
research on stereotypes of, 5
research on threat of, 5
types of, 3–4
undocumented, 4
US population of, 197, 263
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 107–8, 146
Incredible Years Parent Program, 397
independence criterion, for bidimensional scales, 101–2
India, LGB culture in US compared to, 170
indicated interventions, 413
indigenous peoples
basic characteristics of, 19
future directions for study of, 451
individualism
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 312t
in A/PI youth violence, 335
collectivism threatened by, 227–28
family frustrations with, 229
sexual intentions and, 317
street culture and, 232
individualist acculturation orientation, 53f, 57–59
inferiority assumptions, in acculturation research, 79–80
inhalants, 286
injunctive norms, 291
inner city. See also street culture; suicidal Latina adolescents study
gender and safety in, 228, 235
single parenthood in, 230
violence in, 227
vulnerabilities of life in, 226
institutional support, in ethnolinguistic vitality, 51
Integrated Health and Social Services Centers (CISSS), 69–70
integration. See also bicultural identity integration
as acculturation strategy, 23
multiculturalism and, 24
RA LGB culture and, 169–70
integration hypothesis, for adaptation, 25–26
integrationism acculturation orientation, 53f, 57–59, 100, 100f
integrationism-transformation acculturation orientation, 53f, 58
interactive acculturation model (IAM), 24, 50
acculturation orientation and relational outcomes in, 53f, 60–61
assimilation ideology in, 53f, 55
civic ideology in, 53f, 54–55
definition of, 53
ethnist ideology in, 53f, 55–56
language and integration policies in, 53–56, 53f
linguistic majority and minority group acculturation orientations and, 53f, 56–60
pluralism ideology in, 53f, 54
intercultural adaptation, 20
characteristics of, 25
contact hypothesis for, 26
integration hypothesis for, 26–27
multiculturalism hypothesis for, 26
intercultural contact
causes of, 17
concept and study of, 16–17
psychological acculturation differentiated from, 18
time and, 6
intergroup discrimination, acculturative and bicultural stress and, 121–22
international border communities. See border communities, international
International Comparative Study of Ethnocultural Youth (ICSEY), 177, 180
international migration
changing context for, 29–30
Internet influence on, 29
rise of, 239–40
study of, 1
International Test Commission Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Tests, 189–90
Internet
acculturative stress among college students and, 126
cultural diffusion and, 163
globalization spread by, 38
international migration influenced by, 29
interpersonal violence, adolescent, 328–30. See also violence, acculturation and
intersectionality studies, on acculturation and health outcomes, 213–14
intervention adaptation, 11
intervention design, 11
intimate partner violence (IPV), 321
intragroup marginalization, acculturative and bicultural stress and, 122
Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages (Powell), 76
invariance testing, measurement, 188
involuntary migrants, 19
Islamic immigrants, as threatening in Europe, 4–5
item bias, 189
J
Jamaica
Americanization studies and RA in, 160–61
globalization research study in, 39–40
music and RA in, 162
Japanese migration to Brazil, historical hostility in, 144
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 84
K
Kim, C. J., 147–48
Ladakh globalization research study, 39–40, 162
L
language and integration policies
backlash movements in, 56
in Canada, 61
IAM and, 53–56, 53f
for linguistic minority groups, 52–53
language barriers, to healthcare services, 62–63
language proficiency tests, 105
language shock, 288
(p. 462) language use. See also English proficiency
for acculturation measurement, pitfalls of using, 7
biculturalism challenges with, 32
cocaine and, 286
cultural frame-switching and, 34–35
health provider biases and, 151–52
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco/cigarette use and, 284
in Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 243
marijuana and, 286
self-rated health and, 213
youth violence in Latino adolescents and home, 333
language variables
cultural competence and, 104–6
as proxy measure, challenges with, 104–5
recommendations for, 105–6
self-reports and, 105
usefulness of, 104
Latino/a adolescents. See also suicidal Latina adolescents study
dating violence and, 329, 332, 336
US population of, 327
violence and acculturation research methods for, 331–32
youth violence in, 330, 336–37
youth violence preparation and, 332–33
Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation. See also AUD and acculturation of Mexican-origin persons at US-Mexico border
in border communities, 240–41, 247–49
conclusions and recommendations from study of, 257
environmental contexts for, 247–49
language use and, 243
Latinas in, 242–44
Latino men in, 244–45
measurement overview for, 241–42
mental health impact on, 246
normative model of, 246–47
scales focused on for, 242
stress model of, 246–47
summary of studies on, 245–46
in US-Mexico border region, 247–49
Latino/a and Asian immigrant health, 197. See also immigrant paradox
adult mortality and, 200, 201t, 203
birth outcomes and, 201t, 203, 204t
cancer and, 201t, 203, 204t205t, 206
circulatory disease and, 204t, 206–8
contemporary literature on, 198–209
depression and, 202t, 205t, 209
diabetes and, 202t, 204t, 208–9
healthy migrant hypothesis and, 211–12
heart disease and, 204t, 206–8
important trends and implications in, 213–14
initial nativity differences in, 210
salmon bias or return migration hypothesis and, 212–13
sociodemographic profile in, 198, 199t
trajectories for, 210–11
unintentional injuries and, 202t, 205t, 208
Latino/a mental health care. See also Secret Feelings
cultural attitudes toward treatment in, 382
educational campaigns for, 389
EE depression fotonovela for, 383–87, 384t, 386t
EE for, 379
fotonovela’s impact and reach for, 389–90
fotonovela theoretical framework for, 387, 388f
low health literacy and, 382–83
low levels of acculturation and, 380–81
personal-level barriers to, 380–83
stigma against, 381–82, 385, 389
Latinos/as, foreigner objectification of, 143
American disinterest in indignations of, 147
awareness of, 149
depression and, 150
English proficiency and, 147
identity denial and health issues of, 151
measurement of, 148
racial triangulation theory and, 147–48
Latinos/as, PA and acculturation among
conceptual issues in study of, 351–52
cross-cultural research and, 351
cultural norms and attitudes in, 347–48
data from nationally representative samples on, 344–45
environmental contexts and, 350
familial and social network support in, 349–50
familism and, 348–49
gender and, 347
heterogeneity of Latino groups and, 351
low rates of, 344
LTPA compared to, 345–46
measurement issues in, 350–51
sedentary behavior compared to, 346
self-reports in, 351
SES and, 346–47
law, acculturation and, 80–81
complete biculturalism blocked by, 83
Law on Health and Social Services (LHSS) (Quebec), 68
“learned helplessness,” stress and, 293
legal immigrants, 4
leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)
BMI and, 346
Latino acculturation and PA compared to, 345–46
upward social mobility discouraging, 368–69
lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) culture, 169–70
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, 304
liberal ideology
BII and, 86
confirmation bias and, 86–88
politics differentiated from, 85
research and, 85–88
US and, 85–86
life domains, RA and, 163
life story narratives, cultural positioning and, 108–9
Likert-scale method, 82
limited English proficiency (LEP), 53
linguistic adaptation, 415
linguistic majority groups. See also interactive acculturation model
acculturation orientation and relational outcomes of, 53f, 60–61
acculturation orientation of, 53f, 56–60
assimilation ideology and, 53f, 55
civic ideology and, 53f, 54–55
ethnist ideology and, 53f, 55–56
ethnolinguistic vitality of, 50–53
pluralism ideology and, 53f, 54
linguistic minority groups. See also interactive acculturation model
acculturation orientation and relational outcomes of, 53f, 60–61
acculturation orientation of, 53f, 56–60
assimilation ideology and, 53f, 55
civic ideology and, 53f, 54–55
egocentric and exocentric beliefs in, 52
ethnist ideology and, 53f, 55–56
ethnolinguistic vitality of, 50–53
healthcare service challenges for, 49
institutional support and, 51
language and integration policies for, 52–53
pluralism ideology and, 53f, 54
types of, 50
London, Herbert, 86
longitudinal comparative research
on acculturation and health, 186–87
for Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug/tobacco/cigarette use, 294
M
machismo
contraception and, 319
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and, 268–69
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
RSB and, 321
macro-level contexts, for culturally adapted preventive interventions, 421–22
(p. 463) marginalization
acculturation strategies and, 23
exclusion and, 24
globalization and, 158
intragroup, acculturative and bicultural stress and, 122
RA LGB culture and, 170
marginalization acculturation orientation, 53f, 57, 100, 100f
marianismo, 348
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
marijuana, 286–87. See also illicit drug use
measurement, acculturation. See also acculturation conceptualization; bidimensional scales; multidimensional scales, for acculturation conceptualization
acculturation and health comparative research issues with, 177–83
of acculturative stress, 119, 123
of Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use, 265
of bicultural stress, 123–24
bidimensional scales for, 179, 180b
birthplace for, pitfalls of using, 6–7
of cultural competence, 104–7
of cultural participation, 109–11
of cultural positioning, 107–9
cultural schemata and, 106–7
disconnect between theory and practice of, 450
endorsement format in, 101–2
of foreigner objectification, 148–49
frequency format in, 101–2
future directions for, 449–51
of heritage-culture retention, 8
of Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use, 265
for Hispanic youth acculturation and illicit drug use, 294–95
implicit aspects of, 107–8
language use for, pitfalls of using, 7
language variables and, 104–6
of Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 241–42
Latino PA issues with, 350–51
methodological trade-offs in, 103
methods and approaches to, 97–98
multiple sites and time points for, 8
potential solutions for, 7–8
proxy measures for, 178
of RA, 162–65
of receiving-culture acquisition, 8
scale development for, 424
self-report issues with, 179
tiered approach to, 103
unidimensional scales for, 7, 178–79
measurement invariance testing, 188
media
cultural diffusion and, 163
RA driven by, 158–59, 161, 162
Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA), 208
MEDLINE, 75–76, 76t, 199
melting pot, assimilation and, 24
mental health. See also Latino/a mental health care
acculturative stress impact on, 119, 124–25
in AUD and acculturation of Mexican-origin persons at US-Mexico border, 251
bicultural stress impact on, 124–25
depression and acculturative stress, 127
family cultural conflict impact on, 123
foreigner objectification impact on, 150
in Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 246
paradox of acculturation and, 136
prejudice impact on, 121–22
RA and, 167–68
youth violence in Latino adolescents and, 333
method bias, 188–89
metric invariance, 188
Mexican migration to US. See also Latino/a and Asian immigrant health
Bracero Program and, 144
diabetes and, 361–65
historical hostility in, 143
threat types in, 4–5
micro-level contexts, for culturally adapted preventive interventions, 422–23
migration. See also acculturation; chronic disease, after migration to US; immigrants; international migration
forced, 19–20
healthy migrant hypothesis and, 211–12
involuntary, 19
research proposal on China rural-urban, 88–89
return migration hypothesis and, 212–13
study of, 1
modernism, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
mortality, Latino/a and Asian immigrant health and adult, 200, 201t, 203
multiculturalism, 158
acculturation study complicated by, 17
in Canada, 5
comparative research and societal, 180–81
ideology, 24
integration and, 24
subjective, 20
triculturalism compared to, 37–38
21st century rise of, 30
Multiculturalism Act of 1988 (Canada), 54
multiculturalism hypothesis, for intercultural adaptation, 26
Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (MAS-II), 250
Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory, 124
multidimensional RA, 158, 159f
multidimensional scales, for acculturation conceptualization, 102–3, 140–41, 282–83, 303–4
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, 107
multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), 406, 416
multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA), 188
multiple myeloma (MM), 206
Murphy, Gardner, 82
music, in Jamaica and RA, 162
N
National Alcohol Survey (NAS), 244
National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, 206
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 330
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Third (NHANES III), 344, 345, 371
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 344–45, 347, 359
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), 283, 294
National Immigrant Survey (NIS), 361
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 385
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 272, 294
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 332
National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices, SAMHSA, 403
negative acculturation, 210
Netherlands, assimilation in, 5
(p. 464) New Brunswick, bilingual healthcare case study in, 63–64
New Brunswick Health Council (NBHC), 64
new environment, culturally adapted preventive interventions and, 420–21
New Immigrant Survey (NIS), 369–70
non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 206
normative model, of Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 246–47
Nuestras Familias: Andando Entre Culturas, 416
O
obedience, 229
suicidal Latina adolescents and, 234
obesity, 344
comorbidities of, 358
families, acculturation and, 136
globalization and, 370
after migration to US, 359–61, 360t
worldwide incidence of, 357–58
Office of French Language Services Commissioner (Ontario), 66–67
Office Québécois de la Langue Française (OQLF), 68–69
Official Languages Act (Canada), 54, 61, 63
1.5 generation, 6
Ontario, bilingual healthcare case study in, 64–67
open-ended questions, for RA instruments, 164–65
P
Pacific Islander. See Asian/Pacific Islander
paradox of acculturation, 136
parental approval, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 310t
parental attachment, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 310t
parental disapproval, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 311t
parent-child acculturation gaps
culturally adapted preventive interventions and, 423
DAT and, 289
illicit drug use, family functioning and, 289–90
RA and, 167
parent-child communication, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 306t, 308t, 314t, 317–18, 323
Parent Management Training, Oregon model (PMTO), 400–402
Patriot Act (US), 145
peer injunctive norms, 291
Perpetual Foreigner Racism subscale, 149
perpetual foreigners, 31
stereotype of, 146
personalismo
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use and, 268–69
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
personal norms, 291
personal security, 26
physical activity (PA), 11. See also Latinos/as, PA and acculturation among
chronic disease after migration to US and, 365–66
coethnic community and, 368
diabetes and, 365
health promotion with, 343–44
Latino acculturation and LTPA compared to, 345–46
segmented assimilation framework for, 367–69, 367f
self-reported, 351
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2008, 344, 346
physical health
foreigner objectification correlates with, 149–52
RA and, 168–69
place-based factors, in acculturation and health outcomes, 214
Plato, 80–81
pluralism ideology, in IAM, 53f, 54
political party affiliation, acculturation orientation and, 59
politics, liberal ideology differentiated from, 85
polyculturalism, 158
Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH), 294
population definition, in comparative research, 183–84
poverty
comparative research and impact of, 183–84
suicidal Latina adolescents and, 223, 231, 235–36
in US-Mexico border region, 248
Powell, John Wesley, 76
power, acculturation strategies and, 21
practices, 3
pregnancy, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 307t
pregnancy prevention, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 308t
prejudice. See also discrimination
in acculturation research, 136
characteristics of, 121
definition of, 146
mental health impact of, 121–22
racial/ethnic stereotypes and, 145–46
preventive interventions, 11. See also culturally adapted preventive interventions; Entre Dos Mundos; evidence-based interventions; psychodrama
acculturative stress decreased with, 434
for Asian American and Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use, 275–76
continuum of, 394–96, 395f
culturally grounded, 402–5
cultural tailoring of, 400
cultural targeting of, 400
culture applied to, 419
deep structure adaptations for, 396, 399–400
design of, 412–18
efficacy and effectiveness of, 413–14
Familias Unidas example of, 403–5
generalizability of, 414
for Hispanic youth health disparities, 394–95
Incredible Years Parent Program for, 397
indicated, 413
nonadapted and minimally adapted, 396–98
PMTO example of, 400–402
retention of, 414
selective, 413
surface structure adaptations for, 396–98
universal, 413
primary sampling units, 250
primitive society, concept of, 77–78, 136
problematic relational outcomes, 53f, 60
provider biases, health, 151–52
proxy measures
acculturation conceptualization and, 99, 103
for acculturation measurement, 178
language variables as, challenges with, 104–5
PsychINFO, 75–76, 76t, 83–84, 199
psychodrama
for acculturative stress, 433–34
BII and, 439, 439f
EDM action-oriented groups using, 438–40
effectiveness of, 444–45
(p. 465) historical development and effectiveness of, 438
positive outcomes of, 434
spectrogram for, 438–44
stages of, 438–39, 439f
psychological acculturation, 16
at individual level, 135–36
intercultural contact differentiated from, 18
types of, 20
psychological adaptation, 17, 20
characteristics of, 25
health and, 25
integration hypothesis for, 26–27
psychological adjustment, 164
psychological health, foreigner objectification correlates with, 149–52
psychometrics
double-barreled, 86–87, 179
for research, 82, 89
push-pull model, culturally adapted preventive interventions and, 422
Q
qualitative approaches, to RA, 161
qualitative interviews, of suicidal Latina adolescents, 224
Quebec
Allophones in, 67–68
bilingual healthcare case study in, 67–70
bilingualism in, 61–62
Charter of the French Language in, 68–69
LHSS in, 68
R
race
American identity and, 145–46
challenges categorizing populations by, 183
egalitarianism in US and, 146
health provider biases with, 151–52
prejudice and stereotypes based on, 145–46
xenophobia on basis of, 145
Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale, 148–49
racial triangulation theory, 147–48
racism, 123
demeaning conceptualization of acculturation and, 78–80
foreigner objectification compared to, 147, 148
psychological consequences of, 150
randomized control trials (RCTs), for Secret Feelings, 385, 386t, 387, 390
reactive identification, 31
Real Men Are Safe–Culturally Adapted intervention (RMAS-CA), 415
reception
comparative research and perceived context of, 181
Hispanic youth acculturation and tobacco and illicit drug use and context of, 293
reciprocal accommodation, acculturation as, 81
refugees
acculturation challenges for, 4
basic characteristics of, 19–20
conflicting emotions of, 4
definition of, 3
reification, cultural, 184b
relational outcomes
acculturation orientation and, 53f, 60–61
conflictual, 53f, 60–61
harmonious, 53f, 60
problematic, 53f, 60
religion
biculturalism challenges with, 83
RA and, 162–63
religiosity, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 306t, 313t, 314t, 319–20
remote acculturation (RA), 10
acculturation conditions for, 163–64, 166f
acculturation orientation and, 164, 166f
acculturation outcomes and, 164, 166f
bidimensional framework for, 158
conceptualization of, 157–59
cosmopolitanism and, 163
cultural diffusion and, 16–17, 159
definition of, 38, 158
family relationships and, 167
food acculturation and, 168–69
globalization and, 157
globalization-based acculturation differentiated from, 158
Haiti Americanization studies and, 161
health outcomes and, 157, 165–70, 166f
instruments for, choice or design of, 163–65
Jamaica Americanization studies and, 160–61
LGB culture and, 169–70
life domains and, 163
measurement of, 162–65
media driving, 158–59, 161, 162
mental health and, 167–68
multidimensional, 158, 159f
music in Jamaica and, 162
novel features in assessment of, 162–63
open-ended and closed-ended questions for instruments of, 164–65
parent-child acculturation gaps and, 167
physical health and, 168–69
qualitative approaches to, 161
religion and, 162–63
research on, 160–62
South Africa Americanization studies and, 161–62
subjective well-being, 168
superdiversity and, 163
transnationalism compared to, 159
variables of, 165, 166f
vehicles of, 158–59
remote biculturalism, 168
research, acculturation. See also comparative research; cross-cultural research; cross-ethnic research
on acculturation and health outcomes, 6
on acculturative stress, 120
on acculturative stress in adult Hispanic immigrants, 136–40, 140t
Asian American college student acculturation and alcohol use future directions for, 273–75
on biculturalism and globalization, 39–40
on biculturalism and well-being, 83–85
biculturalism conclusions of, 31, 83–85
BII advocated in, 82–83
on BII and cues, 35–36
bilingual healthcare future, 71
broad labels used in, 80
China rural-urban migration proposal for, 88–89
confirmation bias in, 82, 84–85, 88
critics of, 81–82
discrimination in, 78, 136
“dominant” label in, 79
finding faults in, 81–85
focus of, 17–18
future directions for, 449–51
Hispanic college student acculturation and alcohol use future directions for, 273–75
on Hispanic immigrants, 8
history of, 75–76, 76t
HSI approach for, 138
on immigrants as threat, 5
on immigrant stereotypes, 5
inferiority assumptions in, 79–80
liberal ideology and, 85–88
low SES and, 78–79
misciting papers in, 88
preferences in, 87
prejudice in, 136
proposals for future, 88–89
psychometrics for, 82, 89
on RA, 160–62
single case measure of acculturative competence proposal for, 89
US and presumptions in, 79
violence and future, 338
research design, acculturation, 86
experimental, 85
rhetorical purposes of, 83
SES and, 78–79
(p. 466) respeto, 226–27, 229
cigarette use and, 284
as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
marijuana use and, 287
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), 112
return migration
causes, 7
hypothesis, 212–13
reversing language shift (RLS) model, 56
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale short form (RADS-SF), 188
risky sexual behavior (RSB). See also adolescent RSB and acculturation
BII and, 304
caballerismo and, 321
definition of, 301
literature on LGBT youth and, 304
machismo and, 321
STDs and, 301
S
Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA), 361, 362t, 363–64
salmon bias hypothesis, 212–13
sampling
in comparative research, 184–85
in suicidal Latina adolescents study, 224–25
San Carlos de Maipo Foundation, in Chile, 405
Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), 183
scalar invariance, 188
Schedule of Racism Events (SRE), 148
secondary sampling units, 250
second-culture acquisition, acculturation and, 80
Secret Feelings (Sentimientos Secretos), 379
antistigma intervention with, 389
deep-level cultural elements in, 384, 384t
development of, 383
EE framework for, 384
impact and reach of, 389–90
NIMH “Depression” brochure compared to, 385
purpose of, 383
RCTs for, 385, 386t, 387, 390
summary of studies evaluating, 385, 386t, 387
surface-level cultural elements in, 383–84, 384t
theoretical framework developed from, 387, 388f
treatments integrating, 389–90
sedentary behavior, Latino acculturation and PA compared to, 346
segmented assimilation, 2
chronic disease after migration to US and theory of, 366–69, 367f
for culturally adapted preventive interventions, 425–26
PA and framework of, 367–69, 367f
triculturalism and, 38
segregation, separation and, 24
segregationist acculturation orientation, 53f, 58–59
selective interventions, 413
self-rated health, language use and, 213
self-reports, 9
acculturation measurement issues with, 179
for foreigner objectification, 148–49
insufficiency of, 102
language variables and, 105
on PA, 351
Sentimientos Secretos. See Secret Feelings
separation
as acculturation strategy, 23
RA LGB culture and, 169
segregation and, 24
separatism acculturation orientation, 53f, 57, 100, 100f
settler societies, 18
sexism, 123
sexual attitudes, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 305t
sexual behavior, 10–11. See also risky sexual behavior
acculturative stress and, 137
sexual debut age, 305t
sexual decision-making, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 306t
sexual initiation, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 311t
sexual intentions
adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 307t, 309t, 316
collectivism and, 316
individualism and, 317
sexual knowledge, adolescent RSB and acculturation and, 306t, 316
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
chlamydia rates by ethnicity, 303f
gonorrhea rates by ethnicity, 302f
knowledge for prevention of, 316
parental approval and diagnosis of, 310t
RSB and, 301
syphilis rates by ethnicity, 303f
shared-decision making, 152
Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH), 265–67
sibling studies, chronic disease after migration to US and, 371
simpatía, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 420, 421t
single parenthood, in inner city, 230
snowball sampling, 185
social capital, 368
social cohesion, 368
social constructivism, 17
social media, acculturative stress among college students and, 126
social networks
culturally adapted preventive interventions and, 422
cultural participation and, 111
Latino acculturation and PA and support of, 349–50
Societal, Attitudinal, Familial and Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale (SAFE), 183
Société Santé en Français, 62
sociobehavioral studies
on acculturation and health, 176t, 177
ad hoc sampling in, 185
correlational designs of, 182
data types for, 182–83
sociocultural adaptation, 20
characteristics of, 25
integration hypothesis for, 26–27
sociocultural outcomes, 164
socioeconomic status (SES)
acculturation and, 4
acculturation research and low, 78–79
diabetes and, 364–65
immigrant paradox and, 197
in Latino acculturation and PA, 346–47
research design and, 78–79
well-being and, 84
sojourners
acculturation challenges for, 4
basic characteristics of, 19
definition of, 3
South Africa, Americanization studies and RA in, 161–62
South America, Familias Unidas in, 404–5
Spanish language, as threatening in US, 4–5
spectrogram, for psychodrama, 438–44, 440f443f
spirituality, as Hispanic/Latino cultural construct, 421t
(p. 467) status variables, in ethnolinguistic vitality, 51
Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS), 99
stereotypes
of perpetual foreigners, 146
prejudice and racial/ethnic, 145–46
research on immigrants and, 5
stigma, Latino/a mental health care and, 381–82, 385, 389
stratified sampling, 185
street culture
acculturation shaped by, 223
conflict resolution in, 234
dignity in, 231, 234
education threatened by, 230–31
family endorsement of, 230
freedom of, 232
gangs and, 330
individualism and, 232
violence and, 223, 227, 234
stress. See also acculturative stress; bicultural stress
BCIS and, 127–28
chronic, 137
culturally-related, 9
definition of, 120, 137
family-economic, 293
from foreigner objectification, 149
“learned helplessness” and, 293
marijuana use and levels of, 287
stress-illness paradigm, 137–38
stress model, of Latino/a alcohol use and US acculturation, 246–47
Strong African American Families (SAAF), 416
structural unbalancing, culturally adapted preventive interventions and, 422
Study of Latinos (SOL), 369–70
subcultural groups, in culturally adapted preventive interventions, 414–15
subjective multiculturalism, 20
subjective vitality questionnaire (SVQ), 52
subjective well-being, RA, 168
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 403
Subtle and Blatant Racism Scale for Asian American college students, 148
subtractive bilingualism, 56
suicidal Latina adolescents study
acculturation in, 221
alcohol abuse and, 231
analytic strategy for, 225
attempters, early-adolescence in, 229–30, 233t
attempters, late-adolescence in, 231–32, 233t
attempters, mid-adolescence in, 230–31, 233t
attempter teens in, 229–34, 233t
conceptual and empirical premises in, 222–23
cultural influences in, 222–23
data analysis for, 225–26
demographics in, 224, 224t
depression and, 230
education problems in, 229–31
family violence and, 235
limitations of, 235–36
methods for, 223–26
nonattempters, early-adolescence in, 226, 233t
nonattempters, late-adolescence in, 227–28, 233t
nonattempters, mid-adolescence in, 226–27, 233t
nonattempters in, 226–29, 233t
obedience and, 234
peer relationships in, 230, 234
poverty and,