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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 625) Index

(p. 625) Index

Page references followed by an italics f indicate figures and t indicate tables.

Abbey, Antonia 149–150
abductive method 47
Abductive Theory of Method (ATOM) 47–49, 51
absolute risk estimation, calibration 376–382
Bayesian correction 378–379
Bayesian position 377–378
confidence intervals 380–382, 381f
frequentist position 377
logistic regression 379–380
Meehl et al. on 376–377
Ackerman, Alissa 294–295
activation stage 243, 244f
Act on the Therapeutic Treatment and Placement of Violent Offenders Suffering from Mental Disorders 334–335
Act to Effect Implementation under Federal Law of the Distance Requirement in the Law Governing Preventive Detention 335–336
actuarial prediction
adjusted 367–368
vs. clinical prediction 364–365
empirical 367
mechanical or conceptual 367
actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs) 363–385. see also specific types
definition 382
development 368
independent cross-validation 373–374, 375t
predictive accuracy studies 369–373, 372t, 373t, 374f
problems 382–383
pure actuarial approach 383
risk factors, putative 383
sex offender ranking 382–383
short form of items 368, 369t, 370t
STATIC-99R and STATIC-2002R, development 374–376
static vs. dynamic predictors 384
Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act (AWA) 14, 292, 318
legal challenges 338
adaptations 53
addiction, pornography 584, 585, 587, 595
adjusted actuarial prediction 367–368
Adler, Susannah 279
adolescents. see also child sexual abuse; child (commercial) sexual exploitation; juvenile sex offenders
female sex offenders 207–208
sexual exploitation, commercial 168, 170–172, 171t
Adshead, Gwen 202
Afifi, Tracie 51
agency
capacity 52–53
internet sex crimes 532–533
age of onset, sexual offending 243, 244f
Aitkenhead, Decca 595
Akers, Ronald 486
alcohol use
revictimization 272
sex offenders, prevalence 145–146
Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) 152
Alexander, Margaret 405
Alexander, Rudolph 296–297
Allison, Julie 90–92
Allman, Dan 611–612
Ambrose 542
American Convention on Human Rights 63
(p. 626) American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) Code of Ethics 62
America’s Most Wanted 501
Ames, M. Ashley 190, 192
amphetamine 151
Anderson, Amy 467
Anderson, Elijah 185
angry sexual murderer 101–102, 102t
animals, laws against sex with 590–591
antihormonal medication 398
Anti-Prostitution Loyalty Oath 620n7
anti-sex trafficking interventions 615–619
border surveillance and control 616–617
criminal justice prosecution and enforcement 615–616
protective custody 617–619
area under the ROC curve (AUC) 355, 372, 382
calculation 372
empirically derived 382
art-house cinema, pornography 598, 600n9
Ashfield, Sherry 213–214
Ashworth, Andrew 444
assessment. see also actuarial risk assessment instruments (ARAIs); specific types
empirically guided clinical 367
female sex offenders 211–212
rapid evidence 589, 600n4
risk (see risk assessment)
Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants) Act of 2004 615–616
Atcheson, J. Don 255
attrition 277–278
Attwood, Feona 599, 600n4
Australia
double jeopardy case 340
preventive detention, legal challenges 340
prostitution and sex work 578–579
avenger 103
aversive conditioning 393
Bader, Shannon 203
Baker, Juanita 470
Bales, Kevin 10
Barbaree, Howard 148, 374, 375t, 376, 378, 382–384
Barker, Martin 600n3
Barth, Jurgen 125
base rate 366
Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners 60
battered child syndrome 131
Bauserman, Robert 127–128
Bayes, Thomas 377–378
Bayesian correction 378–379
Bayesian position 377–378
Beauregard, Eric 101–103, 102t, 104t, 108t, 109, 110–112
Becker, Judith 254
Bedford v. Canada 579
Beech, Anthony 44, 49, 51, 105, 107t, 427
Beichner, Dawn 279
Bernstein, Elizabeth 616
bestiality, laws against 590–591
Bijleveld, Catrien 203–204, 209, 236
biological treatment 398–399
Birgden, Astrid 64–67, 65f
Black, Jessica 302–303
Black, Michele 25t, 32, 38
blaming victim 88, 268, 272, 281–282
Blanchard, Ray 376
Blashfield, R. 146
Blokland, Arjan 223, 249, 252–253, 255, 258
Boatwright, Jessica 293, 469
body, acceptable uses 544–548
bonds, social. see social control, informal
border surveillance and control, sex trafficking 616–617
Borsboom, D. 50
Bouchard, Martin 262n1
Boyd, Danah 300–301
Bradley, April 130
Braithwaite, John 438, 442
Brame, Robert 248
Breiding, Matthew 25t, 32
Bristow, Keith 321
British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), pornography 587, 596, 598–599
Broidy, Lisa 188
Brown, Jennifer 277, 278
Brown, Kevin 424, 425
Brown, Mark 396
Brownfield, David 188
Brownlee, Ian 448
Brownmiller, Susan 11, 475
(p. 627) Brown v. State 82
Bruck, Maggie 130
Brundage, James 544, 555
Buggery Act 548
bullying 72–73. see also cyberbullying
sexting 524–525
Bumby, Kurt 200, 202, 211
Bump in the Night 508
Burchard, Brenda 212
Burchfield, Keri 426
Burman, Michelle 279–280
Bussiere, Monique 354, 366–367
Butler, N. K. 470
Caldwell, Michael 222–223
Cale, Jessie 54
Campaign for Homosexual Equality (CHE) 548–549
Campos, Elizabeth 116
Campus Sex Crimes Prevention Act 14
Canaan, Joyce 534
Canada
preventive detention 304–305
prostitution and sex work 579
cannabis 146, 150–151, 154, 155
Capote, Truman, In Cold Blood 501
capture-recapture model 262n1
Carbonell, Joyce 405
Carter, Adam 110
castration, surgical 398
Catholic Church. see also clergy sexual abuse
pedophile, representations 500
sexual abuse by priests 133–134
causal inference 43–44
causality, sexual offending theories 43–45
Ceci, Stephen 130
celibacy, clergy 554
Cellini, Henry 202
Chajewski, Michael 353
Chan, Heng Choon 108t, 112, 116
Chermack, Stephen 148
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act 131
Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre/Command (CEOP) 321
Child Exploitation Online Prevention (CEOP) 169
childhood
consent for sexual activity 95, 171, 171t
definition 94
child maltreatment
Great Recession increase 135n4
harm standard 135n3
child pornography 132, 591–595
definitions 591–592
exploitation 592
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children on 592, 593
policing, U. K. 311, 312, 322
policing and false arrest, overzealous 593–594
prevalence 592–593
protection vs. expression 595
sexting 524, 594–595
U.S. laws 591–592
on young people 596
child pornography, internet 523
content blocking 593
fear mongering 592–594
sexting 524, 594–595
child prostitution 166. see also prostitution and sex work
Child Protection Act 591
Child Protection Units (CPU) 315
Children Act of 1989 315
Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme 319
child sex trafficking 167–168
child sexual abuse 123–135. see also adolescents
age, prevalence periods 135n1
Catholic priests 133–134
child commercial sexual exploitation as 163
Child Protection Units 315
clerical 448–450
cyberbulling 452, 453n5 (see also cyberbullying)
decline 346
decline vs. fear-mongering 592–593
definition 123, 165
disclosure 128–130, 135n5
effects 126–128
by females 201
harms 290
harm standard of child maltreatment 135n3
(p. 628) Internet Crimes Against Children task forces 300
by juvenile sex offenders 226, 452n4
legal issues 130–132
mandatory reporting 135n2
media sensationalization and exaggeration 346
non-contact 123
policing, U. K. 311
prevention 132–134
recidivism, post-incarceration 429–430
sexting 452
specialization 250, 251, 252, 254–256, 259, 260t
Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome (CSAAS) 129–130
Child Sexual Abuse and Pornography Act 591
child (commercial) sexual exploitation 163–176. see also adolescents
adolescents 168, 170–172, 171t
Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre/Command (CEOP) 321
child protection 168, 170, 171–172, 175
as child sexual abuse 163
consent, age of, by country 171, 171t
consent, social model 163, 164, 172–175, 174f
definitions 164–168, 165
lifespan development approaches 163
Operation Notarise 321
policing, U. K. 312–313
prevalence 168–170
protection 168, 170, 171–172, 175
social and economic conditions 163
trafficking 167–168
willful ignorance 163, 164, 174–175
child sexual grooming, social media 520–521
Christian Church, on sex 542–544
church laws, on sexual behavior 542–544
circles of support 440–442
Circles of Support and Accountability 426–427
claim, rights 60
Clark, Janine 280
clergy, celibacy 554
clergy sexual abuse
case study 553–557
Catholic priests 133–134
restorative justice 448–450
clergy sexual abuse, U. K. 553–557
celibacy 554–555
history 553–554
sanctuary from the law 555–557
Cline, Hugh 249
clinical assessment, empirically guided 367
clinical prediction, vs. actuarial prediction 364–365
Coache, Marie-Eve 202, 211
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) 620n5
Coble, Christie 271
cocaine 146, 150, 151, 154
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) 393–396
Good Lives Model 396
post-incarceration 427
relapse prevention 394–395
Risk-Need-Responsivity model 395
Sex Offender Treatment Programme 395–396
substance abuse among sex offenders 153–154
cognitive neuroscience 42
cognitive restructuring 394
Coker, Donna 450
Coleman, John 172
college students, female, fear of sex crimes 465
Comartin, Erin 471–473
commercial sexual exploitation
defined 166
Commission on Sex in Prison 561n5
Common Law 318
Communications Act 524
community involvement, post-incarceration 426–427
(p. 629) community-level informal social controls 416, 422–427. see also social control, informal
community 426–427
pro-social ties 422–423
school 425
community protection 59
Community Protection Act (CPA) of 1990, Washington State 13, 304, 336–337, 346–347, 349–350
legal challenges 338
Computer Misuse Act 524
conceptual actuarial approach 367
conceptual issues, sexual offending 42–56. see also theories, sexual offending
conditioning, aversive 393
conferencing 440
confidence intervals, absolute risk estimation 380–382, 381f
consent to sexual activity 95
age of, by country 171, 171t, 519
social model 163, 164, 172–175, 174f
Contagious Disease Acts (England), 1886 568, 570
context. see also specific topics
internet sex crimes 531–532
treatment 404
control 45
co-offending, female and male sex offenders 201, 204, 207, 209, 210, 214
Coohey, Carol 290
Cook, Sarah 27
COPS 501
Corrado, Raymond 252
Cortoni, Franca 202, 211, 212, 213
Cotter, Leo 424, 426
Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse 165
courts
public trust 292
in revictimization 279–281
Covell, Christmas 336, 339
covert sensitization 393–394
COYOTE 571–572
Craun, Sarah 467, 470
Criado-Perez, Caroline 527, 532
Crime Bill (1994) 295, 296
crime control theater 292
crime dramas 486
crime specialization 255–257
Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) 24t, 27–28, 38
criminalization, sexuality 541–561
acceptable uses of body, modern age 544–548
church laws and sexual behavior 542–544
clergy sexual abuse 553–557 (see also clergy sexual abuse)
contemporary 550–553
LGBT rights 548–550
secular laws and sexual behavior 548–550
sex as wrongdoing 541, 542–543
sexual violence against men in military 557–560
Criminal Justice Act of 2003 319, 328–329
Criminal Justice and Immigration Act (CJIA) of 2008 329–330
criminal justice responses, rape and domestic sexual assault 92–93
criminal knowledge, over-inflation 486
Criminal Law Amendment Act 546, 548
Criminal Woman, the Prostitute and the Normal Woman (Lombrosos and Ferrero) 569
cross-national estimates, sexual violence 35–36
cross-validation, independent 373–374, 375t
CSI: Crime Scene Investigation 486
CSI effect 486, 492
Cullen, Francis 27, 272, 274
Cumming, Georgia 212, 384
Curtis, Kristin 293, 469
Cusson, Maurice 107t, 116
cyberbullying 452, 453n5, 526–527, 532
prosecution difficulties 524–525
restorative justice 453n5
revenge 526
roasting 525
sexting 524–525
cyber-sex crimes. see internet and cyber-sex crimes
cyberspace sex crimes. see internet and cyber-sex crimes
cyber-strangers, dangerous 522–530
abuser anonymity 523, 533–534
damage assessment 523–528
diversion and determinism 528–530
victim knowledge 523
cycle of violence 191–193
cyproterone acetate (CPA) 398
Daday, Jerry 187
Daigle, Leah 272, 274
Daly, Kathleen 439, 444, 445
Damian, St. Peter 554
Darjee, Rajan 49–50, 108t, 109
Darkness to Light 133
Darrow, Charles 298, 299
date rape drugs, U. K. policing 312
Davies, Peter 521
Death Wish 508
decalogue 530
Decree of Gratian 554
de Kerckhove, Derrick 530
DeKeseredy, Walter 521
demographics, offender, research 490–492
Denov, Miriam 201, 205
descriptive phase 47
descriptive validity, treatment 406
design quality, treatment 401t, 405
desistance 244f, 258–259
social bonds 418
desistance stage 243–244, 244f, 258–259
Des Rosiers, Nathalie 68
Destefano, Anthony 616
detention, preventive
Canada 304–305
Europe 302–304
detention for purpose of incapacitation 333–334, 340–341
determinism, tech- 522, 528–530, 533
deterrence. see also specific types
punitive laws 482
developmental life-course perspective. see life-course perspective, developmental
developmental processes 53
Di Bendetto, Michael 205
digital cameras 11–12
DiLillo, David 150
Dirty Harry 508
Dirty Pictures Act 588
disclosure, child sexual abuse 128–130
discretionary decisions 354
discursive diversion 528–530
disintegrative shaming 443
distinct offender 99–100
distintegrative shaming 442–444
Ditmore, Mellia 611–612
diversion, discursive 528–530
Dobrin, Adam 185, 187
Doe v. Miller 352
dogging activity 312
domestic sexual assault 81–97. see also marital rape; rape; specific topics
by country 82, 84–87, 84t, 85t, 86t, 87t
criminal justice responses 92–93
laws 96
Donaldson, Theodore 377–378
D’Orazio, Deirdre 336–337, 340
Doren, Dennis 377–378, 383
double jeopardy
Australian case 340
Kansas v. Hendricks 15–16, 338
post-conviction incapacitation 335
restorative justice 444
sexually violent predator laws, challenges 338, 474
Doyle, Daniel 185
Do You Know the Muffin Man 508
Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) 146, 152
drug use, sexual offending 143–155. see also substance use disorders, sexual offending
among sex offenders, prevalence 146
revictimization 272
sexual offending and 150–152
(p. 631) Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) 152
Dubber, Markus 302–303
Duff, Antony 73
duty bearer 60
Duwe, Grant 293, 298
Dworkin, Andrea 586
dynamic predictors 384
dynamic risk factors
definition 49
sexual offending theories 49–51
Easton, Scott 290
ECHELON project 531
economic conditions, child sexual exploitation 163
Edmunds, Christine 24t, 30–31
education 425
Eight O’Clock Walk 505
elemental equality 66
Elliot, Ian 213–214
Elliott, David 188
Embry, Randa 205
e-misogyny 521–522
Emmelkamp, Paul 152
empirical actuarial approach 367
empirically guided clinical assessment 367
employment 423–425
employment screening, U. K. 319–320
Empower Foundation 618–619
“Ending Violence Against Children: Six Strategies for Action,” 168
endogamous family structure 397
equality, elemental 66
escalation stage 243, 244f
Esteves, Manuel 151
Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offence Recidivism (ERASOR) 224
estimation methods, sexual violence 21–38. see also specific types
cell/mobile phone surveys 38
cross-national estimates 35–36
culture on 37
high-risk populations 37
interest 21
international surveys 32–35
LGBT populations 37
measurement issues, unresolved 36–38
methodological innovations 21–22, 37
national surveys 22–32, 24t, 25t
ethics codes 61
European Code of Ethics for Prison Staff 62
EU-Wide Violence Against Women Survey (EU-VAWS) 26t, 34–35, 36
Every Mother’s Worst Fear 508
evidence-based practice 55–56
explanation, sexual offending 42–56. see also theories, sexual offending
causality problems 43–45
explanatory targets 45–47
levels 52–53
mechanistic 44
exploitation of children, commercial sexual 163–176. see also child (commercial) sexual exploitation
Fae, Jane 592
Fagan, Jeffrey 187
Faller, Kathleen 146
false-positive rate 371–372
family support. see also social control, informal
post-incarceration 419–420
Fargo 509
fear mongering, internet child pornography 592–594
fear of crime, media influence 486–487
fear of rape
female college students 465
shadow of sexual assault 465–466
fear of sex crimes 463, 464–467
altruistic 466–467
prevalence 464
women’s 464–467
federal legislation 14
Feldthusen, Bruce 68
fellow travellers 59
female college students, fear of sex crimes 465
female sex offenders 199–215, 341n1
adolescent 207–208
assessment implications 211–212
characteristics 205–208
co-offending with men 201, 204, 207, 209, 210, 214
extent 200–202, 214
(p. 632) internet and offending 213–214
intervention implications 212–213
nature 203–205
prevalence 199
recidivism 210–211
typologies and theories 208–210
victim gender 203–204, 207
female sexuality, 19th cent. U. K. 545–546
feminism 571
anti-porn 586–587
feminism and sex wars, prostitution and sex work
gender politics and new feminisms 573–574
history (1970s) and activist battles 571–573
neo-liberalism and sexual values 573
prostitutes as victims (patriarchy) 572–573
women’s sexuality battleground 572
Ferguson, Christopher 472
Ferraro, Kenneth 465–466
Ferrero, Guglielmo 569
Figlio, Robert 247
Finkelhor, David 12, 125–126, 201, 345–346, 593
Finkelhor’s Preconditions Theory 54
Firestone, Philip 103, 104t, 106t
first-time offenders
Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 330
life-course perspective 245
prevalence 348, 487–488
recidivists 231
restorative justice 348
would-be, Internet stings 300
Fisher, Bonnie 27, 272, 274, 465, 466
Fisher, Celia 61
Fitzgerald, Louise 475
Florida Civil Commitment Center 304–305
Forbes, Stephanie 12
Fordham, Ann 427
Foreign Travel Order 322
forensic awareness 486
fornication 545
Fortney, Timothy 470
Fortune, Clare-Ann 222
Foster, Jonathan 467
Foucault, Michel 534, 573
Fowler, Raymond 128
Fox, Kathryn 292–293, 485
Fradella, Henry 292
Francis, Brian 257, 297
Frantzen, Allen 553–554
Fraser Competencies 172–173
Fréchette, Marcel 243, 244f
Freedman, Estelle 502
freedom 64
personal, legal rights 66
Freeman, Naomi 203, 210, 211
Freeway 510
Frei, Autumn 112
Fremouw, William 146, 214
frequency
individual, life-course perspective 253–254
research 490–492
frequentist position 377
Freud, Sigmund 546
friends support, post-incarceration 421–422
Fry, Lincoln 10
Galeste, Marcus 292
Gallagher, Anne 618
Gallagher, Christine 404–405, 406–407, 609
Gannon, Theresa 64–67, 65f, 70–71, 204, 210, 212
Garland, David 446, 511
Garrett, Tanya 428
Gavrielides, Theo 450
Gay Liberation Front 548
Geberth, Vernon 103–104, 104t
Gelsthorpe, Lorraine 445
gender assignment 552
gender politics, prostitution and sex work 573–574
Gender Recognition Act 552
George, William 148–149
Germany
detention, incapacitation 333–334, 340–341
detention, preventive 333–336
rehabilitation for victim protection 340
sentencing, high-risk sex offenders 332–336, 340–341
sexually violent predator laws 333–334, 340–341
Gervais, Sarah 150
Gialopsos, Brooke 274–275
(p. 633) Gidycz, Christine 271, 274
Giguere, Rachelle 200, 202, 211
Gillick case 173
Glaser, Bill 63
Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women 616
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues 398
Good Lives Model (GLM) 51, 68–70, 396
education 425
group treatment 428
Good Lives Plan (GLP) 69
Gottfredson, Michael 186
GPS monitoring 15, 93
Grace, Randolph 422
Graham, Kathryn 148
Green, Bob 150–151
Grey, Antony 544
Griffin, Christine 534
Griffin, Timothy 292
Grossman, Michelle 111
Groth, Nicholas 396
grounds, rights claim 60
group treatment 404–405
Grove, William 365
Grubin, Don 106t, 110
Guay, Jean-Pierre 256
Guido, Joseph 449
Gunby, Clare 226
Gutiérrez-Lobos, Karin 422
Hagan, Michael 226
Haig, Brian 47–48
Hale, Matthew 278
Hall, Gordon 404–405, 407
Ham, Julie 617
Hankivsky, Oleana 68
Hanson, R. Karl 305, 365–369, 422
Harbot, Stephan 115
harm 366
harm standard, child maltreatment 135n3
Harris, Andrew 367, 368, 422
Harris, Grant 379, 383
Harrison, Karen 303
Hassett-Walker, Connie 205
Healey, Jay 117
Heberle, Renee 281
Helmus, Leslie 365, 368, 378–379, 380, 381, 381f
Hempel, Inge 224
Hendriks, Jan 203–204, 209, 226–227, 236
Hetherton, Jacquie 201
Heyman, Richard 192
“Hidden from Sight,” 168
Higgins, George 300
high-risk sex offenders, sentencing 327–341. see also sentencing, high-risk sex offenders
Hirschi, Travis 186
Hitchcock, Alfred 501
Psycho 505
Hollin, Clive 110
Holmberg, Ulf 67–68
homicide, sexual, and violent offenders 99–118
angry 101–102, 102t
distinct offender 99–100
extreme or unusual acts, crime scene 112
heterogeneity 101–105, 102t, 104t
modus operandi and weapons 111–112
modus operandi and weapons, by country 112–115, 113t, 114t
offender and offence, misconceptions 110–115, 113t, 114t
offender characteristics 110–111
prevalence 99
sadistic 101–102, 102t
sexual murderers, as distinct sex offender 116–118
sexual murderers, serial vs. non-serial 115–116
sexual murderers vs. non-homicidal sexual offenders 105–110, 106t, 107t, 108t
studies, empirical 99–100
study results, summary 100
types 101, 102t
victims 111
witness-elimination 102–103, 102t
homosexuality
criminality and legalization 547–549
legalization, U. K. 561n2
punishment, for adults vs. boys 561n4
Hoover, J. Edgar 294
Hornle, Julia 590
Horvath, Miranda 278
(p. 634) Howard League for Penal Reform 557, 561n5
Howe, Adrian 534
Howett, Mimi 202
Hoyle, Carolyn 451
Hudson, Barbara 439, 445
Hudson, Kirsty 426, 428
Hudson, Stephen 54
human rights 59–74
Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners 60
complex relationship to, offenders 59
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 60
offender rehabilitation for victim protection 70–73
rights claims 60
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners 60–61
UN International Bill of Rights 60
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 60
victim–offender balance 67–70 (see also victim–offender balance, human rights)
Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice 61
human rights model 64–67, 65f
legal rights 65f, 66
moral rights 65–66, 65f
overview 64–65, 65f
social rights 65f, 66–67
human rights protection
legal rights 60–61
moral rights 64
problems, legal and social rights 62–64
social rights 61–62
human trafficking. see also sex trafficking and control
of adults vs. children 9
of children, sex 167–168
countries 10
definitions, contested 607–609
definitions, Trafficking Victims Protection Act 10
definitions, UN 9
economic globalization 9
extent 9
media portrayal 9–10
for sexual exploitation, conceptualizing 607–612 (see also sex trafficking and control)
transnational 9, 10
UN legislation 608
UN treaty and enforcement 10–11
victims 9, 10
Hunter, John 209
hypothetico-deductivism 47
hysteria, media-driven 487–490. see also media, on sex crimes
IFSW International Code of Ethics 61–62
ignorance, willful 163, 164, 174–175
Illari, Phyllis 44
Illinois Rape Myth Scale (IRMA) 475
imagination, criminalizing sexual 595–599
immcarceration 618
imprisonment for public protection (IPP), England and Wales 329–332
legal challenges 330–331
mandatory life sentences 331–332
imprisonment for public protection (IPP), Europe 302–303
incapacitation. see also sexually violent predator (SVP) laws (civil commitment)
deferred and/or subsequent orders 333–334
detention for purpose of, Germany 333–334, 340–341
theory 329
incest, legislation 167
In Cold Blood 501
independent cross-validation 373–374, 375t
individual-level support, post-incarceration 415–416, 419–422
family 419–420
friends 421–422
intimate partners 420–421
individual treatment 404–405
inductivism 47
industrial vagina 521
information dissemination, police 318–320
employment screening 319–320
notifications, community 318
notifications, selective 318–319
integrative pluralism 53–54
(p. 635) Integrative Theory of Sexual Offending (ITSO) 54
International Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic 609
International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation and Prostitution of Others 609
International Convention for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic 609
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 60
International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS) 26t, 32–33, 36
international surveys, sexual violence 26t, 32–35. see also specific surveys
EU-Wide Violence Against Women Survey 26t, 34–35, 36
International Crime Victims Survey 26t, 32–33, 36
International Violence Against Women Survey 26t, 33–34, 36
International Violence Against Women Survey (IVAWS) 26t, 33–34, 36
internet and cyber-sex crimes
agency 532–533
blackmail and extortion 527
bullying and revenge crimes 526–527, 532
challenges 519–520
Child Exploitation Online Prevention 169
child sexual grooming 520–521
context 531–532
control 530–531
cyber-sexual deviance vs. real sex crime 528–529
cyber-strangers, dangerous 522–530 (see also cyber-strangers, dangerous)
deep web policing 311–312
distribution without consent 524–527
ECHELON project 531
female sex offenders 213–214
feminist challenge 534
fraud 527–528
global 519
hacks 527
industrial vagina 521
policing 520
pornography, child (see child pornography)
pornography, U. K. policing 311
roasting 525–526
sex abuse 526
sex stings 299–301
sexting 524–525
social media 518–521 (see also social media, sex crimes)
triple A engine 595
Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) task forces 300
internment camps, Japanese 295
intimacy deficits
Beech and Mitchell model 44
post-incarceration 421
intimate partner support, post-incarceration 420–421
intimate partner violence and abuse
marital rape, by country 82, 84–87, 84t, 85t, 86t, 87t
marital rape, laws 96
restorative justice 444
investigation, police, U. K. 313–316
attitudes to sexual offences 313–314
difficulties 313
guidance to police 315–316
organizational changes 314–315
Jackson, Rebecca 336, 339
Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act 13, 295, 296, 346–347, 467
Jaffee, Sara 517
James, Jonathan 116
Janus, Eric 297–298, 302, 374, 375t, 378
Jay, Alexis 169–170, 175
Jenkins, Philip 12, 499, 500, 556
Jennings, Wesley 187, 188, 191–194, 223, 348
Jensen, Gary 188
Jerome 542
Jesperson, Ashley 189–190, 191
Jessica’s Law 483
Jewkes, Yvonne 519–521
Jimmy Ryce State Civil Commitment Program for Sexually Dangerous Persons 15
Johansson-Love, Jill 146, 214
Johnson, Holly 26t, 33–34, 36, 38
Jones, Lisa 125–126, 345–346
(p. 636) Jordan, Jan 277
Josephs, Robert 149
Judgment 508
jurisprudence, therapeutic 67–68
Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (J-SOAP-II) 224
juvenile sex offenders 220–237. see also adolescents
vs. adult offenders 259–261, 260t
child sexual abuse by 226
continuity hypothesis 221
criminal career 221, 222–223
discussion 235–237
group offenders 226–227
heterogeneity 225–227
as precursor to adult offending 221
recidivism 220, 222–223, 231–233, 232t, 236
recidivism, risk factors 223–225, 233–235, 235t, 236–237
research, previous 221–222
research, study strengths and weaknesses 237
research methods, analytical strategy 230
research methods, measures 228–230, 229t
researchmethods, sample 227–228, 227t
research results, criminal career 230–231, 232t
research results, risk factors 233–235, 234t, 235t
research results, sexual recidivists 231–233, 232t
risk assessment and risk factors 220
Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool II (J-SORRAT-II) 224
Kadleck, Colleen 464, 469
Kahlor, LeeAnn 476
Kahr, Brett 597
Kalhan, Anil 618
Kansas v. Crane 338, 351
Kansas v. Hendricks 15–16, 296, 298–299, 337–338, 474
Kavanagh, David 150–151
Kavoussi, Richard 146
Keim, Jeanmarie 469
Kelly, Liz 531
Kendler, Kenneth 53–54
Kendrock, Walter 587
Kercher, Glen 208–209
Kernsmith, Poco 467, 470, 471–473
Kernsmith, Roger 471–473
Kilpatrick, Dean 24t, 30–31, 274
Klevins, Joanne 189
kniffing-off 423
Knight, Raymond 45, 54, 251, 355–356
knowledge gap, experts vs. non-experts 488, 490, 493
Kollenbroich-Shea, Irene 90–92
Koss, Mary 25t, 28–30, 249
Koss’s Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) 25t, 28–30
Kotrla, Kimberly 10
Kraanen, Fleur 146, 152
Kruttschnitt, Candace 423–424
La Fond, John 350
Laite, Julia 571
Lalumière, Martin 189–190, 191
lambda of offending 254
Lambie, Ian 222
Lancaster, Roger 587, 599
Lane, Jodi 465, 466
Lang, Fritz 500, 502
Langevin, Ron 146
Långström, Niklas 225, 258
Lasher, Michael 384
Lateano, Thomas 205
Latham, Lance 271
Laub, John 415
Lauritsen, Janet 187
Law and Order: Special Victims Unit 486, 501
laws and policies, perceptions 467–474. see also specific laws and policies
Jacob Wetterling Act 467
Megan’s law 467
notification laws 470–471
punishment and treatment 472–473
registration laws 468–470
residence restrictions 471–472
Layman, Melissa 271
Leahy, Michael 595
LeBlanc, Marc 243, 244f
(p. 637) Lee, Austin 350
Lee, Tim Berners 531
Lees, Matthew 424
Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act (LASPOA) of 2012 303, 331–332
legal rights 60–61
human rights model 65f, 66
human rights protection 60–61
problems 62–64
therapeutic psycholegal rules, maximizing 70–71
legal sanctions, post-incarceration 418
legislation
acceptable vs. unacceptable sex 546
federal 14
ineffectiveness 293–294
secular, on sexual behavior 548–550
legislation, sex offender. see also moral panic legislation
abundance 489–490
empirical analyses 347–349, 350
flaws 489
tough-on-crime 489, 492
umbrella 488
Lehman, Peter 585
Lenz, Timothy O. 508
levels, explanation, sexual offending theories 52–53
Levenson, Jill 206, 352, 424, 426, 428, 470, 472, 473
Lewis, Catherine 146
LGBT rights 548–550
L.I.E., 510
life-course perspective, developmental 53, 241–262
activation stage 243, 244f
adolescent commercial sexual exploitation 163
adolescent vs. adult offenders 259–261, 260t
boundary and time-related parameters 243
capture-recapture model 262n1
child commercial sexual exploitation 163
crime specialization 255–257
desistance stage 243–244, 244f, 258–259
escalation stage 243, 244f
frequency and rate, individual 253–254
methodological issues 245–247
model of sexual offending 242–245, 244f
onset 243, 244f, 250–253
persistence 257–259
prevalence 247–250, 262nn2–3
qualitative aspects 243
quantitative aspects 243
research, contemporary 242
social support post-incarceration 418
survey limitations 262n2
turning points 423
zigzag criminal careers 244–245
life sentences, mandatory, U. K. 331–332
Lindquist, Johan 608
Little Children 510–511, 512–513
Livingston, Jennifer 271
Loeber, Rolf 252–253
logistic regression, absolute risk estimation 379–380
Lolita 500
Lombroso, Cesare 569
London, Kamala 129
Longhurst campaign 589
Lonsway, Kimberly 475
Lösel, Friedrich 401–407
Lovely, Richard 214
Luckenbill, David 185
Lussier, Patrick 223, 225, 236, 243, 249, 252–254, 256–259, 262n1
Lyons, Phillips 205
MacKenzie, Doris 406–407
MacMillan, Harriet 51
Maikovich-Fong, Andrea 517
Malamuth, Neil 249
Maldonado-Molino, Mildred 188
Malesky, Alvin 469
Malicious Communications Act 524
managerialism 448
Mancini, Christina 293, 294, 298–299, 473
mandatory life sentences, England and Wales 331–332
mandatory reporters, child sexual abuse 135n2
Mann, Ruth 44, 48, 51, 70–71
(p. 638) Mann, Sally 132
Marcum, Catherine 300
marijuana 146, 150–151, 154, 155
marijuana withdrawal syndrome 151
marital rape
by country 82, 84–87, 84t, 85t, 86t, 87t
laws 96
marital sex 544–545
Marshall, Tony 439–440
Marshall, William 249–250, 251
Martellozzo, Elena 214
Martineau, Melissa 110–112
Maruna, Shadd 426
masculine aggressiveness, ideology of 11
Mason, Fiona 202
Mason, Gail 406
masturbatory reconditioning 394
masturbatory satiation 393
Mathesius, Jeffrey 252–253
Mathews, Ruth 208, 209
Matthews, Jane 208
Matza, David 92
Mawby, R. I. 187
Maxfield, Michael 192
Mayhew, Pat 26t, 32–33, 188
McCann, Kristie 225
McChargue, Dennis 150
McCuish, Evan 252
McGrath, Robert 212, 384
McLawsen, Julia 298, 299
McLuhan, Eric 530
McLuhan, Marshall 530
McNair, Brian 600n7
McNally v. R., 553
Mears, Daniel 294, 298–299, 467–468, 472, 473
mechanical actuarial approach 367
mechanism 44
media
name and shame campaigns 443, 452
problematic 600n2
profitable stories 482
sex crime coverage 291–292
sexual (see pornography)
media, on sex crimes 482–493
24 hour a day attention 483, 485–487
child victim stories 482–483
crime dramas and over-inflation of criminal knowledge 486
cyclical reporting 483–484
vs. declining rate 482
deterrence argument 482
exaggeration and selective reporting 482–483
fear of crime and influence of 486–487
fear pandering 483
frequency and offender demographics 490–492
inaccuracy and influence 483–484
increased coverage with low prevalence 483–484
knowledge gap 488, 490, 493
outlier/extreme case reporting 483, 485
political response 487–490, 492
public perceptions 483
selective reporting 529
sex offender myths 292, 485
sex offender vs. sex predator 485, 488, 490–491
social learning theory 486
stereotypes, sex offender 487
mediation 440
Meehl, Paul 364–365, 376–377, 382
Meeker, James 465, 466
Megan’s Law 13, 318, 347, 443, 447, 467
Meloy, Michelle 82–83, 293, 421, 469
memorial laws 447. see also moral panic legislation; specific types; specific typesi
Mercado, Cynthia 353
meta-theoretical model of theory development 54
methamphetamine 151, 154
methods
abductive 47
estimation sexual violence 21–38 (see also estimation methods, sexual violence)
scientific 47
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) 145, 152
Mieczkowski, Tom 108t, 109
Miethe, Terance 256
milieu therapy 397
military, sexual violence against men 557–560
Miller, Monica 292
(p. 639) Miller, Susan 82–83
Miller, William 153–154
Milloy, C. D. 347, 350
Milsom, Jacci 105, 107t
Mingus, William 426
Minnesota ex rel. Pearson v. Probate County of Ramsey County 296–298, 337
Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R)
age coding 376
independent cross-validation 374, 375t
short form of items 369, 370t, 371t
Minority Report 501
Miranda, Alexis 254
misogyny
diversion 528–529
e-misogyny 521–522
Mitchell, Ian 44
Mitchell, Kimberly 12, 300–301, 593
mode, treatment 403
Moffit, Terrie 236, 259
Mokros, Andrea 115
Monahan, John 351, 365–366, 376–377
moral panic 12
moral panic legislation 12–16, 463, 483. see also media; public perceptions
Community Protection Act of 1990 13, 304, 336–337, 338, 346–347
empirical analyses 347–348, 350
Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act 13, 295, 296, 346–347, 467
Jimmy Ryce State Civil Commitment Program for Sexually Dangerous Persons 15
Megan’s Law 13, 318, 347, 443, 447, 467
origins and history 12–13
sex offender registries 12–13
Sexually Violent Predator (SVP) legislation 15–16
moral panic registries. see also registries, sex offender
federal legislation 14
GPS monitoring 15, 93
registration and community notification laws 13–14
residence restrictions 14–15, 93, 352–353
moral rights 64
human rights model 65–66, 65f
therapeutic psycholegal rules, maximizing 71–72
Morris, Alison 445
Morrison, Dan 476
Morton, Kelly 367
Morton-Bourgon 365, 366, 367–368
Mossman, Doug 377–378, 379
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPAs) 318–319, 441, 448
Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hubs (MASH) 315
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) 397
murderers, sexual
angry 101–102, 102t
avenger 103
as distinct sex offender 116–118
misconceptions 110–115, 113t, 114t
vs. non-homicidal sexual offenders 105–110, 106t, 107t, 108t
non-sexual predator 104–105
sadistic 101–102, 102t
serial vs. non-serial 115–116
sexual predator 103–104
witness-elimination 102–103, 102t
of women vs. children 103, 104t
Murphy, William 394
Mustaine, Elizabeth 187, 473
M. v. Germany 334
Myers, Wade 146
Mystic River 510
myths
Illinois Rape Myth Scale 475
Rape Myth Acceptance Scale 475
sex offender 292, 485
tech-determinism 522
white slave trafficking 609–610
Nabokov, Vladimir, Lolita 500
Naffine, Ngaire 280
(p. 640) name and shame campaigns 443, 452
Natalie’s Law 447
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) 491
on child pornography 592, 593
National Coalition to Prevent the Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children 134
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 22–27, 24t
National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS), U. K. 320–321
Paedophile Section 321
National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS) 124–125, 135n
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) 25t, 31–32
National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) 13
national surveys, sexual violence 22–32, 24t, 25t. see also specific surveys
Crime Survey for England and Wales 24t, 27–28, 38
general victimization surveys including sexual violence 22–28, 24t
National Crime Victimization Survey 22–27, 24t
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 25t, 31–32
national surveys designed to estimate sexual violence 25t, 28–32
National Violence Against Women Survey 25t, 30
National Women’s Study–Replication 25t, 30
Sexual Experiences Survey 25t, 28–30
National Victimization Survey (NCVS) 88–89
National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) 25t, 30
National Women’s Study–Replication 25t, 30
Natural Born Killers 509
Nehring, Daniel 214
Nellis, Mike 514
Nelson, Kevin 205
neo-liberalism
prostitution and sex work 575
sexual values 573
Netherlands, prostitution and sex work 578
neurofeedback 398–399
neuroscience, cognitive 42
Nevala, Sami 26t, 33–34, 36, 37, 38
Never Take Sweets from a Stranger 506, 514n4
New Zealand, prostitution and sex work 577–578
Nicholaichuk, Terry 305
Nicole, Alexandre 107t, 109, 110
Nieuwbeerta, Paul 189, 255
non-contact child sexual abuse 123
non-homicidal sexual offenders 105–110, 106t, 107t, 108t
non-sexual predator 104–105
“normal” sexual behavior 3–4
notification, sex offender 346–349
empirical analyses 347–349
notification laws 93. see also registration, sex offender; registries, sex offender
moral panic registries 13–14
public perceptions 470–471
registration and community notification laws (RCNLs) 13–14, 93
notifications, police, U. K.
community 318
selective 318–319
object, rights claim 60
obscenity 584, 585–586. see also pornography
O’Donovan, Katherine 440
offender demographics 490–492
O’Leary, Patrick 290
Oliver, Caroline 107t, 110
Olus, Natalia 26t, 33–34, 36, 38
Olver, Mark 384
One Billing Rising 533
onset, age of, sexual offending 243, 244f
Operation Notarise 321
Operation Ore 322
Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (OPSC) 165–166
Orend, Brian 66
Osgood, Wayne 184, 186, 188
outcome measures, treatment 406
Outshoorn, Joyce 578
(p. 641) Palha, Antonio 151
Pam Lychner Sex Offender Tracking and Identification Act 13
Papdapoulos report 596, 600n6
Pardini, Dustin 252–253
Parkinson, Patrick 556
Paterson, Janis 189
Payer, Peter 543
Payne, Diana 473
Pearce, Jenny 173, 175
Pearson, Elaine 618
pedophile, cyber 523
pedophile, fictional representations 498–514. see also specific films
boundary, defining 499–500
Catholic Church 500
early 20th-century 502–504
late-modern times 507–513
males 514n1
popular criminology 513–514
postwar liberal critique 504–507
prewar, early 499
sex crimes, conceptualizing 500–502
penitentials 543
perceptions, public. see public perceptions
Pereda, Neomi 125
persistence, life-course perspective 257–259
personal freedom, legal rights 66
personal security 66
Peter, Tracey 205
Petley, Julian 598
Petrosino, Anthony 406
Petrunik, Michael 304
pharmacological treatment 398
phenomena 47–48
phylogeny 53
Pickett, Justin 293, 294, 473
Piquero, Alex 187, 188, 191–194, 223, 255
Plumm, Karyn 205
policing
public trust 292
revictimization and 278–279
transnational networks 322–323
U.K. Anglo-Saxon localized model 310
policing, sexual activity, U. K. 310–323
attitudes to sexual offences 313–314
guidance to police 315–316
history 310–313
initiatives 320–323
investigation, police 313–316
organizational changes 314–315
public protection 316–320 (see also public protection, U. K.)
policy
evolution 291
feminists 291
prevention 289–306 (see also prevention, policy in)
policy transfer thesis 447
political response, to media-driven hysteria 487–490, 492
pornography 584–606
addiction 584, 585, 587, 595
art-house cinema 598, 600n9
blame and harms paradigm 587
child 132, 591–595 (see also child pornography)
classification systems annd British Board of Film Classification 587, 596, 598–599
criminalization 595–599
cultural and social constructions 585–588
definition 585
dehumanizing and exploitative 586
effects 584, 596
extreme 588–589
extreme, U.K .legislation 588–591
feminism, anti-porn 586–587
form without style 586
genre and variety 584
internet, U. K. policing 311
masturbatory function and sexual affects 585
obscenity 584, 585–586
prevalence, harmless use 600n7
revenge 526–527, 532
revenues, worldwide 521
tripartite test 585
viewpoints 585
Poster, Mark 531
predator
non-sexual 104–105
sexual 103–104, 117
sexual, vs. sex offender 485, 488, 490–491
(p. 642) prediction 44
predictive accuracy studies 369–373, 372t, 373t, 374f
predictive validity, risk assessment 354–355
Prentky, Robert 251, 350, 374, 375t, 378
Prescott, David 206
prevalence 8, 10. see also specific topics
definition 247
sexual offending 247–250, 262nn2–3, 290–291
prevention, child sexual abuse 132–134
prevention, crime, U. K. 316–320. see also public protection, U. K.
prevention, policy in 289–306
internet sex stings 299–301
prevalence and harms 290–291
preventive detention 294–296
preventive detention, Canada 304–305
preventive detention, Europe 302–304
U.S. policy and public discourse 291–294
preventive detention
Australia, legal challenges 340
Canada 304–305
controversies 339–340
Europe 302–304
Germany 333–336
legal requirements 339
risk-assessment tools 339
prisoners
Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners 60
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners 60–61
professional practice codes 61
program delivery and integrity, treatment 404
Project Safe Childhood 300
Project Spade 322
Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act 14, 134
prosecutors
public trust 292
revictimization 278–279
Prostestantism, on sex 544
prostitutes
rape 95
as victim or offender? 569–570
as victims (patriarchy) 572–573
prostitutes’ rights organizations 571–572
prostitution and sex work 566–580
contemporary approaches 574–579
criminalization, alternative models 576–577
criminalization, Australia 578–579
criminalization, Canada 579
criminalization, Netherlands 578
criminalization, New Zealand 577–578
criminalization, trend 575–576
licensing and regulation 576–577
neo-liberal policy and individual responsibility 575
Swedish model 575–576
worker protection 576
controversies 566
feminism and sex wars 571–574
1970s and activist battles 571–573
gender politics and new feminisms 573–574
neo-liberalism and sexual values 573
prostitutes as victims 572–573
women’s sexuality battleground 572
historical and cultural context 567–571
modernity and birth of laws against 567–568
prostitute as victim or offender? 569–570
white slave trafficking and criminalization 570–571
prevalence and persistence 566
protection, public, U. K. 316–320. see also public protection, U. K.
Protection from Harassment Act 524
Protection of Children Act 591
Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation 591
(p. 643) Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act 14
protective custody, sex trafficking 617–619
protective factors, sexual offending theories 51–52
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children 608
Proulx, Jean 101–103, 102t, 107t, 108t, 109, 110, 116
proximate mechanisms 53
Psycho 505
psychodynamic therapy 396
psycholegal rules 70–73
legal rights 70–71
moral rights 71–72
social rights 72–73
psychopath, sexual
M (Fritz Lang) 500, 502–504, 511, 514nn2–3
psychotherapy 398
public notification laws 93
public perceptions 463–477. see also specific topics
(in)accuracy and rape myths 474–476
civil commitment 472–473
definition 464
fear of sex crimes 463, 464–467
inaccurate 463
moral panic laws and policies 463–464
notification laws 470–471
punishment and treatment 472–473
registration laws 468–470
residence restrictions 471–472
sex offender laws and policies 467–474
worry 463
public protection, U. K. 316–320
employment screening 319–320
imprisonment for, England and Wales 329–332
imprisonment for, Europe 302–303
information dissemination 318–320
notifications, community 318
notifications, selective 318–319
sex offender registry 317–318
punishment
public perceptions 472–473
treatment and 73
punitive populism 415
qualitative aspects 243
quantitative aspects 243
Quinet, Kenna F. Davis 187
Radford, Lorraine 168, 169
Rafter, Nicole 501, 508–509, 513
Raghavan, Ramesh 274
Ragusa-Salerno, Laura 348
Rainey, Bernadette 330–331
rape 81–97. see also specific topics
criminal justice responses 92–93
definitions 23, 29, 30, 31
definitions, 21st century legal 83–87, 84t, 85t, 86t, 95
definitions, evolution 81–83, 94–95
justifications 92
motives 90–92, 95
operationalization, survey 30
perpetrators, by victim age 517
rates, by country 91t
rates, over time 87–89, 87t, 89f, 90t
rationalizations 92
sex workers 95
simple 278–279
statutory 132
as violent crime, evolution 81–83
war 11
women’s fear 463, 464–467
rape culture 597
rape fantasies, female 598
rape laws
countries with 84, 84t, 85t, 86t, 96
marital 96
Rape Monitoring Group 316
rape myths 90–92, 95, 474–476
Illinois Rape Myth Scale 475
Rape Myth Acceptance Scale 475
rapid evidence assessment 589, 600n4
Rapid Risk Assessment of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR) 368–369
age coding 376
(p. 644) independent cross-validation 374, 375t
ROC analysis 372–373, 373t, 374f
real rape 278–279
Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) 354, 369–371, 372t
recidivism 219, 366
any 366
causality 44
child sexual abuse 429–430
definition 366
dynamic risk factors 49–50
employment, post-incarceration 423–424
female sex offenders 210–211
first-time offenders 231
friends 422
intimate partner relationship 420–421
juvenile sex offenders 220, 222–223, 231–233, 232t, 236
juvenile sex offenders, reoffending risk factors 223–225, 233–237, 235t
male sex offenders 210–211
misperceptions 491
prediction 365–366
prevalence 482, 491
rates 353–354
registration and notification on, empirical analyses 347–349, 350
restrictions post-incarceration on 418
serious or violent 366
sex offender laws and restrictions on 428–429
sexual 366
social support on 417
studies, risk assessment 366–367
substance abuse 153–154, 155
treatment and risk of 405
victim blaming 281
recognition, social 66
reconditioning, masturbatory 394
Redlich, Allison 469
registration, sex offender 346–349
community role 416
definition 346
goals 346
on rape prevalence 348
registration and community notification laws (RCNLs) 13–14, 93
registration laws
public perceptions 468–470
public support 468–469
requirements 468
registries, sex offender 12–13, 93
employment, post-incarceration 424
federal legislation 14
GPS monitoring 15, 93
history 345–346
ineffectiveness 469
kniffing-off from 423
knowledge accuracy and support for 487
legislation 13–14, 93
legislation, U. K. 344
National Sex Offender Registry 13
Pam Lychner Sex Offender Tracking and Identification Act 13
police notification, when traveling abroad 322
public awareness 468
public support 468–469
Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act 14, 418, 430n1, 492
Sex Offender Registry, U. K. 317
United Kingdom 317–318
registries, sex offender, aftermath 344–356
history 345–346
registration and notification 346–349
residence restrictions 14–15, 93, 352–353
risk assessment 353–356
sex crimes crisis, U.S. 345
Regoeczi, Wendy 188
rehabilitation 429
rehabilitation for victim protection, Germany 340
rehabilitation for victim protection, therapeutic psycholegal rules 70–73
legal rights 70–71
moral rights 71–72
social rights 72–73
Reingle, Jennifer 187, 188, 191–194
reintegrative shaming 438, 442–444
Reitzel, Lorraine 405
relapse prevention, cognitive behavioral therapy 394–395
relative risk estimation, discrimination 368–377
ARAI, development 368
independent cross-validation 373–374, 375t
predictive accuracy studies 369–373, 372t, 373t, 374f
short form of items 368, 369t, 370t
STATIC-99R and STATIC-2002R development 374–376
studies 367–368
reporting, mandatory, child sexual abuse 135n2
reproductive sex 545
Resait, Melinda Tankard 595
Reservoir Dogs 509
residence restrictions 14–15, 93, 352–353, 415
fundamental flaws 353
public perceptions 471–472
research 352–353
restorative justice 437–453
barriers 446–448
broader intrinsic concerns 439
case for 437
child sexual abuse, by children 452n4
circles of support 440–442
clerical sexual abuse 448–450
as coercive 452n1
conferencing 440
controversies, current 448–450
critics, countering 444–446
cyberbullying 453n5
future 450–452
hybrid model 451
intimate partner violence and abuse 444
mediation 440
restorative paradigm 438–439
vs. risk-based policies 451
shaming 452n3
shaming, disintegrative to reintegrative 442–444
use, sexual offending 439–442
RESTORE programme 440
restrictions. see also specific types
post-incarceration 418
revenge
cyber-media 526
porn 526, 532
revictimization 270–282
adolescent 271
causes 273–275
controversies 281–282
courts 279–281
criminal justice system 276–281
police 278–279
rates and characteristics 271–272
research, implications 275
research, new directions 275–276
risk factors 272–273
risk heterogeneity approach 273–274
state dependence approach 273–275, 276
Rice, Marnie 379, 383
rights, human 59–74. see also human rights
legal rights 60–61
moral rights 64
problems, with legal and social rights 62–64
social rights 61–62
rights claims 60
rights holder 60
Rind, Bruce 127–128
risk assessment, sex offenders 353–356, 363–384
absolute risk estimation, calibration 376–382 (see also absolute risk estimation, calibration)
area under the ROC curve (AUC) 355, 372, 382
civil commitment 350–351
clinical vs. actuarial prediction 364
dataset 384–385
factors 356
history 364–368
juvenile sex offenders 220
predictive validity 354–355
psychiatric 350–351
(p. 646) Receiver Operating Characteristic 354
recidivism, prediction 365–366
recidivism, studies 366–367
relative risk estimation, discrimination 368–376 (see also relative risk estimation, discrimination)
risk prediction, history 364–366 (see also risk prediction)
risk prediction, studies 367–368
sex offender registries 353–356 (see also registries, sex offender)
tools 339
risk factors 365–366. see also specific types
dynamic 49–51
heterogeneity 49
risk factors, sexual offending theories
dynamic 49–51
protective 51–52
Risk for Sexual Violence Protocol (RSVP) 367
risk heterogeneity approach 273–274
risk level 366
Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model 395
risk prediction 364–368
clinical vs. actuarial 364–365
independent cross-validation 373–374, 375t
predictive accuracy studies 369–373, 372t, 373t, 374f
recidivism, prediction 365–366
recidivism, studies 366–367
STATIC-99R and STATIC-2002R development 374–376
studies 367–368
risk reduction, Good Lives Model 68
roasting 525
Robbé, de Vries 52
Robbers, Monica 420, 424
Roberts, Julian 111
Robocop 501
ROC analysis, of Rapid Risk Assessment of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR) 372–373, 373t, 374f
ROC curve 372, 373t, 374f
Rogers, Darrin 472
Rogers, Marcus 214
Roiphe, Rebecca 174
Rollnick, Stephen 153–154
Rope 501
Rose, Marianne 204, 210
routine activities theory 185–186
Rumney, Philip 278
Russell, Katherine 49–50
Russo, Frederica 44
R. v. Lang and Others 330
R. v. Pedley and Others 330
Ryan, Gail 257
sadistic sexual murderer 101–102, 102t
Salerno, Jessica 469
Salmon, Karen 63, 73
Salter, Daniel 190–191
same-sex activity, U. K. legalization 561n2
Sample, Lisa 93, 96, 464, 467, 469
sample size, treatment 405
Sampson, Robert 187, 415
sanctuary laws 555–557
Sanders, Teela 166
Sandler, Jeffrey 348
Sandusky, Jerry 123, 134
Santos, Marta 165
Sarah’s Law 319, 443, 447
Sargent, Norah 205
Sarracino, Carmine 596–597
Scalora, Mario 298, 299
Schiavone, Jeglic 471
Schlessinger, Laura 128
Schmucker, Martin 401–407
Scholing, Agnes 152
school 425
Schram, D. 347, 350
Schreck, Christopher 184, 186, 188
Schwarcz, Stephen 174–175
Schwartz, Barbara 202
scientific inquiry
explanation and, sexual offending theories 47–49
phases 47–49
scientific methods 47
Scott, Kevin 596–597
Scottish Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (SACRO) 441
secondary victimization 276–277
(p. 647) security, personal 66
Seigfreid, Kathryn 214
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 398
self-control theory 186
Seling v. Young 338
Seltzer, David S. 594
sensitivity 371
sensitization, covert 393–394
sentencing, high-risk sex offenders 327–341
discussion 339–341
study and management 328
sentencing, high-risk sex offenders, England and Wales 328–332
Criminal Justice Act of 2003 328–329
Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 329–330
imprisonment for public protection 329–330
imprisonment for public protection, legal challenges 330–331
theory of incapacitation 329
sentencing, high-risk sex offenders, Germany 332–336
detention for purpose of incapacitation 333–334
effectiveness 340–341
legal challenges 334–335
two-track approach 332
sentencing, high-risk sex offenders, United States 336–339
sexually violent predator laws, commonalities among states 336
sexually violent predator laws, history and scope 336–337
sexually violent predator laws, legal challenges 337–339
serial sexual murderers, vs. non-serial 115–116
Seto, Michael 148, 189–190, 191
sex and sexuality. see also specific topics
acceptable vs. unacceptable, legal statutes 546
criminalization 541–561 (see also criminalization, sexuality)
fluid concept 541
wrongdoing and 541, 542
sex crimes. see also human trafficking; specific topics
computers and digital cameras 11–12
crisis 345
declining rate 482
definitions, changing 3–8
moral panic legislation 12–16 (see also moral panic legislation)
vs. “normal” sexual behavior 3–4
sexting 12
transnational 8
sex crimes, fictional representations. see also pedophile, fictional representations
boundary, defining 499–500
conceptualizing 500–502
early 20th-century 502–504
males 514n1
sex crimes, political context 8–11
human trafficking 8–11, 167–168 (see also human trafficking)
rape in war 11
Sex Discrimination Act of 1974 311
sex offender. see also specific topics
myths 485
vs. sexual murderer, misconceptions 110–115, 113t, 114t
Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) 14, 418, 430n1, 492
sex offender registries. see registries, sex offender
Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG) 368, 369
age coding 376
independent cross-validation 374, 375t
short form of items 369, 370t, 371t
Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP) 395–396
sex predator 103–104, 117
media portrayal 485, 488, 490–491
sex stings, internet 299–301
sexting 12, 451, 524–525
child pornography 594–595
distribution vs. consent 524–527
policing, U. K.