- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Sex Offences and Sex Offenders
- List of Contributors
- What is sex crime?
- Exploring the methods behind sexual violence estimates: The Composition and Findings from National and International Surveys
- The explanation of sexual offending
- Sexual offenders and human rights: Protecting Victims
- Rape and domestic sexual assault
- Sexual homicide and violent offenders
- Child sexual abuse
- Alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual offending
- Commercial sexual exploitation of children
- Victim–offender overlap among sex offenders
- Female sex offenders
- The juvenile sex offender: Criminal Careers and Recidivism Risk
- A developmental life-course perspective of juvenile and adult sexual offending
- Victimization and revictimization
- The role of policy in preventing sexual violence
- The policing of sexual activity
- Sentencing high-risk sex offenders: Policy and Legislation
- The aftermath of sex offender registration and other controls
- Risk assessment of sex offenders
- Treatment of sex offenders: Concepts and Empirical Evaluations
- Informal social control of sex offenders: The Family and Other Forms of Support
- Restorative justice and sex offending
- Public perceptions of sex crimes and sex offenders
- The media response to sex crimes
- The paedophile in popular culture: Fictional Representations of Sex Crime
- Social media, cyberspace, and sex crime: Deviant and Democratizing Spaces
- The criminalization of sexuality
- Prostitution and sex work
- Sex trafficking and control
Abstract and Keywords
This essay discusses various treatments for sexual offenders and their success in reducing reoffending. Overall, research reveals a positive treatment effect that indicates up to 25 per cent less recidivism in treatment versus control groups. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, relapse prevention, and programs based on the Risk–Need–Responsivity model have the strongest evidence base, although the studies and findings are heterogeneous and outcomes vary depending on many factors. Most promising are programs that involve treatment in the community and in forensic hospitals, delivered in a partly individualized mode, implemented with sound integrity, targeting medium- to high-risk offenders, addressing young individuals, and being evaluated in well-documented small studies. In contrast, programs in prisons, delivered merely in a group format, including low-risk offenders, and evaluations in large samples show smaller or no effects. Recent developments aim to modernize and widen standard programs toward more differentiated interventions, but more sound evaluation research is needed.
Friedrich Lösel is an Emeritus Professor of Criminology at the University of Cambridge.
Martin Schmucker is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg.
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