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date: 05 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Mixed mode surveys are defined as surveys that involve mixtures of different contact and response modes. They have become increasingly popular as a way to mitigate problems of coverage and response error related to single mode options. However, differences in survey mode, especially the presence or absence of an interviewer, may influence item response and nonresponse through social desirability, primacy or recency effects, and visual response. This chapter considers the advantages and disadvantages of various modes and of combining modes. Each research design should consider the costs, including “house” costs and costs to the respondent, and benefits of a mixed mode design before implementation.

Keywords: survey mode, mixed mode, survey research, mode effects, social desirability, satisficing, survey methodology

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