- The Oxford Handbook of Polling and Survey Methods
- Introduction to Polling and Survey Methods
- Total Survey Error
- Longitudinal Surveys: Issues and Opportunities
- Mixing Survey Modes and Its Implications
- Taking the Study of Political Behavior Online
- Sampling for Studying Context: Traditional Surveys and New Directions
- Questionnaire Science
- Exit Polling Today and What the Future May Hold
- Sampling Hard-to-Locate Populations: Lessons from Sampling Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)
- Reaching Beyond Low-Hanging Fruit: Surveying Low-Incidence Populations
- Improving the Quality of Survey Data Using CAPI Systems in Developing Countries
- Survey Research in the Arab World
- The Language-Opinion Connection
- Issues in Polling Methodologies: Inference and Uncertainty
- Causal Inference with Complex Survey Designs: Generating Population Estimates Using Survey Weights
- Aggregating Survey Data to Estimate Subnational Public Opinion
- Latent Constructs in Public Opinion
- Measuring Group Consciousness: Actions Speak Louder Than Words
- Cross-National Surveys and the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems: When Country/Elections Become Cases
- Graphical Visualization of Polling Results
- Graphical Displays for Public Opinion Research
- Survey Experiments: Managing the Methodological Costs and Benefits
- Using Qualitative Methods in a Quantitative Survey Research Agenda
- Integration of Contextual Data: Opportunities and Challenges
- Measuring Public Opinion with Social Media Data
- Expert Surveys as a Measurement Tool: Challenges and New Frontiers
- The Rise of Poll Aggregation and Election Forecasting
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter discusses the challenges that researchers face when conducting surveys on hard-to-survey populations. It begins with an overview of the various conditions that can make it difficult to include some populations in studies or surveys. This includes the population’s being hard to identify and locate or hard to persuade or interview and even difficulty in defining a sampling frame. The chapter then suggests various sampling approaches that may help researchers overcome challenges when studying hard-to-survey populations. It uses internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nepal as an example of those who are hard to locate and discusses how the Nepal Forced Migration Survey used several of the techniques discussed to collect a representative sample from this population after the 1996–2006 Maoist insurgency. This chapter demonstrates that with careful planning and creative approaches, researchers can collect quality data from hard-to-survey populations.
Prakash Adhikari is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Central Michigan University. His research and teaching interests lie at the intersection of comparative politics and international relations, with specific focus on civil war, forced migration, and transitional justice.
Lisa A. Bryant is an Assistant Professor at California State University, Fresno. Her teaching and research interests include political behavior and voter behavior, campaigns and elections, election administration, public opinion, the media, political psychology, state politics, gender politics, and political methodology, focusing on experimental and survey research methods.
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