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date: 10 July 2020

(p. x) (p. xi) List of Contributors

(p. x) (p. xi) List of Contributors

Elisabetta Adami is a University Academic Fellow in Multimodal Communication at the School of Languages, Cultures and Societies of the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. Her research focuses on text production, language, and multimodal representation and communication in digital environments, with a special interest in intercultural communication. Recent publications include works on blogs and interactivity, on video-interaction on YouTube, on multimodality and copy-and-paste in informal and formal learning environments, and on the use of English as a lingua franca in social media. She has co-edited the special issues Multimodality, Meaning-Making and the Issue of Text, in Text & Talk (with Gunther Kress, 2014) and Social Media and Visual Communication, in Visual Communication (with Carey Jewitt, 2016).

John Baugh is the Margaret Bush Wilson Professor of Arts and Sciences at Washington University and Professor Emeritus of Education and Linguistics at Stanford University. He is a past president of the American Dialect Society and is currently Associate Editor for Language regarding linguistics and public policy. He has authored and edited several books, including Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice (Oxford University Press) and Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice (University of Texas Press). His board memberships include the Oracle Education Foundation and Raising-a-Reader. Often called upon as an expert witness in legal cases pertaining to linguistic profiling or other forms of language discrimination, he has consulted with several fair housing agencies across the United States as well as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. He is the recipient of numerous research grants from the National Science Foundation, The Ford Foundation, and the United States Department of State.

H-Dirksen L. Bauman is Professor of Deaf Studies at Gallaudet University. He is the co-editor of the book/DVD project, Signing the Body Poetic: Essays in American Sign Language (University of California Press, 2006), editor of Open Your Eyes: Deaf Studies Talking (University of Minnesota Press, 2008) and co-editor of Deaf-Gain: Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity, (University of Minnesota Press, 2014). He is also co-author of Transformative Conversations: A Guide to Formation Mentoring Communities among Peers in Higher Education (Jossey-Bass, 2013). He currently serves as Co-Executive Editor of the Deaf Studies Digital Journal (

Robert Blackwood is Reader in French Sociolinguistics at the University of Liverpool, United Kingdom, and is an Associate Editor of the journal Linguistic Landscape. He is (p. xii) the author of The State, the Activists, and the Islanders: Language Policy on Corsica (2008) and co-author with Stefania Tufi of The Linguistic Landscape of the Mediterranean: French and Italian Coastal Cities (2015). In addition, he is co-editor of Negotiating and Contesting Identities in Linguistic Landscapes (2016), with Elizabeth Lanza and Hirut Woldemariam. He has published widely in English and French on questions surrounding the Linguistic Landscape, as well as language policy, with a specific focus on Corsica.

Jan Blommaert is Professor of Language, Culture and Globalization and Director of the Babylon Center at Tilburg University, The Netherlands, and Professor of African Linguistics and Sociolinguistics at Ghent University, Belgium. He holds honorary appointments at University of the Western Cape (South Africa) and Beijing Language and Culture University (China) and is group leader of the Max Planck Sociolinguistic Diversity Working Group. He has published widely on language ideologies and language inequality in the context of globalization. Publications include Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes: Chronicles of Complexity (Multilingual Matters 2013), The Sociolinguistics of Globalization (Cambridge University Press, 2010), Ethnographic Fieldwork: A Beginner’s Guide (Multilingual Matters 2010), Grassroots Literacy (Routledge, 2008), Discourse: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2005), and Language Ideological Debates (Mouton de Gruyter, 1999).

Christa Burdick is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Her research focuses on the intersections of language, place, and commodification in projects of tourism marketing and place branding in eastern France. More specifically, her current research on the production and implementation of place branding initiatives in Alsace, France, seeks to interrogate the ways in which such projects constitute important sites for the contemporary reconfiguration of nations, cultures, and languages along the lines of global market imperatives.

Peter Burger is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Journalism and New Media at Leiden University. He applies rhetorical perspectives to journalism, narrative folklore, and social media discourse. Before moving to academia, he worked as a science journalist. He has written a number of books on rumors and contemporary legends.

Anne H. Charity Hudley is The Class of 1952 Associate Professor of Education, English, Linguistics, Africana Studies, and Director of the William and Mary Scholars Program at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. Her research and publications address the relationship between English language variation and Pre-K–16 educational practices and policies in the United States. She is the co-author, with Christine Mallinson, of both Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools (Teachers College Press, 2011) and We Do Language: English Language Variation in the Secondary English Classroom (Teachers College Press, 2014). She is also the co-author, with Cheryl L. Dickter and Hannah Franz, of Highest Honors: A Guide to Undergraduate Research (Teachers College Press, 2017).

(p. xiii) Florian Coulmas has taught and done research for some twenty-five years at various Japanese universities and research institutes before moving in 2014 to the IN-EAST Institute, Faculty of Social Sciences, Duisburg-Essen University, where he is Senior Professor of Japanese Studies. His principal fields of research, with a focus on East Asia, are three: literacy and writing systems, language policy, and Japanese sociolinguistics. He is Associate Editor of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language. His most recent book is Guardians of Language: Twenty Voices through History (Oxford University Press, 2016). He is currently engaged in a project about the individual’s influence on language change.

Alfonso Del Percio is Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for Multilingualism in Society across the Life Span at the University of Oslo. He holds a PhD in “Organizational Studies and Cultural Theory” from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. His research deals with the intersection of language and political economy and focuses on the commodification of multilingualism under late capitalism, on language and migration, as well as on the links between language, labor, and social inequality. His recent publications include A Semiotics of Nation Branding (Special Issue of Signs and Society, 2016).

Alexandre Duchêne is Professor of Sociology of Language at the University of Fribourg and Co-director of the Swiss National Scientific Center for Multilingualism Studies. His research interests focus on language and social inequality; multilingualism, school and social selection; multilingualism and the workplace; human migration, globalization and multilingualism; language and political economy. His recent publications include Language in Late Capitalism: Pride and Profit, with Monica Heller (Routledge, 2012); Language Migration and Social Inequalities, with Melissa Moyer and Celia Roberts (Multilingual Matters, 2013); and Spéculations langagières, with Michelle Daveluy (Anthropologie and Sociétés, 2015). He is Co-Chair of the Committee on World Anthropologies of the American Anthropological Association.

Mel M. Engman (MA, University of Wisconsin) is a PhD candidate in Second Language Education at the University of Minnesota, where she teaches courses on applied linguistics and second language acquisition. She has published and presented work on intersections of identity and heritage language learning, language maintenance and reclamation, and critical approaches to language policy across a variety of schooling contexts. Her current research examines language use and cultural practices in English-dominant Indigenous schools; and she is involved in community-based projects that develop instructional materials for K–12 Ojibwe indigenous language education programs.

Nelson Flores is an Assistant Professor of Educational Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. His research seeks to denaturalize dominant language ideologies that inform current conceptualizations of language education. This entails both historical analysis of the origins of current language ideologies and contemporary analysis examining how current language education policies and practices reproduce these language ideologies. His primary objective is to illustrate (p. xiv) the ways that dominant language ideologies marginalize language-minoritized students and to develop alternative conceptualizations of language education that challenge their minoritization. His work has appeared in scholarly journals such as Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, Linguistics and Education, TESOL Quarterly, and Harvard Educational Review.

Mi-Cha Flubacher is a Postdoc University Assistant in Applied Linguistics at the Institute of Linguistics, University of Vienna, Austria. Before, she was a researcher at the Institute of Multilingualism, University/HEP Fribourg, Switzerland. In an ethnographic research project she investigated the role of language competences for the process of public employment services. She has extensive research experience on questions of multilingualism policies and practices, for example in the workplace. Her research interests further include language as a site of the reproduction of social inequality, neoliberal language education, and processes of exoticization through language.

Ofelia García is Professor in the PhD programs of Urban Education and of Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Literatures and Languages at The Graduate Center, City University of New York. She has been Professor at Columbia University’s Teachers College, Dean of the School of Education at the Brooklyn Campus of Long Island University, and Professor at The City College of New York. At the time of this writing, she is also Visiting Professor at the University of Cologne. García has published widely in the areas of sociology of language, bilingual education and language policy. She is the General Editor of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language and the co-editor of Language Policy (with H. Kelly-Holmes). Among her best-known books are Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective; and Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education (with Li Wei), which received the 2015 British Association of Applied Linguistics Award.

Jürgen Jaspers is Associate Professor of Dutch Linguistics in the Faculty of Literature, Translation and Communication at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium. His research interests include the sociolinguistic ethnographic analysis of urban education and language standardization processes. He is the co-editor of Society and Language Use (2010, John Benjamins, 2010) and of special issues in Journal of Pragmatics (2011) and Applied Linguistics Review (with Lian Malai Madsen, 2016). He has published recently in Pragmatics, Multilingua, Science Communication, Language in Society, Journal of Germanic Linguistics, Language Policy, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, as well as in various edited volumes.

Kendall A. King (PhD, University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of Second Language Education at the University of Minnesota, where she teaches and researches in the areas of sociolinguistics and language policy, with an emphasis on heritage language students. Recent publications appear in the Modern Language Journal, Applied Linguistics, and the Journal of Language, Identity and Education. She has written widely on indigenous language revitalization, bilingual child development, and the language policies that shape immigrant and transnational student experiences in the United States, Ecuador, and Sweden. Her current research, based in Minneapolis, examines the educational policy (p. xv) and practices that (under)serve adolescents with limited or interrupted formal schooling experiences.

Pia Lane is Associate Professor of Multilingualism at the Center for Multilingualism in Society Across the Lifespan (MultiLing) at the University of Oslo. Her research interest include language shift, language reclamation, narrative identity construction, language policy, and grammatical aspects of language contact. Currently, her main research focus is multilingualism, language policy, and discourse analysis (particularly nexus analysis). She is PI of the project Standardising Minority Languages, investigating sociopolitical aspects of the standardization of five European minority languages, with a particular focus on the role of users in these processes and how users accept, resist, and reject aspects of standardisation. She co-edits the series Linguistic Minorities in Europe.

Miki Makihara is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Queens College and The Graduate Center, at the City University of New York. Her work has focused on the use and conception of language and how these relate to social identity, intergroup relations, political and economic changes, and other aspects of social life. Her articles have appeared in journals such as American Anthropologist, Annual Review of Anthropology, Language in Society, Anthropological Theory, and Oceanic Linguistics, and she is co-editor of Consequences of Contact: Language Ideologies and Sociocultural Transformations in Pacific Societies (2007). She is currently working on the “Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Cultural Linguistic Heritage Project,” which explores memory, social change, and language through oral history narratives, creating community resources for the documentation and revitalization of the Rapa Nui language.

Busi Makoni teaches at Pennsylvania State University in the African Studies Program. Her research interests are in language and gender, language policy and planning, linguistic human rights, and feminist critical discourse analysis. Some of her most recent work has appeared in Gender and Language, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Discourse & Communication, Feminist Studies, and Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Discourses.

Sinfree B. Makoni is a pan-Africanist. He was educated in Ghana and Zimbabwe and received his PhD from Edinburgh University. He has taught at a number of different universities in southern Africa. He is currently affiliated with the Department of Applied Linguistics and program of African Studies at Penn State. His main research interests are in language policy and planning, and language, social class, economics, and social aging. He has published in a number of journals, including Current Issues in Language Planning, Language Policy, and Multilingual and Multicultural Development. His major work is Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages, co-edited with Alastair Pennycook and published by Multilingual Matters.

Luisa Martín Rojo is Professor of Linguistics at the Universidad Autónoma (Madrid, Spain), and Member of the International Pragmatic Association Consultation Board (2006–2011; re-elected for the period 2012–2017). Through her research trajectory, she has conducted research in the fields of discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and (p. xvi) communication, mainly focused on immigration and racism. Since 2000, she has focused on studying the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in Madrid schools, applying a sociolinguistic and ethnographic perspective and analyzing how inequality is constructed, naturalized, and legitimized through discourse (Constructing Inequality in Multilingual Classrooms, 2010). Currently she is exploring the interplay between urban spaces and linguistic practices in new global protest movements (Occupy: The spatial Dynamics of Discourse in Global Protest Movements, 2014). She is also a member of the editorial boards of the journals Discourse & Society, Journal of Language and Politics, Spanish in Context, Critical Discourse Studies, and Journal of Multicultural Discourses, and she chairs the Iberian Association of Discourse in Society (EDiSO).

Stephen May is Professor of Education in Te Puna Wananga (School of Māori Education) in the Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Auckland, New Zealand. He has written widely on language rights, language policy, and language education. To date, he has published fifteen books and over ninety academic articles and book chapters in these areas. His key books include Language and Minority Rights (2nd ed.; Routledge, 2012), the first edition of which received an American Library Association Choice’s Outstanding Academic Title award (2008). His latest book is a significant new edited collection, The Multilingual Turn (Routledge, 2014). He has previously edited, with Nancy Hornberger, Language Policy and Political Issues in Education, Volume 1 of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education (2nd ed.; Springer, 2008); and with Christine Sleeter, Critical Multiculturalism: Theory and Praxis (Routledge, 2010). He is General Editor of the third edition of the 10-volume Encyclopedia of Language and Education (Springer, 2017), and a Founding Editor of the interdisciplinary journal Ethnicities (Sage). His homepage is

Lynn Mario T. Menezes de Souza is Professor of Language Education at the University of São Paulo, with a BA (Hons) in Linguistics (Reading, UK), an MA in Language Education (São Paulo), and PhD in Semiotics and Communication Studies (São Paulo). He supervises graduate and post-doctoral research in literacy, language education, indigenous and inter-cultural education, educational policy, teacher education, and postcolonial theory, having also published widely in these areas. Co-author of the Brazilian National Curriculum (2006), he is currently co-coordinator of a nation-wide project on education, teacher education, and new media in state universities in Brazil. Among his publications are the books (with V. Andreotti) Learning to Read the World through Other Eyes (2008), Postcolonial Perspectives on Global Citizenship Education (2012) and chapters in Reclaiming the Local in Language Policy and Practice (2005), Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages (2007), the Blackwell Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (2012), and the Routledge Handbook of Literacy Studies (2015).

Tommaso M. Milani is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. His main areas of research encompass language politics and language ideologies, performativity theory, multimodal (p. xvii) critical discourse analysis, and language, gender and sexuality. He is Co-Editor of the journals African Studies (Taylor and Francis) and Gender and Language (Equinox); he is also Editor of the book series Advances in Sociolinguistics (Bloomsbury). His work has appeared in many international journals, including Gender & Language, Discourse & Society, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Journal of Language and Politics, Journal of Language and Sexuality, Journal of Sociolinguistics, Language in Society, and Linguistics and Education. He has edited Language Ideologies and Media Discourse (together with Sally Johnson) (Continuum), and Language and Masculinities: Performances, Intersections, Dislocations (Routledge).

Robert Moore is a Senior Lecturer in Educational Linguistics at the Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania. He has conducted ethnographic and linguistic fieldwork in Indian Reservation communities in the US Pacific Northwest, and has produced studies of language shift and language revitalization in the United States, Ireland, and Finland. Other studies have explored brands and branding as social semiosis, the popular culture of “accent” in contemporary Irish English, and social media as a source for sociolinguistic metacommentary.

Melissa G. Moyer is Professor in English Linguistics at the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona in Spain, where she leads the CIEN Research Team. Her current research is concerned with multilingualism and mobility in connection to multilingual linguistic practices and processes of social structuration. She has published the edited volume Language Migration and Social Inequality: A Critical Sociolinguistic Perspective on Institutions and Work (2013), in collaboration with Alexandre Duchêne and Celia Roberts. She also co-edited the Blackwell Guide to Research Methods in Bilingualism and Multilingualism (2008), together with Li Wei.

Joseph J. Murray is Associate Professor of American Sign Language and Deaf Studies at Gallaudet University. He is co-editor of Deaf Gain: Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity (University of Minnesota Press, 2014) and In Their Own Hands: Essays in Deaf History, 1780–1970 (Gallaudet University Press, 2016) and has published widely on transnational Deaf studies.

Finex Ndhlovu is Senior Lecturer in Applied Linguistics at the University of New England in Armidale, Australia, and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Archie Mafeje Research Institute for Social Policy, University of South Africa. He has also previously held teaching and research positions at Victoria University (Melbourne) and the University of Fort Hare (South Africa). Finex Ndhlovu has strong research interests in a wide range of areas in language and society studies that include language policy and politics, multilingualism and multilingual citizenship, language and migration, cross-border languages and trans-national identities, African Diaspora identities, language and nation building, postcolonial African identities, and language and discourses of everyday forms of exclusion in Australia and southern Africa. His most recent major publications are Becoming an African Diaspora in Australia: Language, Culture, Identity (2014), and Hegemony and Language Policies in Southern Africa: Identity, Integration, Development (2015).

(p. xviii) Alastair Pennycook is Professor of Language in Education at the University of Technology, Sydney. He has worked in language education in many parts of the world and is best known for his work on the global spread of English, critical applied linguistics, language and popular culture, and language as a local practice. Three of his books—The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language (Longman, 1994), Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows (Routledge, 2007), and Language and Mobility: Unexpected Places (Multilingual Matters, 2012)—have been awarded the BAAL Book Prize. His most recent book (with Emi Otsuji), Metrolingualism: Language in the City (Routledge, 2015), explores the dynamics of urban multilingualism.

Jonathan Rosa is Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Education and Center for Comparative Studies in Race and Ethnicity at Stanford University. His research combines sociocultural and linguistic anthropology to theorize the co-naturalization of language and race as a way of apprehending modes of societal exclusion and inclusion across institutional domains. Specifically, he analyzes the interplay between youth socialization, raciolinguistic formations, and structural inequality in urban contexts. Dr. Rosa is the author of Looking like a Language, Sounding like a Race: Inequality and Ingenuity in the Learning of Latinidad. His work has appeared in scholarly journals such as the Harvard Educational Review, American Ethnologist, American Anthropologist, and the Journal of Linguistic Anthropology.

Massimiliano Spotti is Assistant Professor at the Department of Culture Studies, Faculty of Humanities at Tilburg University in The Netherlands. He is also Deputy Director of the Babylon Center for the Study of Superdiversity at the same institution. He has covered the post of ordinary member of the Linguistic Ethnographic Forum (LEF) 2008–2010 and has held a fellowship from the Max Planck Society, spent at the Max Planck Institute for Religious and Ethnic Diversity in Gottingen, Germany. He is currently engaged in the field of the sociolinguistics of superdiversity with a specific focus on asylum seeking, identity construction through discourse practices, and the web 2.0. Publications include the co-editorship of two special issues on Language and Superdiversity released by the UNESCO/Max Planck journal Diversities (2011, 2012) as well as the authorship of Developing Identities (Aksant, 2007) and co-editorship of Language Testing, Migration and Citizenship: Cross-National Perspectives on Integration Regimes (Continuum, 2009), as well as Language and Superdiversity (Routledge, 2016).

Guadalupe Valdés is the Bonnie Katz Tenenbaum Professor of Education at Stanford University. Much of her work has focused on the English-Spanish bilingualism of Latinos in the United States and on discovering and describing how two languages are developed, used, and maintained by individuals who become bilingual in immigrant communities. Her books include Bilingualism and Testing: A Special Case of Bias (Valdés and Figueroa; Ablex, 1994), Con respeto: Bridging the Distance between Culturally Diverse Families and Schools (Teachers College Press, 1996), Learning and Not Learning (p. xix) English (Teachers College Press, 2001), Expanding Definitions of Giftedness: Young Interpreters of Immigrant Background (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), Developing Minority Language Resources: The Case of Spanish in California (Valdés, Fishman, Chavez and Perez; Multilingual Matters, 2006) and Latino Children Learning English: Steps in the Journey (Valdés, Capitelli, and Alvarez; Teachers College Press, 2010). Valdés is a member of the American Academy of Education, a Fellow of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), and a member of the board of trustees of the Center for Applied Linguistics. She serves on the editorial boards of a number of journals including Modern Language Journal, Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, and Research on the Teaching of English.

Mieke Vandenbroucke is an FWO PhD candidate (Research Foundation Flanders) and a member of the LANG+ research group in the Linguistics Department (Language in Society and Multilingualism) at Ghent University, Belgium. Her research interests lie at the intersection of sociolinguistics and urban geography, with a particular focus on globalization-affected multilingualism in Europe, language policy and nationalist ideologies, inner-city gentrification, and socioeconomic stratification. She has conducted fieldwork in Amsterdam, Brussels, rural Flanders, and Kosovo.

Tom Van Hout is Assistant Professor of Professional Communication and Academic Director of the Institute for Professional and Academic Communication at the University of Antwerp. He is also affiliated with the Department of Journalism and New Media at Leiden University and is a steering committee member of the COST Action “New Speakers in a Multilingual Europe: Opportunities and Challenges.” He specializes in qualitative approaches to public discourse, media(tization), journalism, and workplace communication. Recent publications include book chapters on the linguistic ethnography of news (Palgrave, 2015), writing news from sources (Routledge, 2016), and journalistic role performance (Routledge, 2016). His other media linguistic work has been published in the Journal of Pragmatics, Text & Talk, and Pragmatics.

Tom van Nuenen is a PhD candidate at the Department of Culture Studies at Tilburg University, where he is carrying out research into travel writing in online ecologies. He is interested in Digital Humanities methods of distant reading in order to study forms of online interaction. His articles have appeared in Tourist Studies, Games and Cultures and The Journal of Popular Culture. Tom has held a Visiting Research Fellowship at the University of Western Sydney, Australia.

Luk Van Mensel is a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow at the University of Namur, Belgium, and a visiting lecturer at the University of Leuven, Belgium. He has published on a variety of subjects in SLA and sociolinguistics, including the economic aspects of multilingualism, multilingualism in the family, linguistic landscapes, and language education policy, frequently with a focus on Brussels. He is also co-editor of Minority Languages in the Linguistic Landscape (2012), along with Durk Gorter and Heiko F. Marten.

(p. xx) Piia Varis is Assistant Professor at the Department of Culture Studies and Deputy Director of Babylon, Centre for the Study of Superdiversity at Tilburg University, The Netherlands. She received her PhD (2009, English) from the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Her research interests include digital culture (in particular social media, questions related to digitalization, privacy and public/private dynamics), popular culture, and globalization.