- The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society
- List of Contributors
- Introduction—Language and Society: A Critical Poststructuralist Perspective
- Language and Society: Historical Overview and the Emergence of a Field of Study
- Language, Imperialism, and the Modern Nation-State System: Implications for Language Rights
- Language and Political Economy
- Language and Power
- Language Ideologies
- Language Policy and Local Practices
- Language, Migration, Diaspora: Challenging the Big Battalions of Groupism
- Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Globalization, and Superdiversity: Toward Sociolinguistic Repertoires
- Diglossia and Beyond
- Language Shift and Sustainability: Critical Discourses and Beyond
- Discourses of Endangerment from Mother Tongues to Machine Readability
- Sign Languages
- Multiliteracies and Transcultural Education
- Urban Languages in African Contexts: Toward a Multimodal Approach to Urban Languages
- Indigenous Peoples and Their Languages
- Entry Visa Denied: The Construction of Symbolic Language Borders in Educational Settings
- Linguistic Profiling and Discrimination
- From Elderspeak to Gerontolinguistics: Sociolinguistic Myths
- Language and Racialization
- Language and Sexuality
- Linguistic Landscapes
- The Internet, Language, and Virtual Interactions
- Mediatization and the Language of Journalism
- Bilingual Education
- Conclusion: Moving the Study of Language and Society into the Future
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews research on language shift and efforts to sustain and cultivate linguistic diversity, highlighting historical trends and current debates, and in doing so, makes three broad arguments. First, the academic treatment of societal-level language shift reflects the major theoretical, epistemological, and paradigmatic shifts of the last five decades. A review of “historical perspectives” on language shift shows how the guiding questions and methodologies of the field have shifted significantly over time. Second, a review and analysis of work to date illustrates how these trends are equally apparent across language contact contexts and populations. These contexts and populations have much in common—with research in each area addressing issues of (a) purism and standardization; (b) authenticity and essentialism; and (c) heteroglossia and personal identity. And third, while many central, pressing questions remain unanswered, there are new signs of progress.
Mel M. Engman (MA, University of Wisconsin) is a PhD candidate in Second Language Education at the University of Minnesota, where she teaches courses on applied linguistics and second language acquisition. She has published and presented work on intersections of identity and heritage language learning, language maintenance and reclamation, and critical approaches to language policy across a variety of schooling contexts. Her current research examines language use and cultural practices in English-dominant Indigenous schools; and she is involved in community-based projects that develop instructional materials for K–12 Ojibwe indigenous language education programs.
Kendall A. King (PhD, University of Pennsylvania) is Professor of Second Language Education at the University of Minnesota, where she teaches and researches in the areas of sociolinguistics and language policy, with an emphasis on heritage language students. Recent publications appear in the Modern Language Journal, Applied Linguistics, and the Journal of Language, Identity and Education. She has written widely on indigenous language revitalization, bilingual child development, and the language policies that shape immigrant and transnational student experiences in the United States, Ecuador, and Sweden. Her current research, based in Minneapolis, examines the educational policy and practices that (under)serve adolescents with limited or interrupted formal schooling experiences.
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