- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Women’s Social Movement Activism
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: The Long History of Women’s Social Movement Activism in the United States
- Layers of Activism: Women’s Movements and Women in Movements Approaching the Twentieth Century
- The Swells between the “Waves”: American Women’s Activism, 1920–1965
- The Equal Rights Amendment Campaign and Its Opponents
- The Turn toward Socialist, Radical, and Lesbian Feminisms
- Contemporary Feminism and Beyond
- Intersectionality: Origins, Travels, Questions, and Contributions
- Mobilizing the Faithful: Conservative and Right-Wing Women’s Movements in America
- The Historical Roots of a Global Feminist Perspective and the Growing Global Focus among U.S. Feminists
- Workplace Discrimination, Equal Pay, and Sexual Harassment: An Intersectional Approach
- Battles over Abortion and Reproductive Rights: Movement Mobilization and Strategy
- Maternalist and Community Politics
- Women’s Health Social Movements
- U.S. Women’s Movements to End Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse, and Rape
- Welfare, Poverty, and Low-Wage Employment
- Anti-Feminist, Pro-Life, and Anti-ERA Women
- The Dynamics and Causes of Gender and Feminist Consciousness and Feminist Identities
- Movement Emergence and Resource Mobilization: Organizations, Leaders, and Coalition Work
- Identity Politics, Consciousness-Raising, and Visibility Politics
- Protest Events and Direct Action
- Language and Its Everyday Revolutionary Potential: Feminist Linguistic Activism in the United States
- Sexuality, Gender Identity, Fluidity, and Embodiment
- From Ink to Web and Beyond: U.S. Women’s Activism Using Traditional and New Social Media
- Inside the State: Activism within Legislative and Governmental Agency Forums
- Women as a Force in Electoral Politics
- U.S. Women’s Legal Activism in the Judicial Arena
- Female Empowerment and the Chain of Command: Women in the U.S. Military
- Push, Pull, and Fusion: Women’s Activism and Religious Institutions
- Women’s Activism and Educational Institutions
- Women, Sports, and Activism
- Women’s Activism in the Modern Movement for Black Liberation
- Latinas in U.S. Social Movements
- Women in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Movement
- American Women’s Environmental Activism: Motivations, Experiences, and Transformations
- Gendered Activism and Outcomes: Women in the Peace Movement
- Women’s Activism in U.S. Labor Unions
- Women in the White Supremacist Movement
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores the history of maternalist mobilization and women’s community politics in the United States. It argues that both “maternalism” and “community” have proved to be highly flexible mobilizing frames for women. Building on the insights of intersectionality theory, the authors suggest that women’s maternal and community politics is shaped by their social locations within multiple, intersecting relations of domination and subordination, as well as their political ideologies and historical context. The chapter begins by discussing the politically contradictory history of maternalist mobilization within the United States from the Progressive era to the present. It then explores other forms of women’s community politics, focusing on women’s community volunteerism, self-help groups, and community organizing. It discusses how these frames have been used both to build alliances among women and to divide or exclude women based on perceived differences and social inequalities based on race, nativity, class, or sexual orientation.
Ellen Reese is Professor of Sociology and Chair of Labor Studies at the University of California, Riverside. She is author of Backlash Against Welfare Mothers: Past and Present. Her research specializations include: gender, race, and class inequalities, political sociology, welfare state development, and social movements.
Ian Breckenridge-Jackson is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Riverside, specializing in gender, race, and class inequalities and social movements. His work appears in Politics, Groups, and Identities and Policy Matters. He is also a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow.
Julisa McCoy is a graduate student in Sociology at the University of California, Riverside with research interests in reproductive justice and family planning funding.
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