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date: 22 June 2021

Index

Index

(p. 729) Note: Figures and boxes are indicated by an italic “f” and “b”, respectively, following the page number.

aboriginal children 209, 582
abortion 89
access
to CRC Committee complaints procedure 459–60
to health care services 367–68
accessibility and outreach, in IHRICs 506–7
access to justice
due process and 683–84
of indigenous children 580
for migrant children 683–84
for trafficked children 648–49
Accountability/Professional Development Model, for HRE 706
action popularis 460
Activism/Transformation Model, for HRE 706
Additional Protocols, of Geneva Conventions 664, 667
adequate standard of living, right to 410–12, 452, 457
adolescence
brain development in 496
childhood and 24–25
CRC Committee General Comment on 616
CRC Committee on 266
adolescents
as caregivers, in child-headed households 623
child participation and 263–72
developmental neurobiology of 670
independent 619
rights of 410
adoption. See also international adoption
best interests of children and 331
families and 331, 335
illicit 643–44
adoption service provider (ASP) 333–34
adoptive parents 338
adults 288
children charged as 150
cruelty to children 22–23
trafficking of 635–36, 646
affirmative action 145, 523
Africa
Berlin Conference and 434–35
childhood concepts in, traditional 56–57
child marriage in 189
CRC and 43, 71–72, 438–40
human rights system of 461, 464
postindependence 112
reciprocity in 434
sub-Saharan 189, 428–29, 432, 434–40
violence against children in 318–19
African American youth 151
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 461, 464
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1999) (ACRWC) 43, 131, 206
on children respecting parents 438–39
on children’s protection from violence 313
on children’s rights to family 240
climate change protections and 451
on health care 371–72
Mauritania ratifying 525
(p. 730) on refugees 228
on right to healthy environment 453
African Commission on Human and People’s Rights 461
African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACERWC)
on child marriage 211, 319, 626
complaints before 461, 468
CRC Committee and 525
on Mauritania 525
African Court of Human and People’s Rights 461, 464
African Movement of Working Children and Youth 361
African Union (AU) 319, 438
against child marriage 626
on refugees 682
age-based discrimination 352–53
agency,
of children, promoting 321–22
evolving capacities and 628–29
rights, of children 53–54
subjectivity and 480–81, 489
age of criminal responsibility 667
age of discretion 84
Ahmed, Sara 485
air pollution 452
Akan peoples 433
Al-Akhdam 518
Albania 637
Alber, Erdmute 436
albinism 318–19
Alderson, Priscilla 58
Ali, Sardar 74
Allman, Jean 436
Almog, Shulamit 129
Alston, Philip 57, 380
Alternative Report by Children from India to CRC Committee 520
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) 228–29, 241, 282, 464
CRC and 284–85
on discrimination 558
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 227–30, 558
American Indian children 151
American War of Independence 429–30
Anand, Mulk Raj 521
anger management 486–87
anthropology 109
anti-discrimination provisions, of human rights treaties 147–48
anti-poverty work
child rights 406–9
by states, CRC on 413–14
Anti-Slavery International 524–25
apartheid, South Africa 147–48
Arab League’s Charter on Human Rights 241
Aranguren, Martin 519
Arctic Athabaskan Council 464
Arendt, Hannah 52
Argenti, Nicolas 112
Argentina 109
Ariès, Philippe 11–12
armed conflict. See children in armed conflict
Arneil, Barbara 55–56
assimilationism 142, 144
assistance rights 645–49
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 315
Atala, Karen 558
Atala Rifo v. Chile (2017) 558
AUC 660
Australia 580, 582
Australian National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families 208–9
authoritarianism 498
Autism Europe v. France (2003) 603
autonomy 54, 58–60, 123
children’s rights and 721–22
culture, rights and 105–6
individualism and 430–31
Badis 522–23
Bah, Chernor 41
Balagopalan, Sarada 528
Bangladesh 107
Ban Ki Moon 557
(p. 731) beggar master 637
Beidan 524
Beijing Rules 280–81, 284, 295
Belgium 465
Bell, Derrick 142
Benin 436, 644–45
Bennett, Lynn 517, 522, 533n18, 535n55
Bentham, Jeremy 53
Bentley, Kristina 430–31
Berlin Conference of 1884–1886 434–35
best interests of children 84, 683
in adoption 331
application of principle 208–10
areas of protection 209
defining 210–12
ECHR on 210
European Court on 210–16
health care and 266–67
impact of principle 210–16
insights on 216–17
international adoption and 330, 336
as mainstreaming principle in children’s rights 205
migrant children 685–87
migration and 211, 215–16
noncustodial parents and 213–14
OPSC on 207
parents in 211, 239
state obligations to 212–16
as substantive rights 216
UNHCR on 209
weight given to 214–16
well-being and 407
Bhabha, Jacqueline 675–76, 688–89
Biggeri, Mario 123–24
Bindel, Julie 51–52
Bishwakarma, Bhakta 521
Blake, William 12–13, 17–18
Bloom, Allan 16
boarding schools 436
Boko Haram 661
Bolivia 42, 109, 357–58
Bolotta, Guiseppe 631n15
Border Patrol, US 249
border wall 531
brain development 291, 309, 496
Brazier, Margaret 54–55
Brazil 112, 602–3
Brennan, Samantha 54
Brexit 250, 711
Bridge, Caroline 54–55
Brighouse, Harry 53
British colonialism 435
Brofenbrenner, Urie 119–21, 133
Brown, Wendy 166
Buck, Trevor 577, 584, 592n129
budgets and resources, in addressing poverty 412–14
Buduburam Refugee Camp 686
bullying
cyberbullying 310, 317, 320
LGBT youth 550
the Burakumin 518
Burr, Rachel 431
Cambodia 650, 660
Canada 209, 464, 507
CERD Committee on 582
indigenous children in 580, 582
indigenous people in 574
Stewart v. Canada 229
Canadian Armed Forces, on child soldier engagement 666
cannabis farms 648
capabilities approach 123, 407
capacities, evolving 78–79, 91, 617–18, 628–29
car accidents 596
Carbado, Devon 142
cash 435
caste
non-discrimination principle and 515–16
service 522
caste discrimination
CRC Committee Concluding Observations on 520, 522–23, 529–31
CRC Committee on 517–18, 520, 527–31
descent-based discrimination and 517–26
against implementation of rights 526
in India 519–21, 526, 528
Izsák-Ndiaye on 516–18
in Mauritania 523–26
in Nepal 521–23, 527–28
(p. 732) religion and 527–28
researchers including 529
in vulnerability of children 526
caste system 526, 531
CRC Committee Concluding Observations on 520, 522
in South Asia 517
CEDAW Committee
General Recommendations of 86–89, 91, 555–56
Joint General Comment on Harmful Traditional Practices 626
Centuries of Childhood (Ariès) 11–12
Century of the Child 25–27
Charter of Human Rights, Arab League 241
Cheney, Kristen 624
Cheria, Anita 528
child abuse 22–23, 49. See also violence against children
by adoptive parents 338
CRC on 76
online 309, 320–21
Child and Adolescent Code, Bolivia 357
child care 85–86
child-care institutions 22
child development 15–17, 119–20, 410–11
child employment 19–21
child-friendly justice 289–91, 302n124
child-headed households
adolescents as caregivers in 623
CRC Committee, General Comments on 623–24
HIV/AIDS and 622–23
independent children in 622–25
research on 623–24
rights-based approach to 624
in South Africa 623
childhood
adolescence and 24–25
Ariès on 11–12
child development and 15–17
CRC on 616–17
defining 617–18
early, development 171–72, 242–43
early, equality in 172
early, violence in 309–10
English Romantics on 12–13
innocence of 17–18
Locke on 14–17
non-Western constructs of 74
right to 15–16
right to freedom from violence in 23
Romantic poets glorifying 17–19, 27–28
Rousseau on 12–13, 15–17
as social construct 73–74
stages 16, 19
traditional African concepts of 56–57
Victorian 22
Western model of 28n3, 73–74
work and 355
child labor 18, 33–34, 36, 42, 44, 113
in Bangladesh 107
CRC on 78, 80
in India 80, 105
laws, paternalism and 103–4
laws, socioecological model on 132
laws, US 21, 37
migrant children and 687
minimum work age and 352
NCLC 21
Royal Commission reports on 19–20
working children and 356–57
child marriage 42–43, 80–81
ACERWC on 211, 319, 626
AU on 626
CEDAW on 182, 184, 186
child trafficking and 637
CRC and 186–88
CRC Committee on 626–28
cultural norms and practices and 191–93
dowry and 193, 195
education and 192
girls in 183–85, 195
Girls Not Brides against 39–40, 191
in India 189
in Indonesia 634n75
(p. 733) international and state laws against 186–91
international treaties against 182–84
intersectionality and 182–84, 192–96
Islam and 185
married children 625–28
menstruation and 193
national laws on 626
parents and 182–83, 193
poverty and 627
refugees in 185–86, 194
in religious traditions 185, 190
right to be free from forced 182–86
school distance and 192–93
SDGs on 188
socioeconomic status in 184
in sub-Saharan Africa 189
Tutu on 191–92
UNICEF on 183, 634n75
in US 190–91
violence and 626
in Yemen 184–85
in Zambia 191–92
in Zimbabwe 193
Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929 (CMRA) 189
child migrants. See migrant children
child participation 722
adolescents and 263–72
adults on 492
Article 12 and 480, 504
in community and society, CRC Committee on 270–72
CRC on 58, 122, 257–59, 272
CRC on family and 263–64
in England 479
in fair trials 289–91
IHRICs and 504–6
in resource allocation for schools 395
as right 258–63
in rights-respecting pedagogy 390–91
RRSI and 481–82
in school 264–65
against violence 322
child participation, CRC Committee on
Concluding Observations 257–59
Day of General Discussion 2006 259–61
education and 264–65
General Comment No. 12 on Article 12 261–63
General Comments on 499
health care and 266–67
legal proceedings and 267–70
child pawning 433, 435
child poverty
anti-poverty work, child rights and 406–9
assistance 408
child rights approach to 406–16
CRC, child rights and 409–14
CRC Committee on 406, 408–14
CRC on 406, 408
in crisis contexts 412
disability and 411–12
economic and social rights and 409
non-state actors and 408
participation rights and 409
SDGs and 414–16
social justice and 406–7
UNICEF on 405–6
child protection approach 81
children. See also best interests of children; independent children; indigenous children; migrant children; trafficked children; violence against children; working children
aboriginal 209
African American 151
agency and voice of x
agency of, promoting 321–22
agency rights of 53–54
American Indian 151
autonomy of 54, 58–60
being “seen” and “heard” 486–87
Brofenbrenner on worlds of 119
capacities of, evolving 78–79, 91, 617–18, 628–29
caste discrimination against 526, 528
caste- or descent-based discrimination against 518–19
charged as adults 150
citizenship, migration and 225–32
citizenship of 223–24, 230–31
claims before national courts by 465
commercial sexual exploitation of 636–37, 650
(p. 734) CRC Committee complaints procedure and 459–60
in criminal justice system 150–51
criminal responsibility of 52, 667
cruelty to 22–23
Dalit 519, 522, 528–30
death penalty as unconstitutional for 279–80
as decision-makers 54–55
as dependent persons, ICESCR on 350–51
deportation of parents 230–31
deprived of liberty 289, 311
dignity of 54, 287–88
as domestic workers 644–45
economic and labor rights of 352–57
economic exploitation of 353–54, 358–60
under eighteen 663–64, 670, 677
in extreme poverty 315, 405
factory 19–22
family unity, migration and 228–31
First Nations 209
foster 644
free from work 355
health care decision-making by 370–71
health rights of 367–68
human rights of 52, 73–74, 101–2, 110, 224
human rights of, climate change and 449–54, 464, 469
ICTs and 320
identities of, intersectionality and 181–84, 196
incarceration of 667
justice system for 284–88
legal rights of 168
legal standing 460–61, 465
in LGBT families 559–60
LGBTQ 7, 126
liberty interests of 681–82
married 625–28
maturity of 58–59
medical treatment 54, 60
as migrants (See migrant children)
minimum age for work 352–53
mobilization by 40–42
moral rectitude of 489
moral regulation and 487–88
nature and 15–16, 19
needs, children’s rights and 122–24
needs-rights of 122–26
as objects, of protection 13
online abuse of 309, 320–21
parental rights and 51
parents, family and 82–84
participation rights of 74, 81, 101–2
protection from exploitation and hazardous work 353–54, 358–60
protection from violence 312–22
psychology on 24–25
race of 151
reasoning with 15
under Refugee Convention 226–27
refugees 676, 682, 684–86
in regional human rights courts 460–61
relationships with teachers in schools 393
right to seek asylum 682
Rohingya 675
in Rwandan genocide 661
of same-sex couples 547–48
sentencing 294
stateless 679
statelessness 224–25
stigmatization, in juvenile justice system 293
as subjects 12–13
as subjects and objects x, 12
very young, education for 391–92, 395
violence against 39, 80, 292, 308
voices of x, 477, 481, 483, 485, 506, 509, 722
voting rights 496
welfare rights of 53
well-being of 407, 428–29
women and 159, 164
Children Act of 2004 479
Children and Adolescents Code of Peru 357
Children and Young People’s Commissioner, in Scotland 505
children in armed conflict 7–8, 186–87, 195–96. See also child soldiers
Geneva Conventions on 663–64
Paris Principles on 658, 668
SCSL trials on 664–65
UN Security Council on 657–58
in US Civil War 657
children in street situations 21–22, 282, 619–22, 631n24
child rights approach to 620–22
CRC Committee General Comment on 620–22
CRC Committee on 419n30
criminalization of 621
defining 619–20
donor agencies and 619
independent children and 619–22
international law on 620
NGOs on 619, 622
states, in securing basic services for 620–21
UN Human Rights Council on 620
Children’s Act 38 of 2005 623
Children’s Crusade 40
children’s HRE
challenge for 710–12
CRC Committee and 702, 704, 706–7, 712
CRC on 699–702, 711
in early school years 701–2
movement for 703–5
need for 700–702
pedagogical models of 706–10
RRR for 389, 705, 707–10
in school 129, 701–11
teachers and 709, 711–12
transformational 706–7
in UK 711
children’s rights. See specific topics
children’s rights activists 103
children’s rights agencies 108, 113
Children’s Rights Alliance for England (CRAE) 514
Children’s Rights Impact Assessment (CRIA) 506
Children’s Rights International Network 396
children’s rights laws 1–3. See also international children’s rights law; specific laws
ecosystems and 127–31
enforcement of 119
implementation, across ecosystems 129–31
socioecological model on 119, 121, 127–29, 132
children’s rights movement
advocacy to establish standards 33–37
for children’s HRE 703–5
controversies and criticisms of 42–43
ECPAT in 38
Global Campaign for Education in 38–39
ILO and 36–37
mobilization by children in 40–42
national-level organizing in 40
NGOs in 35–36, 39, 42–43
in practice 167
progress in 44
on right to work 361
thematic campaigns 38–40
welfare in 50
children’s rights standards, advocacy to establish 33–37
children’s rights to family 237
African Charter on 240
challenges to 249–51
custody rights and 242
early childhood development and 242–43
ECHR on 241, 245
European Court on 245–48
human rights charters articulating 238–42
perspectives and critiques 242–44
progress and obstacles in assuring 245–49
Children’s Welfare Foundation of Sweden 505
children with disabilities 7, 206, 608
car accidents and 596
CBR programs and 606–7
children’s rights legal framework for 597–601
communities of, education and 601–2, 604–5
community living for 605–7
CRC complaints procedure and 599
CRPD on rights of 600–603
deinstitutionalization of 605–7
discrimination against 597
education 599, 601–5
equality for 599
in humanitarian crises 596
(p. 736) inclusive education for 601–5
in India 603
institutionalization of 597, 605–7
population of 596–97
poverty and 411–12
poverty and malnutrition and 596
rights of 595–96
Save the Children and 600
sexual abuse of 597
victimization of 597
Child Rights Connect 36–37, 41
Child Rights International Network (CRIN) 40, 43, 460
child soldiering 658, 671–72
CRC Optional Protocol on 662–63
as global phenomenon 660
legal responsibility for 662–66
practices of 659–62
child soldiers 7–8, 105, 107–8
Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers 37
in Colombia 660
CRC on 194, 662
crimes by 667
in DRC 659, 661, 664–65
engagement of, in combat 666
enlistment of 664–65
international awareness of 657
international law on 657–58
in Iraq 660
in ISIS 660–61
in LRA 658, 661–62
in LTTE 658, 660
penal responsibility of 667–69
recruitment of 666
reintegration and homecoming of 669–71
reparations for 665–66
in Sierra Leone 661–62
transitional justice for 669–70
UNICEF on 658
violent crimes by 667
volunteering 671
Child Soldiers International 37
Child Soldiers Protection Act of 2008 666
Child Study Association 25
child survival rates 379
child trafficking
in Benin 645
child marriage and 637
child migration and 679
commercial sexual exploitation of children 636–37, 650
domestic workers and 644–45
European Court of Human Rights on 648–49
of foster children 644
illicit adoption as 643–44
independent child migration and 644
law enforcement and 638
NGOs on 650–51
preventing 649–50
slavery and 636b, 637–38, 648–49, 651
state interpretations of 644–45
in UAE 649
UN Trafficking Protocol 635–36, 636b, 638–44, 647
child welfare 73–74
China 342
Christianity 437
Christians 51
Christie, Chris 190
chronosystem 119–21, 125, 125f, 128
citizenship
families and 223
of indigenous children 577
migration and 223–32
as right of children 223–24, 230–31
civic engagement 506
civil and political rights 308, 351, 455
civil liberties 76, 84
Civil War, US 657
Clarhäll, Eva 527
Clifford, Bob 519
climate change 6. See also Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 2015
ACRWC protections and 451
cases, before regional human rights courts 460–64
causality 462–63
children’s rights and 449–51, 726
children suing governments over 41
CRC, human rights and 450–52, 455–59
(p. 737) ECHR and 462
families affected by 458
GHG emissions in 456, 462–64, 468
Global North in 468
health effects of 456
health rights and 456–57
healthy or adequate environment, as right 452–53
human rights, Paris Agreement and 454
human rights law, children’s rights and 451–59
human rights of children and 449–54, 464, 469
IACHR 463–64
legal obstacles 460–64
national courts and 465
Paris Agreement on human rights and 454
participation rights and 449–52
regional human rights courts and 460–64, 467–68
school strikes and protests against 449
state challenges 466
states’ policies on 455
Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers 37
Cobbah, Josiah 433
Cohen, Cynthia Price 35, 513–14
Cohn, Haim 515–16
Cold War x, 35
Coles, Robert 528
collective rights
CRC Committee on 583–84
of indigenous children 583–84
of indigenous peoples 573–74, 577–78, 583
individual rights and 468, 578
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on 573–74, 577, 583
collectivism, individuality versus 429–34
Colombia 507, 660
colonialism 71, 143, 148
British 435
families and 437
indigenous people and 435, 571, 576
international adoption and 330, 340–41
marriage and 435–36
missionaries in 436–37, 441
postcolonialism 112, 340–42
in sub-Saharan Africa 428–29, 434–38
colonial states, indigenous children in 571
colorblindness, structural racism and 142
coming-out age, of LGBT youth 545
commercial sexual exploitation of children 636–37, 650
Commission on the Status of Women 160
Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe 283
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN 369–70, 406, 409–10
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD Committee) 151–52, 530
on Australia and Canada 582
ICERD and 145–48, 573, 578
on indigenous children 581–82
on indigenous peoples 578
Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW) 530, 681, 683–84
Committee on the Rights of the Child, UN 6–7, 36–37, 76–78, 149–50, 172
common law family courts 206
communalism 432–33, 439, 441–42
communitarians 50
communities 440–42
child participation in 270–72
in communalistic societies 432–33
education, children with disabilities and 601–2, 604–5
individuals and xi
community-based rehabilitation (CBR) 606–7
community living, for children with disabilities 605–7
complaints
before ACERWC 461, 468
IHRICs and 502–4
procedure, CRC 459–60, 514, 599
of violence against children 503
(p. 738) complex identities 168–69
consciousness-raising 166
consent, medical 267
Conservative–Liberal Democrat government, UK 479
Constitution of the World Health Organization of 1946 369
contact rights, of parents 213
contexts, rights and xi–xii
Convention against Torture 682–83
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, UN 635–36
Convention No. 169, ILO 573, 577–78
Convention No. 182, ILO 358, 663
Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, COE 646
Convention on Consent to Marriage 182, 186
Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 75–76, 91, 160, 530
on child marriage 182, 184, 186
Committee, General Recommendations of 86–89, 91, 555–56
CRC and 86–89, 189
on gender violence 188
LGBT youth and 555–56
on sexual orientation and gender identity 555–56
Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (2010) 131
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) 206–7, 394, 600–1
CBR programs and 606
CRC and 600–601
on disability rights 600–601
on education of children with disabilities 601–5
European Court of Human Rights cases after 603
implementation of 607
on inclusive education 602–5
on institutionalization and community living 605–6
non-discrimination clause 604
Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN (CRC) ix, 1, 51, 66n95, 323. See also CRC Committee; CRC Committee, Concluding Observations; CRC Committee, General Comments
ACHR and 284–85
ACRWC and 189–90, 207, 240, 243, 313, 438–39, 464, 525
on adequate standard of living rights 410–12, 452, 457
adoption of 35–36, 101, 258–59, 495, 700, 719–20
African Movement of Working Children and Youth and 361
African nations and 43, 71–72
on anti-poverty efforts by states 413–14
Article 2 86–87, 515–16
Article 6 373–74
Article 23 598–99
Article 24 373–75
Article 27 412–14
awareness of 507
on best interests of children 27, 57–58, 77–78, 206–9, 213, 455, 646, 659
CEDAW and 86–89, 189
on child abuse 76
on childhood 616–17
on child labor 78, 80
child marriage and 186–88
on child participation 58, 122, 257–59, 272
on child participation, family and 263–64
on child poverty 406, 408
on child poverty, child rights and 409–14
on children in criminal justice system 150
on children respecting parents 438–39
on children’s HRE 699–702, 711
on children’s protection from violence 312–13
on children’s rights to family 238–40, 243–44, 252
on children’s right to freedom from violence 307–8
children with disabilities and 598–99
on child soldiers 194, 662
climate change, human rights of children and 450–52, 455–59
CMW and 683–84
(p. 739) complaints procedure of 459–60, 514, 599
cross cutting provision in 617
CRPD and 600–601
CRT on 149, 153
on cultural identity 147
Day of General Discussion 2006 259–61
on detention of children 667
disappointments of 55
drafts of 125–26
economic and labor rights in 355–56
on economic and social rights 412
on education rights 387–88, 393, 396–97, 457, 599, 701
on families, children in 616
on family unity and migration 229
gender and 186–87
general principles of 101, 370, 375, 451, 455, 497
girls and 186–87
Global North in drafting 71
guiding principles, climate change and 455
Hague Convention on international adoption and 333–35
on health care rights 368–70, 376
on health rights 367–72, 380–81, 452, 456–57
on human rights 82, 90, 349
ICCPR and 281–82
ICESCR and 372
implementation, in Accra 429
implementation of 2, 6–7, 79, 131, 245
implementation of, HRE and 700–702
implementation of, IHRIC and 499
independent children and 616
indigenous children and 578–79
the individual in 431–32
on individual rights, indigenous rights and 578
against inequality 531–32
on international adoption 332–33
International Bill of Rights and 72
international human rights and 73–74
juvenile justice and 81–82, 279–88
Kohm on 513
Korczak and 25–26
on LGBT youth 554–55
on maturity of children 58–59
migrant children and 676–81
migration and 227
on minimum age for work 353
national approaches to 79–80
negotiations on 35
Nepal ratifying 521
NGOs and 35–37
on non-discrimination 146
non-discrimination principle in 56
non-discrimination provision 516, 677
on parents 239–40, 243
on participation rights 58, 122, 272, 352, 449, 452, 458–59
poverty in 409–10
progress of 719–20
on protection from exploitation and hazardous work 353–54, 358
on protection rights 452, 457–58
Protocol on a Communications Procedure 459, 514
ratification of 167, 186, 245, 408–9, 497, 521, 690n8
Refugee Convention and 226
on refugees 194
on right to fair trial 288–89
RRSI and 484
Sale of Children Protocol 649, 653n27
SDGs and 378, 380–81
on sentencing 294
on states parties 127, 223, 227, 239, 279, 285–86, 353, 438–39, 682–83
on survival and development rights 451–52
2030 Agenda and 414–15
UDHR and 513–14
UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child and 516
universal normative standards of 72–73
US on parents’ rights and 170, 244
US refusing to ratify 170, 244, 690n8, 700, 711
on voices of students 477
Western model of childhood and 73
Western political values in 125–26
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 226–27
conversion therapy 546
(p. 740) Cook-Sather, Alison 390
Cornin, Jaclyn 42
corporal punishment 15, 49, 51
abolition of 313–14
Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children 39
national bans on 83
Côte d’Ivoire 433
Council of Europe (CoE) 131, 240–41, 283
Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings 646
on discrimination against LGBT persons 557–58
Guidelines, on child-friendly justice 290–91, 302n124
Council of Europe Guidelines on Child-Friendly Healthcare (European Guidelines) 372
Covell, Katherine 398
Coveney, Peter 18, 22, 24, 31n74
CRC Committee 76–80, 82–84, 209
ACERWC and 525
Alternative Report by Children from India to 520
caste- and descent-based discrimination and 519–26
on caste discrimination 517–18, 520, 527–31
on child marriage 626–28
on child participation 258–60, 264–65
on child participation, education and 264–65
on child participation, fair trials and 290
on child participation, health care and 266–67
on child participation, legal proceedings and 267–70
on child participation in community and society 270–72
on child poverty 406, 408–14
children accessing complaints procedure before 459–60
on children in street situations 419n30
on children’s HRE 702, 704, 706–7, 712
on collective rights 583–84
on education 390–92
on education, for very young children 391–932
on educational resources 393
on health care decision-making 371
on health rights 372–77, 380–81
on IHRICs 496–97, 501, 504
in implementation 372–73, 514–15
on independent children 629
India and 519–21
on indigenous children 579, 581, 583–84
Joint General Comment on Harmful Traditional Practices 626
on juvenile justice 281, 283–84, 286–88, 290, 293, 295
on MACR 295
Mauritania and 523–26
Nepal and 521–23, 527
non-discrimination principle and 516
on redress 496
on redress for education rights infringements 397–98
reporting process 526–27
RRR and 707
SDGs and 380–81, 415
on specificity and specialization 286
on UN violence study, 2006 308
on violence against children 312–13
CRC Committee, Concluding Observations 373, 381, 395, 410–12, 495, 531
on caste discrimination 520, 522–23, 529–31
on caste system 520, 522
on child participation 257–59
on discrimination against Dalits 522–23
on Mauritania 523
NGOs, states parties and 701
Payne on 514
in reporting process 526–27
on states parties 527
CRC Committee, General Comments 77–78, 80, 82–83, 86–88, 90–91, 207–8
on adolescents 410
on child-friendly justice 290
on child-headed households 623–24
(p. 741) on child participation 257, 499
on child poverty 408, 410
on children in street situations 620–22
on diversion 286
on educational aims 390–91
FGM/C and 376
on health rights 368, 374–76
on HIV/AIDS 623
IACHR and 282–83
on IHRICs 495–96, 499, 502
on implementation of rights during adolescence 616
on indigenous children’s rights 578
No. 12 on Article 12, on child participation 261–63
No. 19 412–14
on public budgeting 412–13
on states parties’ obligations 413, 495
Crenshaw, Kimberlé 140, 181
criminalization
of children in street situations 621
of homosexuality 559
of trafficking victims 648
criminal justice system 150–51, 648. See also juvenile justice system
criminal responsibility, age of 667
critical children’s rights studies 171
critical legal studies (CLS) 140
critical race theory (CRT) 340
on assimilationism 142
basic principles of 140–42
on children in criminal justice systems 151
on children’s rights 148–50
CLS and 140
on CRC 149, 153
on identities 141
on international adoption 341–42
international law and 143–44
intersectionality and 150–52
origins of 139–40
on race 141
racism and 140–45, 340
cruelty to children 22–23
cultural feminism 161–62
cultural identity 147
cultural norms and practices
child marriage and 191–93
in Global South 427–28
in Malawi 438
cultural relativism 56, 74, 105
culture
human being and 433–34
human rights and 427–28, 434–42
local 105–6
rights, autonomy and 105–6
Western context 105
Cunningham, Hugh 19–21, 29n29
currency, in colonial states 435
custody rights 242
cyberbullying 310, 317, 320
Cyprus 504
Dabir, Neela 631n24
Daddah, Brahim Ould 537n81
Daes, Erica-Irene 572, 576
Dalit Adhikar Abhiyan 535n42
Dalits 519, 524, 529–31
groups 536n64
in Nepal 522–23, 528
Day of General Discussion 2006, CRC 259–61
death penalty 279–80
debt bondage 433
Decade for Human Rights Education, UN 703
Declaration of the Rights and Welfare of the African Child (1979) 240
Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1924 25, 34, 125
Declaration of the Rights of the Child, UN (1959) 27–28, 34–35, 125, 206
on children’s rights to family 238
CRC and 516
on non-discrimination 515–16
(p. 742) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, ILO 350–52, 355
Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training, UN 703–4, 706
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, UN (1960) 143
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, UN
adoption of 574
on collective rights 573–74, 577, 583
on discrimination 573–74
on education 575
ILO Convention No. 169 and 577
on indigenous children 574–75
on indigenous lands 574–75
on self-determination 576
decolonization 143
Defence for Children International in Geneva 515
Defensoria Del Pueblo, Peru 503
defensorías 506–7
Defensorías del Niño y del Adolescente, Peru 507
deinstitutionalization 605–7
“delinquent” children 21–22
Dembour, Marie-Bénédicte 441
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 659, 661, 664–65
Denmark 245–46, 694n67
deportation 230–31
descent-based discrimination, caste discrimination and 517–26
detention, of children 660–61, 666
CRC on 667
detention centers, US 675
development 86–88
brain 291, 309, 496
child, poverty and 410–11
early childhood 171–72, 242–43
health and 375
of migrant children in host countries 685–87
developmental neurobiology, of adolescents 670
developmental psychology 121, 477
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN) 160
Dickens, Charles 22
diffusion 112
dignity
of children 54, 287–88
in economic and social rights 351
disabilities, children with. See children with disabilities
disability
poverty and 411–12
rights 600–601
disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) 670
discrimination. See also caste discrimination
age-based 352–53
against children with disabilities 597
gender-based 89
against indigenous peoples 571–74, 580
against LGBT persons 552–53, 557–60
against LGBT youth 543–45, 551, 555, 558
racial 144–47, 573
sex 558
dissemination 112
distorted translation 111–12
diversion 286
domestic workers, children as 644–45
donor agencies, on children in street situations 619
dowry 193, 195
Dred Scott decision 52
dress codes, gender norms and 551
dualistic approach, to human rights and culture 437–41
dual status, of indigenous children 571
Du Bois, W. E. B. 139–40
due process rights 683–84
Dworkin, Ronald 49, 54, 60
Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright 437
early childhood
children’s HRE in 701–2
development 171–72, 242–43
equality in 172
violence in 309–10
Eastern Europe 704
economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights 167, 171, 369–70, 455
economic and labor rights 349
of children 352–57
civil and political rights and 351
in CRC in 355–56
defining 350–52
human rights and 351–52
ICESCR and ILO Principles on 350–52, 355
economic and social rights 76–77, 87–88, 408
child poverty and 409
CRC on 412
economic exploitation, of children 353–54, 358–60
education. See also children’s HRE
African Charter on 43
child marriage and 192
for children with disabilities 599, 601–5
CRC Committee on 390–92
CRC Committee on child participation and 264–65
in Ghana 439–41
girls 43, 192
human rights and 388–90, 400
ILO Convention No. 169 on 577
immigration status and 686
inclusive 601–5
of indigenous children 575
Mandela on 699
policy, England 479
relationships in 389–92, 399–400
resources 393–95, 399
as right 104
SDGs on 394
secondary 393
sexual 557
the three Rs in 389
of working children 393
education rights
educational relationships and 389
in Ghana, children on 439–41
implementation of 392, 396, 399–400
for indigenous peoples 575
of migrant children 685–86
process of promotion 392
redress for infringements of 395–99
resources for realization 393
school shooting and 398–99
vertical implementation of 396
of very young children 391–92, 395
Eekelaar, John 59
Egypt 556
The Elders 191
El Salvador 504–5
Émile (Rousseau) 12–13, 16–19
emissions, GHG 456, 462–64
empiricism 14–15
End Child Prostitution and Trafficking (ECPAT) 38
enforcement 119
England 19–22, 50, 52, 477, 479, 482
English common law 77, 84
English Common Law 435
English Romanticism 12–13, 17–19, 21
Enlightenment philosophy 12–13, 429–30
enlistment, of child soldiers 664–65
environment, human rights and 452–54
environmental rights 453, 463
epigenetics 724–25
equality 88–89
for children with disabilities 599
in early childhood 172
formal 161, 171
inequality 531–32, 547–49
LGBT 549
sex 160
substantive 162
equal rights 144, 288–89
equity 88
Espinosa, Angeles 123–24
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke) 14
essentialism
on children’s rights 102–6
intersectionality versus 162
Ethiopia 193
(p. 744) ethnography 478
methodology 483
vignettes, on school and children’s rights 484–89, 491
EU Guidelines for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of the Child 241, 248
European Commission 240–41, 417n9
European Committee of Social Rights 557
European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) 213, 215, 313
on best interests of children 210
on children’s right to family 241, 245
on children’s standing 460
climate change and 462
healthy environment rights and 453
on juvenile justice 283
on sexual orientation 557
European Convention on the Exercise of Children’s Rights (1996) 131
European Court of Human Rights 229–30, 252
on best interests of children 210–16
on children’s right to family 245–48
on child trafficking 648–49
climate change cases before 462–63
against corporal punishment 313
CRPD and 603
family defined by 246–48
on juvenile justice 283
on right to fair trial 289
European Network of Ombudspersons for Children (ENOC) 131, 498–500, 502, 504
European Union (EU)
Charter on Fundamental Rights 453
General Court of 463
evolving capacities, of children 78–79, 91
agency and 628–29
independent children 617–18, 628–29
exosystem 119–21, 124, 125f, 126–27, 130
experiences, FLT foregrounding 166–67
Expert Mechanism, of UN Human Rights Council 580
extreme poverty 315, 405
factories 34
Factory Acts 19
factory children 19–22
Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938 21
fair trials 288–91
Faith for Rights framework 528
familiarity, with SGMs 553
families 244. See also children’s rights to family
adoption and 331, 335
child-headed households 622–25
children, parents and 82–84
citizenship and 223
climate change and 458
colonialism and 437
CRC on child participation and 263–64
CRC on children in 616
defining 246–48
FLT on 164–65, 169
of LGBT youth 545–49
nuclear 618
in public/private divides 164
refugees 251
women’s rights and 85–86, 88–89
family courts 206
family integrity rights 194
family rejection, of LGBT youth 545–47
family reunification 206–7, 245–46, 250
family separation policy, of Trump 250, 725
family separations 237
family tracing 339
family unity, migration and 228–31, 684–85
FARC 660
Federle, Katherine Hunt 59–60
female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) 40, 43–44, 84, 376
feminism 88
consciousness-raising in 166
cultural 161–62
FLT and 160–63
Global North, Global South and 162–63
on identities 170
international adoption and 330
newer 170–71
transnational feminisms 160, 162–64, 167
(p. 745) feminist legal theory (FLT) 4, 159
children’s rights and 169–73
complex identities, law and 168–69
consciousness-raising in 166
critical children’s rights studies and 171
emergence and evolution of 161
experiences foregrounded in 166–67
on families 164–65, 169
feminism and 160–63
on international adoption 330, 340, 342–43
on liberal theory 164–65
methods 163–66
new directions in 170–73
on parents’ rights versus children’s rights 169–70
in practice 167–68
privacy and 169–70
feminist movement 85, 159
transnational 160, 162–64, 167
waves of 160–62, 166
feminists
on human rights 166
postmodern/poststructuralist 162, 167
radical 85
second-wave 162, 166
third-wave 160, 166
field of relatedness 631n15
Fiji 393
Fineman, Martha 163
Fipa 437
First Nations children 209
First World War 25, 34, 430
Fischer, Rosal 627–28
Flores v. Reno (1997) 681–82
Florida 398–99
forced labor 637–38, 644, 650, 653n20
forced marriage 182–86
forced migration 227–28
formal equality 161, 171
Fortes, Meyer 432
Fortin, Jane 59
Forum for Fact-Finding Documentation and Advocacy (FFDA) 189
foster care 331, 339–40
foster children 644
Fourth Geneva Convention 667
France 20, 649
Francioni, Francesco 467
freedom
from forced marriage 182–86
of mobility 184
from violence 23, 307–8, 323
from work 355
Freeman, Michael 72, 399
French Revolution 429–30
Freud, Sigmund 24
Froebel, Wilhelm August 23–24
Froebel’s Gift 23
Gandhi, Mohandas 103
gang rape 89–90
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) 549
gay/straight associations (GSAs) 552
gender
attitudes toward homosexuality and 553
CRC and 186–87
differences 161
identity 555–56
intersectionality and 170
norms 168, 551
roles 120–21
subordination 163
transgender 551
violence 188
gender-based discrimination 89
General Comment, of Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 369
General Comments of the CRC Committee 77–78, 80, 82–83, 86–88, 90–91, 207–8, 374–76
General Comments of the ICESCR Committee 77, 369
General Court of the European Union 463
General Recommendations of the CEDAW Committee 86–89, 91, 555–56
genetics 724–25
(p. 746) Geneva Conventions 663–64, 667
Geneva Declaration (1924) 25, 387
genocide 144, 661
Genocide Convention 144–45, 149
Ghana 429, 433–34, 436–37
children on education 439–41
refugee camp in 684, 686
GHG emissions 456, 462–64, 468
Gillick decision 50–51, 54, 59, 84
Gilligan, Carol 56
girls
in child marriages 183–85, 195
CRC and 186–87
education 43, 192
FGM of 40, 43–44
in Global South 168–69
menstruation 193, 438
refugees 311
in school 192–93
as trokosi 433
Girls Empowerment Network (GENET) 41
Girls Not Brides 39–40, 191
Global Campaign for Education 38–39
global discourse translation 111
global economy 111, 115
Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children 39
globalization 428
Global Legal Action Network 41
Global North 56–57
in climate change 468
CRC in drafting 71
on freedom from work 355
liberal theory in 165
transnational feminisms and 162–63
Global Reports on Child Labor, ILO 357
Global Slavery Index 525–26
Global South ix, 2, 57, 71, 111
children’s rights implementation in 427
cultural norms in 427–28
girl-children in 168–69
international adoption of children from 329–30, 340–41, 343
transnational feminisms and 162–63
women in 343
working children in 356
Godelli v. Italy (2012) 246
Goldszmit, Henryk. See Korczak, Janusz
Gove, Michael 479
government oppression, family separation and 237
Graham, Lorie 575
Grant, Julia 17
Greece 637
ground contamination 452
Guggenheim, Martin 53
Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, UN 281
Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on Child-Friendly Justice 290–91, 302n124
gun controls 398–99
gun violence, Parkland students organizing against 42
Gyeke, Kwame 433
Hacking, Ian 12
Hague Convention on International Abduction 211
Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption 333–36, 339
Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 241–42
Haiti 339
Häkli, Jouni 480
Hall, G. Stanley 24–25
Hammarberg, Thomas 101
Hanson, Karl 209, 359, 617
harassment and intimidation, of LGBT youth 550–52
Haratin 524
Harris, Angela 140
Harris, Cheryl 142
hate crimes 559
hate speech 557–58
Havana Rules 281
Hawes, Joseph M. 23
hazardous work 353–54, 687
health care
ACRWC on 371–72
best interests of children and 266–67
decision-making, by children 370–71
(p. 747) European Guidelines on 372
rights, CRC on 368–70, 376
rights, of indigenous peoples 580
services, access to 367–68
health rights 83–84, 380–81
barriers to 379
climate change and 456–57
CRC Committee on 372–77, 380–81
ICESCR on 369
implementation of 379
international development and 377–79
of migrant children 686–87
SDGs on 377–81
UDHR on 369, 382n7
UNDP and 377–78
healthy or adequate environment, as right 452–53
hegemony 165–66
Helwig, Charles 710
Hendrick, Harry 30n60
Hertel, Shareen 107
High-Level Authorities on Human Rights of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) 316
High-Level Panel Forum on Sustainable Development, UN (HLPF) 415
Hinduism 517
Hine, Lewis Wickes 21
HIV/AIDS 622–23, 687
Hoare, Samuel 516
Hobsbawn, Eric 671
homelessness, among LGBT youth 545–47
homophobia 550, 552, 557
homosexuality 553, 559
Howard, Rhoda 434, 437
Howard-Hassman, Rhoda 430
human being, as cultural 433–34
humanitarian crises, children with disabilities in 596
Humanitarian Parole program, US 339
human rights. See also international human rights institutions for children
African system 461, 464
autonomy and 430–31
charters, articulating children’s rights to family 238–42
of children 52, 73–74, 101–2, 110
of children, climate change and 449–54, 464, 469
children’s rights and 49, 52, 57, 61, 66n104, 90–91, 224
CRC on 82, 90, 349
crises 723
culture and 427–28, 434–42
economic and labor rights as 351–52
education and 388–89, 400
environment and 452–54
feminists on 166
individuality and 428–32
indivisibility of 75–76, 83
institutions 495
international, CRC and 73–74
international law 144–47, 181, 194, 331–32
norms 111, 166, 575
regional courts 460–64, 467–68
slavery and 52
states, non-state actors and 407–8
translations and 112
violations, victim requirement in 450, 467–68
World Bank’s agnosticism on 406
Human Rights Commission 249
Human Rights Committee, UN (HRC) 148, 229
Human Rights Council, UN 39, 379, 419n26, 454
on children in street situations 620
Expert Mechanism of 580
Izsák-Ndiaye report on caste discrimination to 516–18
human rights education (HRE) 398. See also children’s HRE
CRC on 699
in India 700, 704–5
movement for 703–6
in schools 129
UN Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training 703–4, 706
UN on 699, 703
Human Rights Education Associates 704
(p. 748) human rights law
children’s rights, climate change and 451–54
fair trials for children and adults in 288
Human Rights Watch, Broken People report 519–20
human trafficking 7
Hutus 661
I’Anson, John 113
identities
of children, intersectionality and 181–84, 196
complex 168–69
CRT on 141
feminism on 170
identity
cultural 147
gender 555–56
right to 246
sexual 126, 546
immigrant visas 336
immigration
enforcement 229–31, 680–87
laws, international 677, 680–82
policy, Inter-American Court on 691n30
populist backlash against 250–51
US authorities 675
“Impact of Armed Conflict on Children” report, to UN 668
impact translation 111–12
implementation 112, 129–33
2030 Agenda in 379
of children’s rights in Global South 427
of children’s rights in juvenile justice 291–95
of CRC, Article 12 478
of CRC, children’s HRE in 700–702
of CRC, for children with disabilities 598–99
of CRC, in Accra 429
of CRC, parents and 497
CRC Committee on 372–73, 514–15
of CRPD 607
of education rights 392, 396, 399–400
of health rights 379
of human rights, children watching and experiencing 392
of international children’s rights in juvenile justice 292–95
of rights during adolescence 616
vertical 396
incarceration, of children 667
inclusion 484–86
inclusive education 601–5
independent children 7, 615, 630
in child-headed households 622–25
childhood definitions and 618
children in street situations and 619–22
CRC and 616
CRC Committee on 629
evolving capacities and 617–18, 628–29
married 625–28
migration by 644
nuclear families and 618
India 81, 184, 637
Alternative Report by Children from India to CRC Committee 520
caste discrimination in 519–21, 526, 528
(p. 749) child labor in 80, 105
child marriage in 189
children with disabilities in 603
CRC Committee and 519–21
HRE in 700, 704–5
Human Rights Watch on 519–20
National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights in 503
Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 581–82, 592n130
Indian Institute of Human Rights Education 705
indigeneity 571–72
indigenous children 7, 149–50, 457
access to justice 580
advisory and treaty bodies 579–82
in Canada 580, 582
CERD Committee on 581–82
citizenship of 577
collective rights of 583–84
in colonial states 571
CRC and 578–79
CRC Committee General Comments on 578
CRC Committee on 579, 581, 583–84
dual status of 571
education of 575
health of 582
international law protections for 573–82
international rights 582–84
juvenile justice for 580–82
in juvenile justice system 583
as members of indigenous groups 572–73
as minority 583
special rapporteurs and 579–82
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on 574–75
indigenous justice system, traditional 580
indigenous people
in Canada 574
CERD on 578
collective rights of 573–74, 577–78, 583
colonial state and 435, 571, 576
defining 571–73
discrimination against 571–74, 580
education rights for 575
health care rights, ICESCR on 580
IACHR on 468
IHRIC accessibility for 506–7
ILO Convention No. 169 on 573, 577–78
international law recognizing 571–73
land rights 151–52
lands of 574–75
self-determination of 576–77
self-governing 571
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on 571–77
UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 579–80
UN Special Rapporteur on 579–80
indigenous rights
ICESCR on 580, 591n117
individual rights versus 577–78
international law on 581
UN Special Rapporteur on 579–80
the individual 431–32
individualism 430–31, 437
individuality
collectivism versus 429–34
communalism and 439, 441–42
Enlightenment philosophers on 429–30
human rights and 428–32
rights and 429
in sub-Saharan Africa 439–40
Western notion of 429–34
individual rights
collective rights and 468, 578
indigenous rights versus 577–78
individuals, communities and xi
indivisibility, of human rights 75–76, 83
Indonesia 634n75
Industrial Revolution 19–20, 34
inequality 531–32, 547–49
infancy 16
infant mortality 720
information and communication technologies (ICTs) 320
information rights 452
infrastructure 455
in locus parentis obligations, of states 678, 684
innocence 17–18
institutionalization, of children with disabilities 597, 605–7
institutions, for human rights 495. See also international human rights institutions for children
(p. 750) integration 147–48
Inter-American Children’s Institute (IIN) 131
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 228, 314, 461
climate change and 463–64
CRC Committee General Comments and 282–83
on indigenous peoples 468
on LGBT persons 558
on migrant children 682
Inter-American Convention on International Traffic in Minors 653n21
Inter-American Court on Human Rights 461, 468, 558
on environmental rights 463
on immigration policy 691n30
on juvenile justice 282
on migrant children 682, 690n6
Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 337
interdependence, of children’s rights 82–90, 600–601
interests and participation ix–x
intergenerational exchange 105
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 514
international adoption
best interests of children and 330, 336
colonialism and 330, 340–41
corruption in 336
CRC on 332–33
critical legal perspectives on 340–43
CRT on 341–42
decline of 336–38
FLT on 330, 340, 342–43
future of 343–44
from Global South 329–30, 340–41, 343
Hague Convention on 333–36, 339
legal framework for 331–36
parents in 333–35, 337–38
postcolonial theory on 341–42
practical recommendations for 338–40
racism, patriarchy and 341–42
rehoming and 337–38
from Russia 336–37
after Soviet Union 329
in US 329
in US, process of 333–34
after World War II 329
International Albinism Awareness Day 319
International Bill of Rights
CRC and 72
on indivisibility of human rights 75
International Center for the Legal Protection of Human Rights v. Croatia 557
international children’s rights law 1, 5–6
for children with disabilities 7
for indigenous children 7
intersectionality and 181, 194
juvenile justice and 279–95
for LGBTQ children 7
race and 148–49
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) 145–48, 573
on indigenous peoples 578
International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 144. See also Genocide Convention
international conventions 109
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 186
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 72, 74–75, 147, 149, 224
Australia violating 582
CRC and 281–82
on juvenile justice 582
on minority group rights 575, 591n117
on right to fair trial 288
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 72, 74–76
Committee, General Comments of 77, 369
CRC and 372
ILO Principles and 350–52, 355
on indigenous rights 580, 591n117
on poverty 409–10
on right to health 369
International Criminal Court (ICC) 644, 661–62
Rome Statute of 668
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 668
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 668
(p. 751) International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN) 524, 526, 531
international development, health rights and 377–79
international human rights institutions for children (IHRICs)
accessibility and outreach 506–7
awareness of 506–7
child participation and 504–6
complaints and investigations 502–4
in CRC Article 12 awareness 505
CRC Committee General Comments on 495–96, 499, 502
CRC Committee on 496–97, 501, 504
CRC implementation and 499
defensorías of 506–7
effectiveness of, issues affecting 498–507
ENOC on 498–500, 502, 504
independence of 500–501
integrated 502
investigation recommendations by 503
legislative mandate for 498–500
NGOs and 500–501
parents lodging complaints 503–4
structure of 501–2
UNICEF survey on 501–2, 506–8
visibility of 502
voices of children in 506, 509
international human rights law 113
on family reunification 229
on international adoptions 331–32
on LGBT youth 544
race and 144–47
international indigenous children’s rights 582–84
International Labour Organization (ILO) 80, 108, 113
on children in armed conflict 663
children’s rights movement and 36–37
Convention No. 169, 573, 577–78
Convention No. 182, 663
Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 350–52, 355
on forced child labor 638, 650, 653n20
Global Reports on Child Labor 357
IPEC of 358
on labor rights 350
on minimum age for work 356–58
Principles, on economic and labor rights 350–52, 355
working children and 356
international law
against child marriage 186–91
on children in street situations 620
on child soldiers 657–58
CRT and 143–44
on detention of children 681
economic rights in 350
family unit in 547
health rights in 367–68, 381
human rights 144–47, 181, 194
immigration laws and 677, 680–82
indigenous people recognized by 571–73
on indigenous peoples’ land rights 151
on indigenous rights 581
on international adoption 331–36
on LGBT youth 554–55
protections for indigenous children 573–82
on right to work 357
state obligations under 397
on tribal peoples 572
international law-making entities 113
International Military Tribunal (IMT) 668
international norms 112
International Organization for Migration 649
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) 358
international treaties. See also specific treaties
against child marriage 182–84
on human rights 332
interpretations of treaty bodies 77–79
norms 74–77
International Violence Against Women Act of 2018 190–91
Internet Watch Foundation 309
interrelatedness, of children’s rights 77–82, 721
intersectionality 4
child marriage and 182–84, 192–96
child refugees and 194
on children’s rights 168
children’s right to be free from forced marriage and 182–86
(p. 752) Crenshaw on 181
CRT and 150–52
essentialism versus 162
family integrity right and 194
gender and 170
on identities, of children 181–84, 196
international children’s rights law and 181, 194
Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children 338
Intimations of Immortality (Wordsworth) 18
intimidation, of LGBT youth 550
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) 463–64
Iraq
child soldiers in 660
refugees from 249
Ireland 499
Islam 185, 517, 523
Islamic law 74
Israel 660
Izsák-Ndiaye, Rita 516–18
Jackson, Philip 483
Jamaican Office of the Children’s Advocate 503
Japan 518, 711
Jebb, Eglantyne 25, 34
Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development (2002) 127
Joint General Comment on Harmful Traditional Practices 626
Juliana v. United States 465
jurisprudence 83–84, 211
jus cogens 144
justice. See also juvenile justice
indigenous children’s access to 580
migrant children’s access to 683–84
Rawls on 56
social 160, 163, 406–7
trafficked children accessing 648–49
transitional 669–70
juvenile delinquency 293–94
juvenile justice 81–82, 89–90, 296
child-friendly 289–91, 302n124
comprehensive international legal framework and 283–84
controversy and 293
CRC Committee on 281, 283–84, 286–88, 290, 293, 295
deprivation of liberty and 287
ECHR on 283
European Court on 283
fair trials 288–91
ICCPR on 582
implementation of children’s rights in 291–95
for indigenous children 580–82
Inter-American Court on 282
international children’s rights law and 279–95
legislation 286–87
MACR and 285–86, 295
reform 291
sentencing in 294
specific system for children 284–88
standard-setting at regional level 282–83
juvenile justice system
equal and specific rights in 288–89
indigenous children in 583
institutional reforms 291
pedagogical orientation as objective of 285–86
specificity and specialization in 286–88
stigmatization of children in 293
juvenile offenders 283, 669
Kallio, Kirsi 480
Kant, Immanuel 58
Kasky, Cameron 42
Keane, David 527
Keating-Owen Act 21
Key, Ellen 25
Kheswa, Jubilani 623
Khmer Rouge 660
Kilbourne, Susan 513–14
King, Margaret L. 11–12, 28n8
King, Michael 55, 66n94
kinship care 340
(p. 753) Kline, Marlee 209
knowledge 437
Kohm, Lynne Marie 513
Kony, Joseph 661–62
Korczak, Janusz 25–26, 34–35
Korea 342
labor rights. See also economic and labor rights
ILO on 350
LaFollette, Hugh 54
land rights 151–52
Lansdown, Gerison 209, 617
Latin America 704
Latvia 507
law, as embodied 106–7
Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, 2008 650
Lawrence, Charles 141
League of Arab States 316
League of Nations 34
learning, Locke on 15
Lebanon 185
lesbians 558
Lewis, Penney 55
LGBT families 547–49, 559–60
LGBT persons 543
discrimination against 552–53, 557–60
IACHR on 558
legal protections for 559
LGBTQ children 7, 126
LGBT youth
bullying of 550
CEDAW and 555–56
COE on 558
of color 546
coming-out age 545
conversion therapy and 546
CRC on 554–55
criminalization of 559
discrimination against 541, 543–45, 555, 558
families of 545–49
family rejection of 545–47
global attitudes toward 552–54
in GSAs 552
harassment and intimidation of 550–52
homelessness among 545–47
international law on 554–55
issues and problems affecting 544–52
legal frameworks 554–60
positive school environment for 551–52
poverty and 546–47
regional frameworks for 557–60
religion and 546, 553
in school 549–52
sexual identity of, efforts to change 546
state frameworks for 559–60
structural inequalities and 547–49
UN on 556–57
victimization of 545–47, 550
liberal model 53, 64n64
liberal paternalism 60
liberal theory 164–65
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 658, 660
Liberia 661, 684, 686
liberty interests of the child 681–82
Lisbon Treaty, 2008 241
literacy, knowledge and 437
living rights 106–9, 114
CRC on adequate standard of 410–12, 452, 457
right to work as 360–61
social practices as 110
translations and 102, 115
Lobi, Thembelihle 623
local cultures 105–6
Locke, John 12, 14–17, 19, 26–27, 429–30
Lopatka, Adam 25–26, 31n82
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) 658, 661–62, 669
Lundy, Laura 390, 391, 617
Machel Report 668
macrosystem 119–21, 124, 125f, 126–28, 130–31
Magnitsky Act of 2012 336–37
mainstreaming of children’s rights 248–49
Major Group for Children and Youth, UN (MGCYP) 415
Malala Fund 42, 104
Mandela, Nelson 39, 191, 699
Mandet v. France (2016) 247
(p. 754) Mann, Gillian 627–28
March for Our Lives 42
margin of appreciation 57
marriage 342–43. See also child marriage
colonialism and 435–36
forced 182–86
same-sex 547–48
married children 625–28
Marshall, Chelsea 391
Martínez Cobo, José R. 571–72
mass migrations 250–51
maternal nursing 29n26
mato oput 669–70
Matsuda, Mari 141, 168
Mattarella, Sergio 251
maturity, of children 58–59
Mauritania 516–17
ACERWC on 525
ACRWC ratification by 525
caste discrimination in 523–26
CRC Committee and 523–26
NGOs in 524
slavery in 523–26, 537n81, 538n94
Universal Periodic Review of 524–25
Mauritius 507
Medaets, Chantal 112
medical consent 267
medical treatment 54, 60
Méndez, Juan E. 681
menstruation 193, 438