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date: 18 June 2021

(p. 634) (p. 635) Index

(p. 634) (p. 635) Index

Note: Tables are indicated by a t, Figures are indicated by a f

Abacigil et al. 421
absorption 601–3, 605t
abstraction 610–11
ACCESIBILITIC 78
accessibility. See also media accessibility
assistive technologies for 70–71
autism spectrum and 69
AVT practices and accessibility debate 67–69
AVT practices and inclusion 70–71, 80–81
of health translation 431–35, 437–38, 443–46
at live events 72–73
training for 72–73
universal design and 69, 70–73
video games and 69
viewing experiences co-designed for 71–73
ACCESSIBLE 78
accessible filmmaking (AFM) 71–72
apparatus theory and 329–30
AVT, MA, and 326–31, 327f, 328f
in Canada 342–43
Dangerfield’s accessibility model 328, 328f
DAT and 334–36
documentaries, on GBV 88–89, 89n1, 94–105
echoes of medical model versus echoes of social model 347–48
engagement-based approach to MA training and practice and 337–49
film as language and 328–29
le film pluriel and 331
focus on impairments versus focus on disabilities 338–40
focus on making up for lost information versus focus on facilitating engagement 340–43
global film and 331–32
introduction to 325–26
MA and 325–49
for multilingual films 332–36, 334n2
professional application of 332–36
subtitles in 326–27, 332–49
subtitling as technique versus subtitling as artistic contribution 343–47
theoretical foundations of 326–32
translational/accessibility-oriented notion of film studies 328–31
universal access strategies for 348–49
wider notion of MA and 326–28
“activist turn” in translation 248–49
“Adaptation and Translation of Mental Health Interventions in Middle Eastern Arab Countries” (Gearing et al.) 403t
ad hoc Peruvian interpreters 130, 134, 139–45
ad hoc terminology 591
affective load 57
Afghanistan 46, 47, 48, 53
Africa 247–48, 255, 543–48
democracy in 117–18
Rwanda 506
Airhihenbuwa, C. O. 55
Aitken, G. 374
Albanian
HLS-EU-Q in 420–21
TOFHLA in 418
Alexander, Z. 91
algorithms 528–29, 530–39
alienation
linguistic 27, 33
social 27, 37–38
“Alighting Youth Development Theory, Measurement, and Practice Across Cultures and Contexts” (Scales, Roehlkepartain, and Shramko) 403t
All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale (AAHLS) 412, 422–23
ALTA 361, 362
AMA Journal of Ethics 374
American Sign Language 365, 368
American Translators Association (ATA) 359–60
Amnesty International 246, 247
Amy (documentary) 97
Analysing Political Discourse (Chilton) 150–51
analysis of variance (ANOVA) 543–48
Andes region 139–43, 140n13
Angelelli, C. V. 45, 362
Anglicisms 35
Anthropocene 175–80
anthroposociosemiosis 24
apparatus theory 329–30
Arabic, NVS in 423
Archer’s Mark 335–36
Argyropoulos, V. 70–71
armed conflict 47, 47n1, 48n2. See also conflict translation; war
Armenakis, A. 55
Arrojo, R. 96
artificial intelligence (AI)
Canadian regulation case study and 530–38
legal technology and 528–29, 530–39
The Artist (film) 338–39, 338f, 339f
Asháninka people 139–40, 140n14
Asociación Servicios Educativos Rurales (SER) 134
assimilation 400
of migrants 121
Assis Rosa, A. 68, 96
assistive technologies 70–71
Aston, G. 274
asylum seekers. See refugees and asylum seekers
Atchison et al. 413–14
attitudinal barriers 71, 78
audio description (AD) 68, 73–77, 326
audiovisual translation (AVT)
accessibility debate and AVT practices 67–69
AD and 68, 73–77, 326
authenticity and 98–101
closed captioning 68
co-designing viewing experiences 71–73
credibility and 98–99
digital ontology and 78–80
dubbing in 68, 73, 75, 77, 333, 335
exercises, in pedagogical translation 284–85
expanding typology of AVT modes 73–77
expansion of 57
game localization and 69
GBV and 88–89, 89n1, 91, 94–102, 94n2
Inclusiv@ and 78–80, 79f
integration, inclusion, and design for all 70–71, 80–81
intermodal translation and interpreting modes 73–75, 74f
MA, AFM, and 326–31, 327f, 328f
machine translation and human-machine interaction in 76–77
respeaking in 76–77
SDGs for 77–78
secondary or extended users of 69
sign language and 68, 73–77, 80
subtitles in 68, 73, 75–77, 80, 96–102, 103, 326–27, 332–49
sustainability translation and 77–80
translation modes in 75–77, 76f
voice and 93, 95, 96–102
voice-over in 68, 75, 77, 96–104
austerity
economics and 269–70
forced migration, civic translation and 110–13
Australia 432–33
sign language in 57
authenticity 98–101, 523–25
autism 69, 77
Avery, M.-P. B. 364–65
Baayen, H. 554–55
BabelDr 577–78
content quality and portability 444
cost-effectiveness of 444
data security and 444
developing 443–46
enhanced ergonomics 446
reliability of safety-critical systems 444–45
speech-translation technology in hospital emergency departments 443–44
task-based evaluation 446
usability of 444
BACKBONE corpus 271, 272
back-translation 444–45, 564
Baer, B. J. 45
Bagua trials 136, 136n10
Baker, Mona, xiii 46, 51, 89
Bakhtin, Mikhail M. 23–24, 28, 30–31
Bale, R. 273
Baltes, P. B. 389
Banger Polder 235
Barreto, Manuela 156
barriers
attitudinal 71, 78
disabilities and 71, 78
environmental 71, 78
in global communication 179–80
to healthcare 432
Basic Guidelines for Translating Surveys (RAND Health) 403t
Bastin et al. 158, 159
Baumgarten, Stefan 153
Beaton et al. 415–17
Becker, A. 403t
Beemster 226–28
Béhar, H. 343
behavioral changes and sustainability 9–10
Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) 580–83
Béjar, Júnior 143
beliefs
language learning and 307
trauma and 57
worldview and 41, 57
Benjamins, J. 92, 121
Berk-Seligson, S. 132
Bernstein, Steven 174, 302
Betsky, Aaron 229
Bhavnani, R. 243
bias 95, 96
cultural 379–80
language bias in legal technology 529–30
Bielsa, Esperança 154, 155
Bieri, Peter 514, 514n12
Bilingual Drafting Conventions of the Uniform Law Conference of Canada 524–25
bilingual education 287–88
bilingual law 521–22
in Canada 522–27
Canadian regulation case study and 530–38
legal technology and 527–30
bilinguals, emergent 287–88
biosemiosphere 25, 27–28
biosphere 25n2
Bird, J. A. 403t
Black, A. M. 403t
Blacker, D. 403t
Blair, Tony 160
blind people 70, 73, 368
Boase-Beier, J. 93, 95
body 316–17
language 509
mind-body connection and 381–82
Bolivia 132
Bontempo, K. 57
“borrowed” loanwords 384–85, 386–88
Bosseaux, C. 103
boundary-setting
in conflict translation 53
in language “mapping,” 383–84
Bourdieu, Pierre 90, 246
Bradbury, Ray 36
(p. 638) Braille 70
Brakhus, S. 589
Branson, J. 335
Braun, S. 270
Brazilian Portuguese 413–14
Brexit 473
Bridging the Gap (BTG) 361
British Film Institute 335–36
British Labour Party 160–61
British National Corpus (BNC) 266, 267, 269
Brundtland Report 173
Buddhism 387–88
Buendia-Castro, M. 630
Burrell, S. R. 85–86, 87
Butler, Judith 121
Cabré Castellví, M. Teresa 622
Caimotto, Cristina 159
Caliendo, G. 486
California Healthcare Interpreting Association (CHIA) 365–66
Call for Action 236–37, 239
Call the Midwife (TV series) 87
Calvino, Italo 38
Calzada Pérez, María 153
Canada
AFM in 342–43
Bilingual Drafting Conventions of the Uniform Law Conference of 524–25
bilingual law in 522–27
codrafting law in 521–27
equal authenticity and drafting conventions in 523–25
French in 523–25
harmonization of drafting in 527
health literacy in 439
indigenous peoples in 149–50
Interpretation Act in 531–33, 531t
language policies 159–60
law in 521–27
Law Reform Commission of 524
legislative drafting in 522–27, 531–34, 533t
multijural dimensions in 527
Navigation Safety Regulations in 532, 533t, 534
political discourse, identity, and ideology in 149–50, 157–62
Québec–Canada partnership in 157–58
Regulations Respecting the Recovery of Certain Costs of the National Energy Board in 532–34, 533t
Uniform Law Conference Drafting Conventions in 526
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 523
Canadian regulation case study
clustering in 537–38, 537f
data-driven corpus analysis in 534–38
data in 530–38
data set 530–31
on legal technology 530–38
rules-based analysis, measuring prescriptivity 531–34, 533t
similarity analysis 536–38, 537f, 537t
term-frequency analysis 534–36, 535f
Canino, G. 402–3, 403t
Cao, D. 457
capitalism
natural resources and 175–76
sustainability translation and 175–76, 179–80, 179n1
Carreres, Á. 284
cartography, experiential 382–85
Cash, John D. 155–56
Catalan 310–19
Cayo, Amiel 143
CD-ROM archives 266
Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters (CCHI) 361–62, 367–69, 371–72
“Challenges in Assessing Depressive Symptoms in Fiji” (Opoliner, Blacker, Fitzmaurice, and Becker) 403t
Charlottetown Accord (1992) 160
Charter of Fundamental Rights 431–32
Chavez, G. 402–3, 403t
Chen et al. 422
Cherubini, Lorenzo 150
Chesterman, A. 488–89
Chibamba, M. 256
children’s mental health 401, 403t
Chilton, Paul 150–51, 160
China 461. See also Sino-Danish energy and policy translation
BLCU in 580–83
Christian texts and 158–59
Climate Mao 176
Communist Party of 199
Huai Basin pollution in 182–83
International Conference on Translation Education in 275
key Chinese energy policy documents 215t
presentations in 580–83
Shenzhen 192
smog crisis in 199
“Tongue Men” in 47
Chinese
AAHLS in 422–23
NVS in 423–24
REALD in 413
TOFHLA 420
Chinn, D. 422
chi-squared test 543, 548–50
Christian texts 158–59
chronic diseases 7–8, 9, 433, 437
citizenship 27, 144
civic engagement
for migrants 113–18
race, ethnicity, and 116–17
civic translation. See also political translation
civic translation capacities and 122–23
critical comparative research on 122–24
forced migration, austerity, and rise of, in Global North 110–13
global migration regimes and 116–18, 123–24
inequality and 112, 113–14
language and 114–15, 118–19
for refugees and asylum seekers 110–13, 122–24
in “solidarity cities,” 113–15
civilian interpreters 53–54
civil law 524, 527
civil litigation 504–6
classic translation 3
Clemens, M. A. 243
Climate Action Tracker 190
Climate Behemoth 176
climate change 595
environmental groups and 175–77
in Global South 223
migration 122
polders and 223–24, 239–40
SDGs and 174, 175–76
sustainability translation and 9–10
Climate Commission to the China National Renewable Energy Centre (CNREC) 195t, 200–204, 206–8, 212–13
Climate Leviathan 175–76
Climate Mao 176
Climate X, 176
closed captioning 68. See also audiovisual translation
clustering
in Canadian regulation case study 537–38, 537f
dendrogram for 550–51, 551f
hierarchical cluster analysis 550–53, 551f, 552t
process of 550–51
in seven-step procedure 554–55
coastal plains. See polders
codrafting law 466, 521–27
cognition
cognitive coherence and 512
emotions and 303, 312
legal interpreting discourse and 512
plurilingual competence and 302, 303, 312
(p. 640) Cold War 49
collective political translation
identity and 157–58, 161–62
by migrants 115–16
national affiliation and 157–58
translators’ collective agency and 120–22
collective/shared memory 88
Colombia 132
colonialism
in Indonesia 229–31
Peruvian translation relating to 131
polders and 226–30
color perception 381
“commanding moments” of Sino-Danish collaboration 193–200, 195t
common law 524, 527
communication. See also global communication
anthroposociosemiosis and 24
consumption, production, and 36–38
culture and 55
globalization and 26–27, 32–33
health translation and user-oriented communication 431–47
otherness and 32–33
power in 117
right to 504–6, 514–16
social media and 26–27, 285
trauma and 92–93
communication-production relations 32–33, 36–38
communicative action 510–11
communism 34
Communist Party of China 199
community-based translation 7
complete linkage 551
Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (Sharifi et al.) 401
Comprehensive Strategic Partnership Agreement 189–214
computer-aided translation (CAT) 3–4. See also spoken-language translation
CTIS and 264–65
Computer Select 266
confidentiality 516
conflict 47–48
inequality, political translation, and 112, 118–20
intersectionality and conflicts about race and ethnicity within social movements 119–20
mésentente theory and 121
conflict narratives 56–57
conflict translation
affective load and 57
boundary-setting in 53
conflict zone recruits and 52–53
current research issues in 49–59
defining field of 46–49
emotions, ideology, and 55–56
ethics and neutrality in 51
history and 45–46
humanitarian interpreters and 48, 52, 53–54
human rights and 47–48, 52
ICRC and 47, 53
“incentive” work in 52–53
language and 52–54
literature and 46
“local” interpreters/translators and 51–53
media and 52
mediation and 50–55
military linguists and 53
military personnel and civilian interpreters in 53–54
Peruvian translation and 134–35
political translation and 117–20
positionality in 50–56, 59
psychological implications in 56–59
reflexivity in 54
refugees and 48
stress and 57
studies on 49–50
by trained and freelance interpreters 54
UNHCR and 52
war and 45–46, 49
conflict zones 47–49, 52–53
Connor et al. 418
consciousness 31
consumption 9–10
communication, production, and 36–38
global communication and consumerism 36
(p. 641) contingency table 548–50
Converser for Healthcare
Earring Icon 569–73, 570f, 571f
evaluation of 565–68, 567t
multimodal input and 564–65
patient questions and responses on 567, 567t
pilot project 565–66
revised system in use 569–73, 570f, 571f, 572f
system description 563–64
Traffic Light Icon 569–73, 570f, 571f, 572f
translation shortcuts in 573–75, 574f
upgrades for 568–69
Conway, Kyle 160
Cook, Vivien 302
Cornwall, A. 243
corpus-based assessment of health translation readability 440–43
Corpus di Italiano Scritto (CORIS) 266, 267, 269
Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) 266–67
corpus of translated English (CTE) 543–48
corpus statistics
ANOVA in 543–48
cross-validation in 556
data-driven corpus analysis and 534–38
in environmental translation 607–11
FA in 554–56
hierarchical cluster analysis in 550–53, 551f, 552t
LDA in 556
linguistics in 556–58
PCA in 553–54, 554f, 555f
seven-step procedure of Diwersy, Evert, and Neumann 554–56
simplification, explicitation, and normalization in 557
tests related to contingency table in 548–50
corpus translation and interpreting studies (CTIS)
CAT and 264–65
challenges in 263–64
corpus analysis of Canadian regulation 530–38
corpus data 264, 534–38
corpus use in interpreter education 270–74
corpus use in translator education 265–70
defining 263–64
EEC and 607–8, 608f, 609t
European Union translation corpus research 485–87, 493–94, 493f
future directions for 274–76
linguistics in 263–65
semantics in 264
technology and 263, 264, 267–68, 273, 274–76
transcription in 263–64, 271–72
Correlates of War (COW) Project 48n2
Costa-Lopes, Rui 156
Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) 456, 459, 462, 464, 469, 470
COW Project. See Correlates of War Project
Cox, R. H. 229
Crack, A. M. 248
credibility
AVT and 98–99
GBV and 90, 99–101
of survivors 90, 99
Crezee, I. 273, 370–71
Crezee et al. 58
crisis situations 47–48. See also conflict translation
Greek 269–70
smog 199
crisis translation 48. See also conflict translation
critical awareness and language 41
critical third voice 120–22
cross-cultural surveys 399–402, 403t
cross-validation, in corpus statistics 556
Cruvinel et al. 414
cultural bias 379–80
cultural capital 112
cultural exchange xiv
cultural rights 134–35
(p. 642) culture
communication and 55
complexity of 55
defining 55
democracy and 109–10
environmental translation and 589–91, 606–7
ethics and 137
GBV and 87
ideology and 160–61
in intercultural mediation 54–55
language learning and 307
LRH and 380–82
mental health and 399–406, 403t
multiculturalism and 462–63
in POCA model 433–37
political discourse and 160–61
popular 87
positionality relating to 55
social constructivism and 381–82
sociology and 245
translation terminology and 606–7
untranslatable words and 385–90
Cummins, J. 303, 306
Curo, Alicia 142
Current Issues in Language and Society 152
Dalton, A. C. 364–65
Dangerfield, K. 328, 328f
Danish Energy Agency (DEA) 189–90, 203, 212–13. See also Sino-Danish energy and policy translation
Danish policy experiences 200–201
Danziger, K. 380
data. See also corpus statistics
algorithms and 528–29, 530–38
in Canadian regulation case study 530–38
corpus 264, 534–38
data-driven corpus analysis 534–38
environmental graphical information and 610–11
geoscience 620–21, 630
health translation technologies and data security 444
technology and 179
Davids, T. W. Rhys 388
Davies, González 282
deaf and hard of hearing 57
American Sign Language and 365, 368
health translation for 365, 368
SDH for 68, 73, 80, 326, 335, 337–49
Deane-Cox, S. 93–95, 103
De Beaugrande, R. 512n10
decision-making procedures xiv
Defense Advanced Research Programs Agency of United States (DARPA) 561–62
Degen, S. 99–102
degrees of freedom (df) 549
DeJoy, D. M. 593
Delgado Luchner, C. 47, 247–48
De Malsche, E. 596
democracy 34
in Africa 117–18
culture and 109–10
globalization and 109
neoliberalism and 109
political translation and local democracy, in United States 113–15, 120–21
dendrogram 550–51, 551f
Denmark. See also Sino-Danish energy and policy translation
Danish policy experiences 200–201
refugees and asylum seekers in 111, 112, 122
dentistry 412, 413
Derlén, M. 469
Derrida, J. 384
de Saussure, F. 382, 385
development agency 244
development aid
defining 243
globalization and 248
humanitarianism and 243–56
language and 243–44, 247–56
“local” interpreters/translators and 247–48
Marais on 245, 246–47, 248
mediation and 244
NGOs and 244
NNGOs and 244, 250–51, 253, 254–55, 256
political discourse and 243, 246–47, 249
in Republic of North Macedonia 249–55, 256
sociology and 245–48
translation, as sociological act 245–46
translation, in development sector 246–47
translation practices in 243–56
translators as agents of social change and 248–49
types of 243–44
United Kingdom and 247–48
Developmental Assets Profile 403t
De Wachter, K. 596
diabetes 433, 437
diaglossic contexts 293–94
dialogism 27
diaphasic variants 604
Díaz-Cintas, J. 96
digital ontology 78–80
dignity 514–16
Dillinger, M. 584
Directorate for Indigenous Languages 135, 138
Directorate-General for Translation (DGT) 472–73, 484
director of accessibility and translation (DAT) 334–36
direct voice-over 98
Dirmaier, J. 426
disabilities. See also accessibility
barriers and 71, 78
focus on impairments versus focus on 338–40
in medical model versus social model 347–48
disagreement. See conflict
discrimination 71, 78, 85, 130, 396–97
discursive psychology 381–82
Diwersy, S. 543, 554–56
documentaries
audience surveys and questionnaires 95, 104
case studies on 103–4
documenting and translating GBV in 96–102
on GBV 88–89, 89n1, 94–105
Dolar, M. 102
domain-based variants 604
domain ontology 623, 629–30
domestic violence 85, 89. See also gender-based violence
dominant order 34, 38, 39
D’Onofrio, C. N. 403t
double perception (percezione doppia) 39–40
Downey, G. J. 69
Dressler, W. 512n10
drinking water. See water
Drinking-Water Quality Guidelines, by WHO 11–12
Drossaert, C. H. C. 425
Dr. Strangelove (film) 333
dualist ontology 381
dubbing 68, 73, 75, 77, 333, 335. See also audiovisual translation
Dutch Delta Defense System 239
Dutch FCCHL scale 425
Dutch polders. See polders
Dwinger, S. 426
dynamism 611
Eagleton, Terry 153
Earring Icon 569–73, 570f, 571f
EcoLexicon
definitions 599–604
environmental translation terminology and 596–99, 597f, 598f
HURRICANE in 602f
RIVER in 598–99, 598f
SAND in 602f, 603, 604f
SEDIMENT in 602f
WATER in 599, 600f, 601f, 610
wind turbine in 601–3, 602t, 603t
(p. 644) EcoLexicon English Corpus (EEC) 607–8, 608f, 609t
EcoLexicon Semantic Sketch Grammar (ESSG) 607–8
ecological translation 13. See also environmental translation
economics
austerity and 269–70
in Greek crisis 269–70
polder economic model 228–29
sustainability translation and 180
eco-politics 175–80
eco-socialism 176–77
Ecuador 132
education. See also translation education
communication-production relations and 37–38
labor and 37–38
migration and 287
monolingual paradigm in 301–2
multicultural health translation and 8
plurilingual restrictions in 301–2
presentations in 579
transfer of learning and 303, 306–7, 311–12
translanguaging and 287–88
educational translations, on GBV 101
Edwards, John 154
electricity. See energy
Eleftheriotis, D. 330
Ellison, Jo-Jo 335–36
emergent bilinguals 287–88
emerging plurilinguals 303–4
emotions
cognition and 303, 312
conflict translation, ideology, and 55–56
language and 303, 312
linguistics and 90–91
mental health and 399, 402
stress and 57
voice and 90–91, 93, 103
empowerment
GBV and translation as 93
teacher empowerment and plurilingual competence 310–11
energy
fossil 199, 200, 223
LCOE 196n7
NDRC 194
NEA and 194, 195t, 202, 206–8
Regulations Respecting the Recovery of Certain Costs of the National Energy Board on 532–34, 533t
sustainability and 173
thermal 195t
WED and 194, 195t, 201, 207–9
energy translation
key Chinese energy policy documents 215t
Sino-Danish policy translation and 189–214, 215t, 216t, 218t
engagement-based approach
focus on impairments versus focus on disabilities 338–40
focus on making up for lost information versus focus on facilitating engagement 340–43
to MA training and practice 337–49
in medical model versus social model 347–48
subtitling as technique versus subtitling as artistic contribution 343–47
traditional approach compared to 337, 337t
Engels, Friedrich 23
Engeström, Y. 310
English 463
in Canadian regulation case study 530–38
in CTE 543–48
in EEC 607–8, 608f, 609t
European Union 488, 488n11, 489
French and 488, 488n11, 521, 523–30
in geoscience translation 622
hierarchy and asymmetry of language relating to 466–69, 474–75
in ICE 543–44
Russian and 553
(p. 645) English Language Interview Corpus as a Second-Language Application (ELISA) 271, 272
Enough (film) 87
Ensink, Titus 152
enthymeme 29
environmental barriers 71, 78
environmental groups 175–79
environmental standards 10
environmental translation. See also geoscience translation; sustainability translation
conservation versus preservation 588
corpus statistics in 607–11
culture and 589–91, 606–7
defining field 587–88
ecological translation and 13
framing of 591–95
global environmental initiatives and 12–13
ILTER and 13–14
law and 589
MEA-KMI and 12–13
multilingual environmental language engineering and 13
RE and 592–93, 594t
SDGs and 13
social practice and 12–14
as specialized translation 588–95
speech acts and 593, 595
sustainability translation and 9–10
environmental translation terminology 588–91
EcoLexicon and 596–99, 597f, 598f
EEC and 607–8, 608f, 609t
environmental knowledge domains and semantic networks 598–99, 598f
ESSG and 607–8
frames and 591–95
graphical information and 610–11
resource design and 595–611
terminological definitions and frames 592–93, 599–604
terms, variants, and correspondences in other languages 604, 606–7
ergonomics 446, 575–76
Erikson, Erik 154
Essink-Bot, M. L. 425
ethics
in conflict translation 51
culture and 137
GBV and 90–92
in Holocaust translation 90–92
human rights and 137, 514
legal interpreting discourse and 513–16
medical translation education standards and 365–66, 374
voice identification and 99
ethnopsychology 380–82
Euclidean distance 550–52
Eurolects 468
description of 479
development of idea of 485–87
“Eurolexemes” and 490–91
European Union legal translation and 480–81, 485–93
features of 486, 488–93
otherness and 479
specialized nature of 487–88
terminology in 490–92
textual tit and features of 487–93
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 505–6
European Health Literacy Survey 411–12, 438
European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) 420–21
European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) 85
Europeanization 492–93
European Master’s in Translation (EMT) network 268, 274–75
European medical interpretation and training 359, 367–69, 372–73
European Parliament Interpretation Corpus (EPIC) 271–72
(p. 646) European Social Forum (ESF) 119
European Union
Brexit and 473
case law 484
Charter of Fundamental Rights 431–32
CJEU 456, 459, 462, 464, 469, 470
difference between number of texts per language in each setting 462t
English 488, 488n11, 489
health literacy in 438–40
health translation in 431–47
institutional translation and 456, 460–64
on language asymmetries 466–69
language policies in 159–60
multilingualism and 461–63, 481
number of texts compiled from 2005, 2010, and 2015 per language 462t
number of texts compiled in English and French 463t
Official Journal 461–62, 489
official languages of 481, 488
origins of 480–81
Pointer project 621–22
Polish 489–92, 494
political discourse and 480–81
refugees in 110
European Union legal translation
corpus research into 485–87, 493–94, 493f
DGT and 472–73, 484
Eurolects and 480–81, 485–93
from Eurolect to other institutionalized contexts 493–94
evolution of 480–85
institutional translation and 457, 457n2, 459, 460–64, 479–94, 505–6
key theoretical concepts and foundations 482–83
legal interpreting and 505–6
LETRINT project and 456, 458–59, 458t, 462–65, 471–72, 494
origins, policies, and practices of 479–81
research trends into 483–84, 493f
textual tit and features of Eurolects in 487–93
Evans, Thomas 161
Evert, S. 543, 553, 554–56
Everyone Says No (Conway) 160
experiential cartography 382–85
explicitation, in corpus statistics 557
expressive text 508
extra-judicial settings 501–3, 502f
Eyüboglu, E. 417
Faber, P. 596, 619
Facebook 285
factor analysis (FA) 554–56
Facts on Mental Health (WHO) 396–97
Fahrenheit 451 (Bradbury) 36
Fairclough, Isabella 152
Fairclough, Norman 152
falsehoods 34
Fantinuoli, C. 274
Farsi 413, 420
fascism 34, 176
Fawcett, Peter 153
Fearon, James D. 154, 155
Fellini, Federico 332
female genital mutilation (FGM) 86–87
“Fight the Fog” campaign 468
Fiji 403t
filmmaking. See accessible filmmaking
le film pluriel 331
film studies 328–31
Fitzmaurice, G. 403t
flooding, in Jakarta 231–33
Floros, G. 286
Foley, R. 486
Font, Miguel Ángel 346
food and sustainability 173
Footitt, H. 45–46, 247
forced marriage 86
forced migration 110–13. See also refugees and asylum seekers
foreign relations
identity and 157–58
North American Free-Trade Agreement and 183
PTAs and 183
fossil energy 199, 200, 223
(p. 647) Frame-Based Terminology (FBT) 596–97
Franco et al. 97, 98
Fransen, M. P. 425
freedom 34, 41
of speech 39
Freeman, R. 190–91, 192, 214
French 149, 157–60, 247
in Canada 523–27
in Canadian regulation case study 530–38
English and 488, 488n11, 521, 523–30
FCCHL scale 426
GBV in 85, 87–89, 89n1
HLS-EU-Q in 421
number of European Union texts compiled in 463t
TOFHLA in 418
Freund, A. M. 389
Fridlund, B. 413
Frodeman, R. 619
Fuertes-Olivera, P. A. 620
Fu et al. 291–92
Fujimori, Alberto 141
Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. 575–76
Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy (FCCHL) scale
Dutch 425
French 426
German 426
introduction to 424
Swedish 424–25
functional literacy 414
Fung, D. 517n13
Funk, M. 179n1
“fuzzy” concepts 384–85
Gagnon, Chantal 157–58
Gallego-Hernández, Daniel 268
Gambier, Y. 68
game localization 69
García, Alan 136
García de Sena, Manuel 159
Gardner, Jeremy 468
Gearing et al. 403t
gender-based violence (GBV)
AVT and 88–89, 89n1, 91, 94–102, 94n2
conflicting views on 87
credibility and 90, 99–101
culture and 87
defining 85–86
documentaries on 88–89, 89n1, 94–105
documenting and translating 96–102
domestic violence and 85, 89
educational translations on 101
EIGE on 85
ethics and 90–92
FGM and 86–87
forced marriage and 86
in French 85, 87–89, 89n1
isolation and 88
language and translation issues relating to 87, 91–94, 96–102
against LGBTQIA persons 86
listening and 92–94, 102, 103, 105
memory and 88, 101
#MeToo movement and 86
perspectives for further research on 102–5
in popular culture 87
rape and 86–87
rates 86
reductionism and 94, 96–100
secondary witnesses to 94–95, 96, 102, 103
self-translation of trauma and 91–92
skopos of translations 101
stigma and 88
subtitle issues relating to 96–102, 103
suicide and 86
survivor fears and 87–88, 90
survivor narratives on 89–96, 101
translation as empowerment after 93
translator’s role and 89–96, 102, 103, 105
trauma translation and 89–96
“truth” of experience 90, 91–92
video testimonies on 99–100
voice and 90–91, 93, 95, 96–103
voice-over issues relating to 97–104
Geneva Convention on Refugees 506
Geneva Red Cross linguists 58
Genocide Network 57–58, 57n3
Gentzler, Edwin 154–55
geographical variation 606
(p. 648) geoscience translation
common reliable resource websites 623–24
English in 622
geoscience domain and the internet 620–21, 623–30, 631–32
glossaries and dictionaries 624–27
introduction to 617–18
keywords and search engines 621
language and role of geoscience 618–21
ontologies 629–30
in Pointer project 621–22
SWEET and 630
taxonomies 629
terminology and resources 617–32
terminology as “toolbox” in 621–23
thesauri 627–29, 632
German 553
FCCHL scale 426
INTERSECT corpus in 548–50
Sehnsucht 389
in seven-step procedure 554–56
TOFHLA in 418
The German Ideology (Marx and Engels) 23
German Social Democratic Party (SPD) 160–61
Germany, refugees in 110–13
Gerring, John 153–54
Giddens, A. 90
The Gift (film) 334, 334n2
Gironda et al. 414
global civil society 245
global communication
barriers in 179–80
consumerism and 36
language of 35
literary writing and 36–37
media and 183
SDGs and 171–73, 179–84
social reproduction and 37
Global Communication Plan, Japan 562
global environmental initiatives 12–13
Global Environmental Thesaurus project 12
global film 331–32
globalization
backlash 35–36
communication and 26–27, 32–33
democracy and 109
development aid and 248
dialogism and 27
ideology and 26–27, 32–36
language and 109
otherness and 27
social alienation and 27
social practice and 32–36
translation in globalized world 32–36
global justice movement 118–21
global migration regimes 116–18, 123–24
Global North 110–13
global semiotics 25, 25n2
Global South 118–19
climate change in 223
global sustainability guidelines 10
global warming. See climate change
glossaries 622, 624–27
Glowacka, D. 91, 92, 93
glycemic index 437
Goffin, R. 479, 488
González, Pérez 46, 51
González Cueva, Eduardo 141
Goodchild, M. F. 397
Google Translate 561, 564
Gorjanc, V. 274
Gottlieb, H. 98
grammatical cohesion xiii
Grant, L. 273
Great Depression 180
Great Garuda 233, 239
Greco, G. M. 326–28
Greek crisis 269–70
Greek philosophy 154
“Green Keynesianism,” 180
“Green New Deal,” 180
Griess, S. 543, 548–50, 557
Grigaravičiuté, L. 98
Grimshaw et al. 400
G-statistic 543, 548–50
Gubar, S. 93
Gutiérrez Sanín, F. 56
Haig, Raina 71
Hain, Peter 468
Halder, S. 70–71
(p. 649) Hamman-Ortiz, L. 302
Han et al. 412
Harding, S. A. 46
hard-of-hearing 68, 73
Härter, M. 426
Hatim, B. 95, 104, 153
health
barriers to healthcare 432
chronic diseases and 7–8, 9, 433, 437
diabetes and 433, 437
lifestyle-related diseases and 7–8, 9
psychological implications, in conflict translation 56–59
risk factors in 7–8
SLT for healthcare 562–78
health literacy 7–9
AAHLS on 412, 422–23
assessment 8–9
in Canada 439
dentistry 412, 413
European Health Literacy Survey on 411–12, 438
in European Union 438–40
FCCHL scale on 424–26
functional literacy and 414
health outcomes and 411–12, 432, 433, 438, 442
health translation and 435, 437–43
HLS-EU-Q on 420–21
International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey on 411–12
linguistics and 440–43
literacy-adapted translation and 437–43
of migrants 438–40
National Assessment of Adult Literacy on 411
in Netherlands 439–40
NVS and 412, 423–24
REALM on 412–14
TOFHLA on 412, 414–20
well-known health literacy instruments 412
of women 419
Health Literacy Tool Shed database 438
health translation
accessibility of 431–35, 437–38, 443–46
for blind people 368
corpus-based assessment of health translation readability 440–43
for deaf and hard of hearing 365, 368
in European Union 431–47
health literacy and 435, 437–43
human rights and 367, 431–32
institutional translation and 11
IP and 436–37
language and 397, 399
law and 367, 432
LC and 436, 437, 440–43
for LGBTQIA persons 361
medical translation education and medical interpreter training 357–75
mental health and 395–406
for migrants and refugees 431–33, 436
multicultural 7–9, 433–37, 440–43
patient views and 435–37
in POCA model 433–37
social movement coalitions and 367
stages of 434
sustainability translation and 10
technology and BabelDr 443–46
untranslatability of wellbeing 379–90
user-oriented communication and 431–47
WHO and 11, 434
health translation models (HTMs) 433–37, 436t
Hebrew 418
Hegelianism 37–38
hegemony and critical third voice 120–22
Heine, S. 379
Henrich, J. 379
Herb, Thomas 97
Hermans, Theo 153
hermeneutic circle 387
hermeneutic translation xiii–xv
Hetherington, A. 57
hierarchical cluster analysis 550–53, 551f, 552t
hierarchies of languages 465–73, 474–75
high-complexity schools 307–8. See also plurilingual competence
Hinostroza, Wilker 143
historical-natural language 30–31, 41
(p. 650) history
conflict translation and 45–46
Peruvian 130, 134, 139–45
of Republic of North Macedonia 249
Hitchcock, Alfred 332
HIV/AIDS 415–16
holistic translation xiv
Holocaust poetry 95
Holocaust translation 90–95, 101–2
homolingual address 109–10
homophobia 143
homosexuality. See LGBTQIA persons
Hostová, Ivana 155
housing 231–32
Howard et al. 132
How Much?/C’est Combien? (documentary) 103
Huai Basin pollution 182–83
Hubscher-Davidson, S. 103
Huillet, Danièle 332
Huizinga, Johan 228
Human Dignity (Bieri) 514–15
humanitarian interpreters 48, 52, 53–54. See also conflict translation
trauma and 58
humanitarianism 243–56
human-machine interaction 76–77
human rights 4
Charter of Fundamental Rights and 431–32
conflict translation and 47–48, 52
cultural rights and 134–35
dignity and 501, 514–16
ECHR and 505–6
ethics and 137, 514
health translation and 367, 431–32
of indigenous peoples 130–31, 134–39
institutional translation and 461–62
legal interpreting and 501, 504–6, 514–16
Ministry of Justice and Human Rights on 138
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and 47–48
for refugees and asylum seekers 112–13, 123
reproductive health and 138, 138n11, 141–42
right to communication and 504–6, 514–16
United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and 505–6
HURRICANE, in EcoLexicon 602f
iconic images 610–11
identity
in Canada 149–50, 157–62
collective political translation and 157–58, 161–62
defining 154–55
Erikson on 154
Fearon on 154, 155
foreign relations and 157–58
in Greek philosophy 154
ideology and, or the convergence of views 155–61
in Italy 159
Locke on 154
national affiliation and 157–58
personal compared to collective 155, 156–58
political discourse, ideology, and 150–62
political translation and 112
power and 156–57, 158–59
religion and 158–59
source text selection and 158–60
voice as 102–3
Identity and Status in the Translational Professions (Sela-Sheffy) 155
Identity and Translation Trouble (Hostová) 155
ideological materiality 24–25
ideology
in Canada 149–50, 157–62
conflict translation, emotions, and 55–56
culture and 160–61
defining 23, 56, 152–54
globalization and 26–27, 32–36
how and why ideology concerns translation 23–28
identity, political discourse, and 150–62
(p. 651) identity and, or the convergence of views 155–61
ideological nature of verbal sign 28–31
language and 24–25, 24n1, 33–35
legal translation and 458–59
linguistic signs and 24–26
literary writing and translation as resistance to 36–40
Marxian 153
patronage and 153
religion and 158–59
as social planning 23
social practice and 23–31, 36–41
social semiosis and 24–25
source text selection and 158–60
translation as responsive understanding to 40–41
worldview and 41, 153
Ilisei, I. 557–58
“incentive” work, in conflict translation 52–53
inclusion 70–71, 80–81
Inclusiv@ 78–80, 79f
Indigenous Languages Act, Peru 132–34, 135, 136–37
indigenous peoples
Asháninka 139–40, 140n14
in Canada 149–50
conflict translation and “local” interpreters/translators 51–53
human rights of 130–31, 134–39
indigenous Peruvian translators 129–30, 132, 135–39, 140n13, 143–45
literacy and 130
mistrust of 130, 143
Indonesia
authoritarian rule in 230–31
colonialism in 229–31
Great Garuda in 233, 239
independence of 229–30
Jakarta polders 229–34, 239
kampungs in 230, 231, 236–37
Netherlands and 224–25, 234–40
Semarang polders 234–38, 239
Urban Poor Consortium in 231–32
inequality
civic translation and 112, 113–14
migrants and 113–15
political translation, conflict, and 112, 118–20
SDGs on 181–82
informational practicality (IP) 436–37
informative text 508
Inghilleri, M. 46
Inkpen, D. 557–58
institutional translation
characterizing 455–56
European Union and 456, 460–64
European Union legal translation and 457, 457n2, 459, 460–64, 479–94, 505–6
health translation and 11
hierarchies of languages and texts and 465–73, 474–75
human rights and 461–62
language diversity at work and 460–65
legal dimensions of international institutional missions and texts 455–60, 458t, 473–74
multilingualism’s scope and depth relating to 460–74
readability and 470–71
SDGs and 461
sustainability translation and 10–11
translation strategies and quality assurance priorities for 469–73
United Nations 456, 460–63, 465
instrumental translation xiii
integrated plurilingual approach (IPA) 301–2
to language learning 304–5, 314, 316
TOLC in 305–7
InterACT 579, 583
intercultural mediation 54–55
interessement 193–94, 213
(p. 652) interlingual translation 25, 282, 291–93
intermediaries 255
intermodal translation 73–75, 74f
International Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey 411–12
International Association of Conference Interpreters 52
International Classifications of Diseases-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics 397, 398t, 399
International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) 47, 53
International Conference on Translation Education 275
International Corpus English (ICE) 543–48
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 456, 460–63, 469
international courts
CJEU 456, 459, 462, 464, 469, 470
judicial settings, international criminal law, and 504–6, 517–18
legal interpreting and 504–6, 514–18
legal interpreting discourse and 506–13
International Criminal Tribunal 506
International Electrotechnical Commission 71
International Finance Corporation 10
international language 35
International Law Commission 459–60
International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) 13–14
International Medical Interpreters Association (IMIA) 365–66
International Military Tribunal 505
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) 244–49, 250–55, 256
International Organization for Standardization 71
interpretant signs 25–26
interpretation. See also specific topics
language asymmetries in multilingual text-making and 465–69
translation distinguished from 46, 47–48
Interpretation Act, Canada 531–33, 531t
interpreter education
approaches to 272–73
BACKBONE corpus and 271, 272
corpus use in 270–74
curriculum planning 274
ELISA and 271, 272
with IVY 272
testing techniques 273–74
interpreter positionality 50–56
interpreting competence 364–65
Interpreting Virtual Reality (IVY) 272
interpretive linguistic theory 30–31
INTERSECT corpus 548–50, 548t, 549t
intersemiotic translation 25
intralingual translation 25, 282, 293–95
in-vision signing 73
Iraq 46, 48, 53
isolation 88
Italian 35, 36, 266–67, 271–72
HLS-EU-Q in 421
TOFHLA in 418
Italy
austerity in 269–70
identity in 159
Izenberg, Gerald 154, 155
Jakarta polders 229–34, 239
Jakobson, Roman 25, 25n2
Jankowska, A. 69
Japan 423, 424, 583
Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. in 575–76
Global Communication Plan in 562
water quality in 11–12
Japanese 273–74
HLS-EU-Q in 421
NVS in 423
Jibbigo 579
Jinnah, Sikina 183
Johns, Tim 268–69
Joining the Dots (film) 341–42, 341f, 342f
Jovic-Vranes et al. 417–18
judicial settings and trials 501–3, 502f, 504–6, 517–18
Al-Jumaili et al. 418–19
Junkes et al. 413
(p. 653) Källkvist, M. 281
Kamberi et al. 418
Kampf, Zohar 150–51
kampungs 230, 231, 236–37
Kant, Immanuel 37
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) 579
Kaufert, J. M. 364
Kavanaugh, Brett 86
Kelly, N. 373
Kenny, D. 557
Keynesianism 180
keywords and search engines 621
Kherbiche, L. 47
Kiefer, C. 55
Kingdon, John 406
Kiswahili 402, 403t
Kleinert et al. 132
Klooster, P. M. T. 425
knowledge domains and semantic networks 598–99, 598f
knowledge society 37
Kohn, K. 270
Kop, Jan 231
Koppel, M. 557
Korean 412, 419
Korten, C. D. 245
Korzybski, A. 382
Koskinen, K. 458–59, 470, 471, 484
Kosovo 418
Kriston, L. 426
Kruger, H. 543, 546
Kubrick, Stanley 332–34
Kuks, Stefan 227
Kumar, M. 402, 403t
Kunilovskaya, Maria 553
labor
communication-production relations and 37–38
education and 37–38
“incentive” work, in conflict translation 52–53
migrant 113–14
Labour Party, United Kingdom 269
Labrecque, Simon 150
Lakoff, G. 385
Langham-Brown, Jo 97
language. See also Eurolects; specific languages
bias in legal technology 529–30
body 509
“borrowed” loanwords and 384–85, 386–88
Canadian language policies 159–60
civic translation and 114–15, 118–19
conflict translation and 52–54
critical awareness and 41
development aid and 243–44, 247–56
diaglossic contexts of 293–94
emotions and 303, 312
of European Union 481, 488
film as 328–29
freedom of speech and 39
GBV and translation issues relating to 87, 91–94, 96–102
in geoscience 618–21
of global communication 35
globalization and 109
health translation and 397, 399
hierarchies of 465–73, 474–75
historical-natural 30–31, 41
ideology and 24–25, 24n1, 33–35
institutional translation and asymmetries in 465–69
interlingual translation and 25, 282, 291–93
international 35
intersemiotic translation and 25
intralingual translation and 25, 282, 293–95
known languages 397
law and 521–22
legal interpreting discourse and 509–11
of literature 38–40
“mapping,” 382–85
medical language-specific translation training 371
mental health and 397, 399–406
plurality of 41
plurilingual competence and 301–20
poetic 28–30
politically correct 100
political translation and 118–19
(p. 654) in Republic of North Macedonia foreign development aid case study 249–55
shared national 109
social practice and 28–31
sociological approach to 28–30
special 30–31
untranslatable words and 385–90
utterance and 29–31
worldview and 41
“language games,” 618–20
language learning 304–7, 314, 316. See also plurilingual competence
Language Line Solution 373–74
language policies, in European Union 159–60
Language Rights Act, 2003 132
Lapshinova-Koltunski, E. 550–53, 556
Latin America
ILO Convention 131, 169
Peruvian translation policies in Latin American context 131–35, 143–45
translation policy in 129–45
Latour, Bruno 245, 246, 255
Latvian 492
Laub, D. 93–94
Laughery, K. R. 593
Laviosa, Sara 289
law. See also legal interpreting; legal translation
bilingual 521–38
in Canada 521–27
civil 524, 527
civil litigation and 504–6
codrafting and 466, 521–27
common 524, 527
environmental translation and 589
European Union case law 484
health translation and 367, 432
International Law Commission and 459–60
in judicial settings and trials 504–6, 517–18
language and 521–22
legal dimensions of international institutional missions and texts 455–60, 458t, 473–74
legal technology and 521–39
prescriptivity and 531–34, 533t
Law Reform Commission of Canada 524
Lawson, D. M. 413
Lee et al. 412
Lefevere, Andre 153
legal interpreting
body language and 509
confidentiality and 516
correctability and errors in 516
defining 501–2
end users of legal interpreting services 503–4
European Union legal translation and 505–6
extra-judicial settings 501–3, 502f
features of 501–3
human rights and 501, 504–6, 514–16
international courts and 504–6, 514–18
judicial settings 501–3, 502f, 504–6, 517–18
by not-legally trained persons 503
reporting and 508
right to communication and 504–6, 514–16
social practice and 501–18
training programs 516–17
legal interpreting discourse
cognition and 512
coherence in 512
communicative action in 510–11
ethics and 513–16
expressive text in 508
informative text in 508
international courts and 506–13
language and 509–11
legal settings and 509–10
modes and approaches related to 509–11
operative text in 508–9
overview of 506–7
phatic text in 509
priority of understanding in 511–13
strategic action in 510
texts in legal discourse 507–9
type of action and discourse 509–13
as way of interpreting 513–17
legal technology
algorithm-based 528–29, 538–39
bilingual law and rise of 527–30
(p. 655) Canadian bilingual law and 522–27
Canadian regulation case study and 530–38
human-driven 528
language bias and 529–30
law and 521–39
legal translation
European Union and 457, 457n2, 459, 460–64, 479–94, 505–6
ideology and 458–59
media and 471
multilingualism and 459
readability and 470–71
translational strategies and quality assurance priorities in 469–73
United Nations and 460–63, 465
WTO and 457, 459–63
legislative drafting, in Canada 522–27, 531–34, 533t
Lemieux, René 150
León-Araúz, P. 596
Leonardi, V. 286
Leopardi, Giacomo 39–40
Letitre, Peter 232n2
LETRINT project 456, 458–59, 458t, 462–65, 471–72, 494
Lettre aux Espagnols américains (Viscardo) 158
levelized cost of energy (LCOE) 196n7
Levinas, E. 92
lexical cohesion xiii
LGBTQIA persons
GBV against 86
health translation for 361
homophobia and 143
Liburd, L. 55
lifestyle-related diseases 7–8, 9
Lindsay, Abby 183
linear discriminant analysis (LDA) 556
“lingua franca” models 109
linguistic alienation 27, 33
linguistic competence 365
linguistic comprehensibility (LC) 436, 437, 440–43
linguistic homogenization 109
linguistic relativity hypothesis (LRH) 380–82
linguistics
in corpus statistics 556–58
in CTIS 263–65
emotions and 90–91
health literacy and 440–43
interpretive linguistic theory 30–31
metalinguistics and 30
trauma and 90–91
linguistic signs 24–26. See also signs
linguistic work 33, 40–41
listening and GBV 92–94, 102, 103, 105
literacy. See also health literacy
functional 414
indigenous peoples and 130
multiliteracy education 286–87, 294
translation education and 286–87, 290, 294
literacy-adapted translation 437–43
literary political discourse 158–60, 162
literary translation xiv
parallel texts in 286
literary writing
global communication and 36–37
as resistance to ideology 36–40
literature. See also text
conflict translation and 46
language of 38–40
policy 191–92
live event accessibility 72–73
Living Without Abuse 86
Loach, Ken 334
loan translation 387–88
loanwords 384–85, 386–88
local democracy, in United States 113–15, 120–21
“local” interpreters/translators
conflict translation and 51–53
development aid and 247–48
Peruvian indigenous translators 129–30, 132, 135–39, 140n13, 143–45
local sociology 245
Locke, John 154
Löffler, Marion 161
logitic regression 550
Lomas, T. 382
Lorini et al. 421
(p. 656) Loutan et al. 58
low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) 396, 401
Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) 374
Lutfhi, M. 237
Luyken, Georg-Michael 97
Maastricht Treaty of 1992 480
Macerata 267
machine translation 3–4, 264–65. See also computer-aided translation; spoken-language translation
AVT and human-machine interaction in 76–77
Maguire, P. 592
Malcolm, K. 57
Maltese 492
Mangiron, C. 69, 70
Mann, G. 175–76
Mantwill, S. 420
“mapping,” language 382–85
Marais, Kobus 154–55
on development aid 245, 246–47, 248
Marcuse, Herbert 34–35
Marie, Michel 331
marriage, forced 86
marshes 590
Mårtensson, L. I. 424–25
Martins, Sanz 247
Marx, Karl 23
Marxian ideology 153
Marxism 37–38
Mason, I. 95, 104, 153
Matamala, A. 72
materialism 38
Mathai, M. 402, 403t
Matsushita, Kayo 273–74
Mazrui, A. M. 247, 256
Mbwayo, A. 402, 403t
McCarthy, C. 422
McGann, J. 331
meaning xiv
signs and 26
utterance 29
media
conflict translation and 52
global communication and 183
legal translation and 471
political discourse and 160
social 26–27, 285
sustainability and 179, 182–83
media accessibility (MA)
AFM and 325–49
AVT, AFM, and 326–31, 327f, 328f
engagement-based approach to training and practice of 337–49
introduction to 325–26
United Nations’ International Telecommunication Union Focus Group on Media Accessibility and 335
wider notion of 326–28
mediation
conflict translation and 50–55
development aid and 244
intercultural 54–55
intermediary compared to mediator 255
in Peruvian translation 141–43
Medical Center of Kaiser Permanente 563–75
medical research 7–8
medical translation education and interpreter training
certification 367–69
contextualized training 372–73
continuing education 369–70
ethics and standards of practice 365–66, 374
in Europe 359, 367–69, 372–73
five domains of knowledge in 364–65
future of 370–75
gateway into profession 358–59
interpreter competence and 364–65
interpreter roles and 363–64
language-specific training 371
(p. 657) minimum training requirements 358–59
performance-based training 372
professionalization of medical interpreting 367–70
programs for 360
PSI and 357, 359
specialized terminology in training 371
technology training 373–74
training, in academia 359–60
training, in para-academic settings 360–62
training and certification of medical students and bilingual providers 374
training content 362–63
in United States 357–75
video-remote and over-the-phone interpreting 366–67
virtual training 372–73
Medvedev, Pavel N. 23, 28, 30
Meech Lake Accord (1987) 160
Mega Mall Pluit 231, 232
memory 88, 101
Méndez, Nancy 141
mental health
classification systems 397, 399
communicating research findings on 400–401
conflict translation and 56–59
cost and time of translating 399–400
cross-cultural surveys 399–402, 403t
culture and 399–406, 403t
emotions and 399, 402
expanded communication to reach vulnerable populations 397–99
health translation and 395–406
language and 397, 399–406
in LMICs 396, 401
mental health care 396–97
mindfulness and 388
multiple streams approach to 406
policy translation and 406
political translation and 406
postpartum depression and 402, 403t
recommended steps and strategies for translating 402–6, 403t
from research to practice 400, 406
research voyeurism and 400
resources to assist in translating mental health instruments 403, 403t
SDGs on 395
suicide and suicide prevention 396, 398t
translation issues relating to 401–2
trauma and 396–97
wellbeing and 395–96
WHO on 395–97, 398t
youth and 401, 403t
Mental Health Atlas project 395, 398t
mésentente (“disagreement”) theory 121
metalinguistics 30
methane 608, 608f
#MeToo movement 86
Mexico 132
Microsoft’s Presentation Translator 580–83
Middlebury Institute of International Studies 360
Middleton, Pete 336
migrant labor 113–14
migrants
assimilation of 121
civic engagement for 113–18
collective political translation by 115–16
health literacy of 438–40
health translation and 431–33, 436
inequality and 113–15
migration
climate change 122
education and 287
forced migration, austerity, and rise of civic translation in Global North 110–13
global migration regimes and power asymmetries 116–18, 123–24
high-complexity schools and 307–8
Peruvian translation and 138–39
translation education and 287
military linguists and personnel 53–54
mindfulness 388
Ministry of Culture, Peru 132–35, 138–39
Ministry of Justice and Human Rights 138
Miranda, Francisco de 158
monolingual paradigm, in education 301–2
Moores, Eldrige 619
Mori, L. 488, 492
Mossop, Brian 157
(p. 658) multicultural health translation
corpus-based assessment of health translation readability and 440–43
education and 8
literacy and 7–9
medical research and 7–8
in POCA model 433–37
public health intervention and 7–8
SDGs for 7
social practice and 7–9
multiculturalism 462–63
Multilateral Environmental Agreements Knowledge Management Initiative (MEA-KMI) 12–13
multilingual analytical instruments 9–10
multilingual environmental language engineering 13
multilingual films 332–36, 334n2
multilingualism
European Union and 461–63, 481
hierarchies of languages and texts 465–73, 474–75
institutional translation and scope of 460–74
language asymmetries in multilingual text-making and interpretation 465–69
language diversity at work 460–65
legal translation and 459
translation strategies and quality assurance priorities for 469–73
multiliteracy education 286–87, 294
multiple streams approach, to mental health 406
Munday, Jeremy 153–54
Nagase, Tomoki 575
Nakayama et al. 421
Napier, J. 57
nation, defining 158
national affiliation 157–58
National Assessment of Adult Literacy 411
National Board of Certification for Medical Interpreters (NBCMI) 361, 367–69, 371–72
National Capital Investment Coastal Development Project 233
National Council on Interpreting in Health Care (NCIHC) 365–66
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) 194
National Energy Agency (NEA) 194, 195t, 202, 206–8
National Film Board 89
National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) 575
nationalism 109, 122
national myth, of polders 227–28
national nongovernmental organizations (NNGOs) 244, 250–51, 253, 254–55, 256
National Register of Interpreters and Translators of Indigenous Languages 136
National Socialism 176–77
National Socialist terror 99–100
National Standard Guide for Community Interpreting Services 365
naturalized institutionalization 183–84
natural resources. See also environmental translation; sustainability translation
capitalism and 175–76
exploitation of, in Peru 134–35, 136
SDGs and 173–74
unsustainability and 175–80
Navigation Safety Regulations, Canada 532, 533t, 534
Nelson, L. D. M. 468
neoliberalism 109
Netflix 335, 341
Netherlands 425
health literacy in 439–40
Indonesia and 224–25, 234–40
polders of 225–29
Semarang polders and 234–38, 239
Wassenaar Accord in 229
Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO) 234–38, 239
(p. 659) Netherlands Water Partnership 224
Neumann, S. 543, 553, 554–56
neuroscience 302
neutrality 33, 470
in conflict translation 51
in political translation 112–13
Neves, J. 73
New Deal 180
Newest Vital Sign (NVS) 412, 423–24
New South Wales (NSW) 432–33
Newspeak 33, 34, 35, 38
New Zealand 304, 538–39
Nguyen et al. 415
1984 (Orwell) 34, 36
nitrogen 608, 609f
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 117–18, 120, 123, 225
in Peru 134
political discourse and 249
Norenzayan, A. 379
Noriega-Sánchez, M. 284
normalization, in corpus statistics 557
Nornes, M. 329
North American Free-Trade Agreement 183
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 52, 480
Notes on Blindness (film) 335–36
not-for-profit organizations
policy translation for 11–12
sustainability translation at 9–12
Nuance, Inc. 564
Nuremberg trials 505
Nutbeam, D. 422, 424
Nuti, P. 254
Oblander, P. 588
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights 47–48
Official Journal (European Union) 461–62, 489
Olympic Games, 1992 266, 562
One-Dimensional Man (Marcuse) 34–35
Ongeri, L. 402, 403t
“On Linguistic Aspects of Translation” (Jakobson) 25
ontology
digital ontology and AVT 78–80
domain 623, 629–30
dualist 381
geoscience translation 629–30
ontological narratives 89–90
operative text 508–9
Opoliner, A. 403t
Ordan, N. 557
Orero, P. 72
Orman, Jon 157
Orwell, George
on Newspeak 33, 34, 35, 38
1984 by 34, 36
Orwellian framework 37–38
otherness 25–26, 31
communication and 32–33
dominant order and 39
Eurolect and 479
globalization and 27
Ouellette, Robert-Falcon 149
Ousseine et al. 426
outgroupness 50
Ovink, Henk 234–36, 238
Oxfam International 247
Pakpour, A. H. 413
Palau Güell 317–18
Paraguay 132
parallel texts 286
Parker et al. 414–15
part of speech (POS) trigrams 556
Pasick, R. J. 403t
Pasolini, Pier Paolo 36
Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) 434
patient-oriented and culturally adapted health translation (POCA) model 433–37
patronage and ideology 153
Payne, Thomas 159
Pear Tree Project 340–41
(p. 660) pedagogical translation
AVT exercises in 284–85
interlingual translation and 282, 291–93
intralingual translation and 282, 293–95
multiliteracy education and 286–87, 294
parallel texts in 286
plurilingual competence and 302–3
purpose of 281–82
in school curriculum design 281–95
technology and 283–86
in translanguaging classrooms 282–83, 287–95
trending and new ways to use translation in schools 283–87
Peirce, C. S. 382
Peircean semiotics 25n2, 26, 385
Peircean signs 26
percezione doppia (double perception) 39–40
Persian 413, 420
personal pronouns 98
Peruvian translation
ad hoc interpreters in recent Peruvian history 130, 134, 139–45
challenges in 129–31, 134–35, 144
colonialism relating to 131
conflict translation and 134–35
CVR and 140–41
Directorate for Indigenous Languages and 135, 138
indigenous interpreters in 129–30, 132, 135–39, 140n13, 143–45
Indigenous Languages Act and 132–34, 135, 136–37
Language Rights Act and 132
mediation in 141–43
migration and 138–39
Ministry of Culture and 132–35, 138–39
National Register of Interpreters and Translators of Indigenous Languages in 136
NGOs and 134
Peruvian Constitution of 1993 and 135
Peruvian translation policies in Latin American context 131–35, 143–45
Right to Prior Consultation Act and 135, 136
SIL and 139–41
Spanish and 130, 132, 137, 139–43, 144
state-sponsored training and regulated provision for 135–39
Peters, Ximena Quiroz 346
Pharos 339–40
phatic text 509
Phraselator 577
Pizango, Alberto 136n10
Place for Remembrance, Tolerance and Social Inclusion (LUM) 141
Pleij, Herman 228
Pluit Village 231, 232
plurality of language 41
plurilingual competence
cognition and 302, 303, 312
in complex settings, through and beyond languages 307–8
Cook on 302
Cummins on 303, 306
emerging plurilinguals and 303–4
emerging research on 302–3
future directions for 320
in high-complexity schools 301–20
IPA and 301–2, 304–7, 314, 316
neuroscience on 302
pedagogical translation and 302–3
restrictions, in education 301–2
teacher training for 302–4
TOLC in IPA 305–7
transfer of learning in 303, 306–7, 311–12
worldview and 301
plurilingual competence case study
approach 311–12
approach findings 314–15
design 312–13, 315
development of learners’ plurilingual competence 316–18
layers of instructional design and dimensions of study 309, 309t
overview of 308–9
participants and contexts 310
phases