Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the translation process for six health literacy instruments: Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q), All Aspects of Health Literacy Scale, Newest Vital Sign, and Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy. Some instruments, developed in the United States and the United Kingdom, targeted English-speaking populations only. Later, researchers translated several into the languages of immigrant and refugee groups with limited English proficiency. For example, the TOFHLA was translated and adapted to target Korean and Vietnamese Americans. Some instruments were translated and employed for conducting health literacy research worldwide. One example is the HLS-EU-Q for health literacy research conducted in Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Taiwan, and Vietnam. This chapter describes how health literacy instruments were translated into various languages and revised to account for cultural and health system differences across countries and population groups.
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