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date: 18 November 2019

(p. xiii) List of Abbreviations

(p. xiii) List of Abbreviations

AAU

assigned amount units

AB32

California’s Global Warming Solutions Act

ADFD

Abu Dhabi Fund for Development

ADP

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform

AF

Adaptation Fund

AfCHPR

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

AfCtHPR

African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights

AFOLU

agriculture, forestry, and other land uses

AGF

High Level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing

AGGG

Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases

AILAC

Independent Alliance of Latin America and the Caribbean

ANA

National Water Agency (of Brazil)

AOSIS

Alliance of Small Island States

APEC

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

APG

associated petroleum gas

AR4

Fourth Assessment Report

AR5

Fifth Assessment Report

ASCM

Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

AUD

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination

AWG-DPEA

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action

AWG-KP

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol

AWG-LCA

Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action

AWK-KP

Ad Hoc Working Group, Kyoto Protocol

BASIC

Brazil, South Africa, India, and China

BC

Canadian province of British Columbia

BEE

Bureau of Energy Efficiency

BiNGO

business-friendly international NGO

BM&FBOVESPA

Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange and São Paulo Stock Exchange merged

BNDES

National Bank for Economic and Social Development (Brazil)

Boiler MACT

Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology

BRIC

Brazil, Russia, India, and China

BRL

Brazilian Real

BTA

border tax adjustments

BUND

German branch of Friends of the Earth

BVRio

Rio de Janeiro state government-created programme called Bolsa Verde

CAA

Clean Air Act

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

CARICOM

Caribbean Community

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDR

common but differentiated responsibilities

CBDRRC

common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities

CCD

Convention to Combat Desertification

CCL

Climate Change Levy

CCS

carbon capture and storage

CCX

Chicago Climate Exchange

CDIAC

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

CDM

clean development mechanism

CEA

Council of Economic Advisers

CEDAW

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

CEQ

Council on Environmental Quality

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

CERD

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

CERs

Certified Emission Reductions

CFC

chlorofluorocarbon

Ci-Dev

Carbon Initiative for Development

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CLRTAP

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

CMP

Conference of the Meeting of the Parties

CO2

carbon dioxide

CO2e

carbon dioxide equivalent

CODEMA

Municipal Environmental Agency

COP

Conference of the Parties

CP

commitment period

CRC

Carbon Reduction Commitment

CRU

Climatic Research Unit

CTCN

Climate Technology Centre and Network

CTF

Clean Technology Fund

DG

DG Directorate-General

DG CLIMA

Directorate-General for Climate Action

DNA

Designated National Authorities

DSB

Dispute Settlement Body

DSU

Dispute Settlement Understanding

ECJ

European Court of Justice

ECT

Energy Charter Treaty

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

EDPRS

Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy

EEDI

Energy Efficiency Design Index

EEZ

exclusive economic zone

EGC

European General Court

US Energy Information Administration

EIS

environmental impact statement

EITI

energy-intensive and trade-intensive

ENGO

environmental non-governmental organization

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPCA

Energy Policy and Conservation Act

ERT

expert review teams

ERU

Emission Reduction Unit

ESA

Endangered Species Act

ET

International Emissions Trading

EU ETS

European Union Emissions Trading System

EUA

European Union emissions allowances

EVI

Economic Vulnerability Index

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organisation

FAZ

Fundação Amazonia Sustentável

FCCC

Framework Convention on Climate Change

FDI

foreign direct investment

FIELD

Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development

FMRL

Forest Management Reference Levels

FNMC

National Fund on Climate Change

FY

Financial Year

G20

Group of Twenty

G77

Group of 77

G8

Group of Eight

GAL

global administrative law

GATS

General Agreement on Trade in Services

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GCF

Green Climate Fund

GCSDSIDS

Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of SIDS

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GFDRR

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

Gg

gigagrams

GHG

greenhouse gas

GNP

gross national product

GtCO2e

Gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent

GW

gigawatts

ha

hectares

HAI

Human Assets Index

HCFC

hydrochlorofluorocarbon

HFC

hafnium carbide

IAC

InterAcademy Council

IACHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

IAR

International Assessment and Review

ICA

International Consultation and Analysis

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICC

Inuit Circumpolar Conference

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICSID

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

IEA

International Energy Agency

IEF

Forest State Institute (Brazil)

IEP

Integrated Energy Policy

IFFG

In Fairness to Future Generations

IGO

International Governmental Organizations

ILC

International Law Commission

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IMO

International Maritime Organization

INC

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee

INDC

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

INR

Indian Rupee

IP

Intellectual Property

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPTU

Urban Property Tax (Brazil)

IRA

International Reserve Allowances

IRENA

International Renewable Energy Agency

IRU

International Relief Union

ITLOS

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUU

illegal, unregulated, and unreported (fishing)

JISC

Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee

JNNSM

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

KP

Kyoto Protocol

LCFS

Low Carbon Fuel Standard

LDC

Least Developed Country

LDCF

Least Developed Country Fund

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LLDC

Landlocked Developing Countries

LRD

legitimate regulatory distinction

LUCF

land use change and forestry

LULUCF

land use, land use change, and forestry

MAC

Market Advisory Committee

MACT

Maximum Achievable Control Technology

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MDB

multilateral development banks

MDG

Millennium Development Goals

MEA

multilateral environmental agreements

MFN

most favoured nation

MoEF

Ministry of Environment and Forests

MOP

Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol

MRV

measure, report, and verify; also measurement, reporting, and verification

million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent

MW

megawatts

NAMA

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

NAP

National Adaptation Plans

NAPA

National Adaptation Plans of Action

NAPCC

National Action Plan on Climate Change

NCP

National Contact Points

NEPA

National Environmental Policy Act

NGO

non-governmental organization

NHTSA

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NOx

nitrogen oxides

NRC

National Research Council

NSPS

New Source Performance Standard

OAU

Organization of African Unity

ODA

Official Development Assistance

ODK

Open Data Kit

ODS

ozone-depleting substances

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OHCHR

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

OPEC

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

oPt

occupied Palestinian territory

PCA

Permanent Court of Arbitration

PES

payment for environmental services

PICs

Pacific Island Countries

PIL

private international law

PM2.5

fine particulates

PNMC

National Policy on Climate Change

PP

Precautionary Principle

PPA

power purchase agreement

ppm

parts per million

PPM

process and production method

PRSP

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

PSAG

Private Sector Advisory Group

PSD

prevention of significant deterioration

PV

photovoltaic

PX

Paraxylene

QELRC

Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Commitments

R&D

research and development

RDD&D

research, development, demonstration and deployment

RE

renewable energy

REC

renewable energy certificate

REDD

reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

REDD+

REDD, which also includes conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks

REEEP

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership

RFF

Resources for the Future

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

RIA

regulatory impact assessment

RMU

Removal Units

RUB

Russian rubles

SBI

Subsidiary Body for Implementation

SBSTA

Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice

SC

Security Council

SCCF

Special Climate Change Fund

sCER

secondary Certified Emissions Reductions

SCM

Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

SDPC

State Development and Planning Commission

SE4ALL

Sustainable Energy for All

SEA

strategic environmental assessment

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

SEEMP

Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan

SIDS

Small Island Developing States

SO2

Sulphur dioxide

SPM

Summary for Policymakers

SPREP

South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme

SRFC

Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission

SRM

Solar Radiation Management

SSRN

Social Science Research Network

TBT

Technical Barriers to Trade

TEC

Technology Executive Committee

TEPCO

TEPCO (the Tokyo Electric Power Co

TFEU

Treaty for the Functioning of the European Union

TNC

The Nature Conservancy (Brazil)

TPES

Total Primary Energy Supply

tpy

tons per year

TRIMs

Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures

TRIP

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TTE

team of technical experts

UNCED

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

UNDESA

United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFSA

United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHRC

United Nations Human Rights Council

UNHRC

United Nations Human Rights Commission

UNISDR

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

United Nations Security Council

VAT

value added tax

WHO

World Health Organization

WMO

World Meteorological Organization

WTO

World Trade Organization

(p. xx)