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date: 12 November 2019

(p. 779) Index

(p. 779) Index

Note 1: tables, figures, boxes, and notes are indicated by ‘t’, ‘f’, ‘b’, and ‘n’

Note 2: specific entries pertaining to particular countries can be found under the main headings of Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS); Brazil; China; European Union; India; Least Developed Countries; Russia; United States

Åarhus Convention see Arhus Convention
Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) 365
Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference, Declaration of 375
accountability 69, 88, 116, 159
accounting gaps, avoidance of: forestry and agriculture 568, 569
acidification 34
Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) phase 106, 746
adaptation 12–13, 18–20, 21, 775, 779
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 775, 779
Brazil 730, 733
China 645n, 662
damages 470, 480, 486
disaster law 593, 595, 597, 598
displacement of persons 523, 533
European Union 682
finance agreements 143, 147, 149, 150, 152, 157–8
forestry and agriculture 569, 579, 583–4, 587
human rights 232, 504–5, 521
India 696, 698–9, 703
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 397, 400, 401, 408
intra- and inter-generational equity 195, 201
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 114, 145, 146
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 745, 757, 758
political and legal challenges 153
precautionary principle 175, 183
renewable energy sector 370
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99, 159
United States 615
Adaptation Committee 11, 13
Adaptation Framework 119
Adaptation Fund (AF) 111, 116, 141, 149, 151, 154, 149
Board 153
adaptive capacity 476, 743, 744, 749, 750, 752, 754
adaptive management 177–8
additionality 366, 576, 697
Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) 63, 105
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) 35, 117, 704
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol (1997) (AWG-KP) 775
Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) 115, 574, 775
(p. 780) Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases (AGGG) 58
afforestation/reforestation 566, 573–5
India 697
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 741
Africa 217, 476, 513, 537, 751
Africa Group 195, 587, 751
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 434, 513
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR) 434
Agenda 21 102, 373, 388, 436
agenda-setting (late 1980s) 56–7
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM) 695
Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) 322, 370, 700
agriculture see forestry and agriculture
air pollution 434
China 658, 664
transboundary 472
United States 616, 621, 623
Al-Attiyah, Abdullah bin Hamad 38
albedo 548
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 15, 767, 769, 771, 773, 775, 777, 779
adaptation 775, 779
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform (ADP) 775
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) 775
Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) 775
Berlin Mandate 771, 767, 770
carbon dioxide 767
carbon sinks 765
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 763
citizenship 776
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) 773
Conference of the Parties (COP) 1 Berlin (1995) 772, 774
Conference of the Parties (COP) 2 Geneva (1996) 770
cooperation 773
emergence as a negotiating force 765–7
emissions cuts 763
emissions, net 771
equity 772–3, 776
finance 775
G77 765, 768, 769, 770
Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of SIDS (GCSDSIDS) 764
Global Environment Facility 763, 775
governance 776
Green Group 771, 768
greenhouse gases (GHGs) 608
green text 770
human rights issues 772
institutional problems: negotiating framework 36
insurance factors 765, 771, 775
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 401
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 762, 776,
International Negotiating Committee (INC) 763, 774
I 763
II 763
III 765, 768
IV 765, 768
V 766
XI 767, 768
intra- and inter-generational equity 772–3
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 778
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 745, 757–759
legal issues 772
Malé Declaration on Global Warming and Sea Level Rise 762
mitigation 775
mitigation financing 764
National Communications of the Pacific Island Countries (PICs) 771–2
national and supranational actors 20
negotiations 771, 773, 775
origins 762
(p. 781) Pacific Island Countries (PICs) 771
polluter pays principle 773
precautionary principle 763
Prompt Start resolution 766
Protocol 770–1, 773–5
REDD+ 775
reduction target 766
relocation 776
Rio Declaration:
Principle 2 773
Principle 7 777
Rule 22 769
Rule 42 769
Rules of Procedure 769
Samoa: Cyclone Val 765
sea level rise 763
Second World Climate Conference (Geneva 1990) 763
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme 763
shifting focus to human dimension in the Pacific 771
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) 751
Small States Conference on Sea Level Rise (Malé) (1989) 762
South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP) 763, 779–80
sovereignty 776
Stockholm Declaration: Principle 23 773
Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) 775
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Assistance (SBSTA) 779
sustainable development 776, 772, 774
technology transfer 766, 770
UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 764
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 748, 774
UN General Assembly (UNGA) 744
voting procedures 769
vulnerabilities 763, 767
allocation, politics of 88–9
Angola 753
annual greenhouse gases (GHGs) inventories 13
Anti-Dumping Agreement 371
arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination (AUD) 331
Argentina 385
Arhus Convention 45, 222, 233, 500, 507, 508
Arrhenius, S. 98, 173
Asia 751,
Asian Development Bank 155
Provincial Energy Efficiency Power Plant Investment Program 378
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 372
assigned amount units (AAUs) 116, 567
associated petroleum gas (APG) 710, 715, 719
Association of Small Island States 42
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 367
Auction and Monitoring Workgroup (AMWG) 275n–6n
auctions:
allowances 297
Brazil 733, 735
European Union 678, 682, 685
United States 626–7
AusAID 537
Australia 11, 35n, 770
carbon leakage prevention 287
Carbon Pricing Mechanism (CPM) 268, 348
damages 470n, 474
disaster law 595
displacement of persons 529, 539, 541
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 115
emissions trading systems 264n, 267, 352
forestry and agriculture 571n
New South Wales Protection of the Environment Administration Act (1991) 197
precautionary principle 178
Austria 317
aviation emissions:
California 341, 347, 349
European Union 685, 696, 702
Bahamas 467
Bali Action Plan (2007) 525, 574
Bangladesh 179, 197, 385, 541
Barroso, J. M. 319n, 675
BASIC countries 20, 742, 757
behavioural law 92
Belarus 35n, 38, 705
Bergen Declaration (1990) 166
Berlin Mandate (1995) 767, 770
Ad Hoc Group (AGBM) 63, 105
beyond the UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ) 27–54
environmental impact assessment (EIA) 43–47
evolving regime 32
human rights perspectives 40
institutional problems: negotiating framework 36
International Court of Justice (ICJ) advisory opinion 51–9
trade law perspectives 49
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 46–9
Bhutan 750, 751
biennial update reports 130
bilateral agreements 369
bilateral channels 141
bilateral funds 158
biofuels/biodiesel/ethanol 362, 388
biomass 383, 384
black carbon 118
Blasio, B. de 625
Bloomberg, M. 625
Bolivia 38, 115, 579
Bonn negotiations (2013) 38, 705
border tax adjustments (BTAs) 315
bottom-up approaches 35, 117, 121, 149, 204–5
bounded rationality 93
Brazil 9–10, 35n, 729–39, 742
Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon 726, 738
adaptation 730, 738
afforestation 649
Amazon Fund 730
Amazon State Department for Sustainable Development 734
auctions 731
Bali Action Plan 725
Bandeirantes Landfill 730
biofuels and bio-electricity 726
Bolsa Floresta programme 734–9
Bolsa Verde (BVRio) programme 729, 739
carbon dioxide equivalent 733
Carbon Quotas for Legal Reserves 729
certified emission reductions (CERs) 730
Charter of Acre 736
civil society groups 736
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 88, 116, 729, 746
Climate Change Policy 736
command-and-control approach 728
Commission of Finance and Taxation 731
Committee on Constitution and Justice and Citizenship 731
compensation 728, 735
Conference of the Parties (COP) 60 Cancún (2010) 725
Conservation Units of Sustainable Use 734
Copenhagen Accord 118
deforestation/deforestation reduction 736–8, 752, 775
economic mechanisms 728
energy efficiency 727
energy sector 727
Environmental Conservation Program 734
Espírito Santo environmental agency 735
Executive Summary of the National Plan on Climate Change (2008) 725
Federal Forest Code 728
federal level policy 728–9
Federal Union 731
finance agreements 245
financial incentives 732
financing policies 729–31
forest conservation/preservation 734
forestry and agriculture 585–7
(p. 783) Forest State Institute (IEF) 732
Fundação Amazonia Sustentável (FAZ) 735
Global Climate Fund (GCF) 730
green economy 729
greenhouse gases (GHGs) 608
hydro power 724
industrial processes and waste 727
Industry Plan 727
institutional problems: negotiating framework 40
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 585
land reform settlements 734
land use changes 727
Low-Carbon Agriculture Program 730
Mercuria Energy Trading 730–1
Ministry of Environment 693
mitigation 730, 738, 746
monitoring system 735, 738–9
Municipal Environmental Agency (CODEMA) 732
Municipal Inventory of Emission and Human Removals of GHG 733
municipal level legislation and policy 732
National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) 730
National Climate Change Plan 725
National Fund on Climate Change (FNMC) 730
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) 725, 750
National Policy on Climate Change (PNMC) 729, 736, 737, 738
National Programme for payment for environmental services (PES) 731
national and supranational actors 20
National Water Agency (ANA) 732
Nature Conservancy (TNC) 732
New Forest Code 729
Open Data Kit (ODK) 735
overview of climate change policy 725–33
Participatory Monitoring Programme for Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Protected Areas 734
payment for environmental services (PES) 728, 737, 738
poverty alleviation 731
precautionary principle 178
primary objectives 727
protector-receiver principle 728
REDD 736
Remaining Forest Program 735
renewable energy 389, 723
Rio+20 Meeting 729
riparian areas 736
secondary goals 727
state level legislation and policy 733–6
sustainable development 729–30
tax rebates 728
trade law perspectives 49
transport sector 733
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99, 723
voluntary carbon credits 728
voluntary commitments 729–30
voluntary national targets 726
voluntary policies 735
waste sector 733
Water Conservator Program 732
wind power 727
BRICS countries 36n, 37
Brundtland Commission Report (1987) 189, 380
Buenos Aires Plans of Action (1978 and 1998) 109
burden-sharing 105, 208
Bush, G. W./Administration 8, 69, 84, 110, 174, 613, 621, 627
business-friendly international NGOs (BiNGOs) 69
Canada 11, 35n
Alberta: GHG emissions trading 348
British Columbia Carbon Tax Act 255
damages 473
dispute settlement 440
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 125
emissions trading programs 244, 256
environmental impact assessment 44n
Environmental Protection Act 167
finance agreements 146
(p. 784) human rights issues 772
institutional problems: negotiating framework 36
intra- and inter-generational equity 201n
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 29, 130–1
law of the sea perspectives 46
mitigation 17
Ontario:
carbon leakage prevention 287
feed-in tariffs (FITs): Canada-Renewable Energy dispute 370–1
precautionary principle 178
Quebec: cap-and-trade program 336, 627
rejection of second phase of Kyoto Protocol obligations 698
Cancún Adaptation Framework (2010) 114, 465, 494, 529, 534
Cancún Agreements (2010) 11, 129
damages 482
disaster law 595–7
forestry and agriculture 584
human rights 503
institutional problems: negotiating framework 38
International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) 129
intra- and inter-generational equity 197
overall assessment 130
capacity building 19, 750, 759, 773
cap-and-trade system:
carbon leakage 297, 299–309
carbon offsets 292
China 644
European Union 682, 685
finance agreements 146
free allowances allocation 291–6
India 703
Joint Implementation (JI) 106
material provisions 272
Pigouvian taxes 255
safety valves 292
United States 625–8
capital risks 382
carbon capture and storage (CCS) 31
carbon dioxide emissions 8n,
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 762
China 640, 642, 644, 653–4, 660, 663
dispute settlement 430, 435
emissions trading programs 244
European Union 678, 682, 685
forestry and agriculture 571
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 399
law of the sea perspectives 46–7
oceans and adaptation rules 548–9
path dependency 89
precautionary principle 175, 178
renewable energy sector 370
Russia 706, 714
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99, 121
United States 617–18, 621, 626–7, 631, 633
carbon dioxide equivalent 580, 733
carbon dioxide streams, disposal of for sequestration 31
Carbon Initiative for Development (Ci-Dev) 378
carbon intensity:
China 646, 648
Russia 702
carbon leakage:
anti-dumping or countervailing duty 295
best available technologies 292
business as usual emissions 288
direct costs 288, 299, 301
forestry and agriculture 296, 575, 577, 583
grandfathering 291
indirect costs 299, 301
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 402
mitigation 18
path dependency 91
carbon leakage and migration of private CO2 emitters to other jurisdictions 285
background 286
bilateral or multilateral agreements 296
(p. 785) preferential trade agreements with emission-related provisions 297
sectoral agreements 296
carbon cost increases, industry responses to 287–9
climate change law 289, 308, 321
domestic industry measures 290–7
cap-and-trade scheme: carbon offsets 292
cap-and-trade scheme: free allowances allocation 291–3, 298, 299
cap-and-trade scheme: safety valves 292
fund transfers as cross-subsidization 293
sector carve-outs 292
tax credits 293
exports, measures targeting 296
imports, measures targeting 294–9
bans or quantitative restrictions on non-compliant exports 294
border adjustment duties 294
international reserve allowances (IRAs) 295
South Africa 310–12
United States 309, 318
carbon leakage prevention 287
bottom-up approach 315
China 322n, 325n
competitiveness concerns and energy security 318
covered list 321n
economic measure 318
environmental measure 318
national climate measures 322, 330, 331
border tax adjustments (BTAs) 315
emissions trading and border adjustment 319
green energy domestic support policies 323, 330
process and production method (PPM) 324, 329
World Trade Organization (WTO) and national climate measures 315
border tax adjustment measures and emission trading schemes 320, 323, 324, 330
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 322, 370, 436
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement 315
carbon management 31
carbon markets 139, 146, 152
carbon pools 569
carbon sinks 648, 705, 765
carbon tax 256, 276, 286n, 293, 295
China 654
India 703
carbon trading 111, 116, 650, 656
carbon unit 259
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 763
Carter, J. 609
carve-outs 292, 624
catastrophe bonds 599
catastrophe modelling 478
catastrophic climate risks 169
causation 487, 491, 495
Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) 17, 145, 261, 271n
Brazil 733
carbon trading 111
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 107n
finance agreements 146
forestry and agriculture 585
renewable energy sector 369–70
sales 142
voluntary cancellation 118
Chamber for Fisheries Disputes 430
Chamber for Marine Environment Disputes 430
Chicago Convention 303
Chile 255, 582
China 8–10, 30–1, 33–5, 53, 640–65
adaptation 641n, 689
administrative measures 641
afforestation 643, 648, 649, 662, 678
air pollution 654, 660
Air Pollution Action Plan 654
and Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771, 773, 775
ammonia nitrate 643
(p. 786) backwards production capacity/facilities 644
capacity problems 657
cap-and-trade programs 622
carbon emissions 650, 663
carbon emissions trading pilot 650
carbon intensity 646
carbon intensity reduction targets 651, 657
carbon leakage prevention 287
carbon outsourcing 637
carbon sinks, increase in 648
carbon tax 650
central compensation scheme 660
chemical oxygen demand (COD) 642–7
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 649
climate change contribution 637
climate change law 651
climate exchanges 649
coal-fired economic growth 636
command-and-control approaches 641
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) 574
Copenhagen Accord 118n
cost-sharing and other financial support 648
disaster law 593
eco-cities 651
eco-compensation 660
economic transformation 655
eleventh five-year plan (2006–11) 641, 646
emissions trading programs 256
energy efficiency improvement 645, 657
energy intensity 646
energy structure optimization 646–2
environmental quality 655
evolving climate change co-benefits 652
evolving role in negotiations 638–40
feed-in tariffs 648
finance agreements 149, 160
‘fire alarm’ supervision 657
five-year plans 641n, 645, 646–50, 651n, 662–3
forestry and agriculture 585
fossil fuels 643n
GDP 636, 654
greenhouse gases (GHGs) 608
Human Development Index 658n
human rights issues 42, 229, 232
hydropower 650–1
implementation barriers 655–62
implementation measures 647
Implement the Big, Crush the Small policy 644
industrial facilities upgrade 638
industrial gas destruction projects 679
industrial structure adjustment 643–9
influence of EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) 673
information problems 657
institutional problems: negotiating framework 40
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 393
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 640
Interim Measures on Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading 654
international reputation 655
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 585, 758
law of the sea perspectives 46
low-carbon pilot projects 654–5
mandatory connection and purchase policy 647
market-based programs 650
market measures 642
market reforms 638
Ministry of Energy 640
Ministry of Environmental Protection 654
mitigation 641n, 661
National Climate Change Countermeasures Coordination Group 640
national climate change program 641, 646, 648, 649, 652, 654
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) 664
National Leading Group on Climate Change 640
national and supranational actors 20
natural gas 648
(p. 787) nitrogen oxides 643
nuclear power 647
path dependency 89, 91
payment for environmental services (PES) 725
policy and law 645, 647, 649, 651, 653, 655, 657, 659, 661, 663, 665
pollute first, clean up later approach 659
pollution reduction 644
precautionary principle 178
principal-agent problems 652
public opinion supervision 657
public supervision 637
as quasi-developed/quasi-developing country 658
regional economic disparities 652
regulation, decentered 654
regulatory tools 641, 656
Renewable Energy Law 648
renewable energy sector 375, 377–87, 382, 389, 682
Rio Earth Summit (1992) 639
seventh five-year plan (1986–90) 659
shale gas 653
shutdowns 644
social stability 656
solar power 646–7
State Council 648, 655
State Development and Planning Commission (SDPC) 640
State Meteorological Administration 639–40
State Planning Commission 640n
state planning targets 647
State Science & Technology Commission 640n
strategic emerging industries 645
sulfur dioxide 643
targets 646–7
Ten Key Energy Efficiency Projects 645
Top 1,000 Enterprises 645
Top 10,000 Enterprises program 646
trade law perspectives 49
transparency 637
twelfth five-year plan (2011–15) 642
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 121, 659
and United States bilateral agreement 616, 657
Voluntary Emissions Reduction 650
water pollution 660
wind power 720
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) phase-out 246
Christie, C. 622
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) 66n
civil society/civil society groups 21–2, 736
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 12, 31–2, 111–13, 260, 261, 335, 350–1
Brazil 84, 733, 735, 739
China 653–4
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 121
European Union 682n
Executive Board (EB) 88, 107
finance agreements 145, 152
forestry and agriculture 573, 575, 577, 579, 585
India 696, 697, 699, 703
intra- and inter-generational equity 200
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 110, 111, 112, 115, 116, 120–2, 124, 126, 145
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 741
mitigation 17
multilateral funds for climate finance 149t
renewable energy sector 369–70
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 121
United States 623
Clean Technology Fund (CTF) 148, 378
Climate Change Levy (CCL) (2001) 254–9
‘climategate’ scandal 63–4, 443, 450, 463
Climate Institute 592
Climate Investment Funds 148, 155
Climate Policy Initiative 158
climate refugees 593, 682, 754
Climate Strategies 263
Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) 395
Clinton, B./Administration 84, 110, 174
coalition of rainforest nations 752
(p. 788) Coase, R. H. 73–4, 79, 81–3, 89
Codex Alimentarius Commission 450, 451
Collateral Custody Agreement 423
collective rights 513
Colombia 587
command-and-control regulatory style of approach 17
Brazil 732
China 640–1, 645, 661
commitment period (CP) 116
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 221, 223, 227, 230, 234
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) 14, 31
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 775–7
China 643, 662n, 664
common concern of humankind 212
dispute settlement 431, 433
European Union 678n
finance 160
forestry and agriculture 585, 577, 579
human rights 502–3, 514, 515
intra- and inter-generational equity 193
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 144
path dependency 89
political and legal challenges 137, 153
renewable energy sector 364, 379–80
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99, 159
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDRRC):
carbon leakage 290
common concern of humankind 212
damages 493, 494
disaster law 593 595, 597
displacement of persons 533
forestry and agriculture 585
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 393
intra- and inter-generational equity 190, 197, 195, 204–5
common concern of humankind 202–12, 433
common heritage 206
conceptual issues 209–12
common heritage of humankind (CHH) 512
community of interest rule 428
compensation 22, 270, 470, 474, 475, 490–3, 600, 603
Brazil 732, 738
India 699
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 741
Russia 709
Compliance Instrument Tracking System Service (CITSS) 271n
compliance under evolving climate change regime 120
background 121
compliance committee 136
facilitative mechanism 134–9
future trajectories 133–9
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 126, 135–40
main features and functions 126
methodological and reporting requirements and disagreements over adjustments 125
mitigation targets 129
overall considerations 127
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 121, 209, 262
international assessment and review 128, 135
international consultation and analysis 129
overall assessment 130
Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP) 263
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 1 Montreal 112
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 5 Copenhagen 112
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 7 Durban 115
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 8 Doha 115
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 9 Warsaw 117
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 10 Lima 117
(p. 789) Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 11 Paris 115
Conference of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) 29, 123
Conference of the Parties (COP) 1 Berlin (1995) 37, 60, 110, 132, 145, 749–50, 772, 774
Conference of the Parties (COP) 3 Kyoto (1997) 109, 113, 610, 744, 746
Conference of the Parties (COP) 4 Buenos Aires (1998) 113, 750
Conference of the Parties (COP) 5 Bonn (1999) 750
Conference of the Parties (COP) 6bis Bonn (2001) 113
Conference of the Parties (COP) 6 Hague (2000) 113, 146
Conference of the Parties (COP) 7 Marrakesh (2001) 8, 112, 113–14, 146
Conference of the Parties (COP) 8 New Delhi (2002) 752
Conference of the Parties (COP) 9 Milan (2003) 752
Conference of the Parties (COP) 10 Buenos Aires (2004) 752
Conference of the Parties (COP) 11 Montreal (2005) 576, 752
Conference of the Parties (COP) 13 Bali (2007) 9
Conference of the Parties (COP) 15 Copenhagen (2009) 9–10, 116, 147–8, 268–9
India 703
Russia 707–8
United States 614
Conference of the Parties (COP) 16 Cancún (2010) 11, 12, 32
Brazil 730
common concern of humankind 212
damages 469
finance agreements 143–8
forestry and agriculture 585
human rights principles 223–4
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 396, 398, 411
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757, 758
renewable energy sector 370
Conference of the Parties (COP) 17 Durban (2011) 11, 132, 573–4
carbon leakage 310
common concern of humankind 212
finance agreements 143–8
forestry and agriculture 585
precautionary principle 183
Conference of the Parties (COP) 18 Doha (2012) 115
damages 469
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757, 758
legalization of finance commitments 156
renewable energy sector 369
second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 115
Conference of the Parties (COP) 19 Warsaw (2013) 36, 121, 123, 132
damages 469
finance agreements 143
forestry and agriculture 585
intra- and inter-generational equity 195, 204
Conference of the Parties (COP) 20 Lima (2014) 23, 121, 195, 205
Conference of the Parties (COP) 21 Paris (2015) 34, 120, 121, 123, 183, 369
Conference of the Parties (COP):
adaptation 19n
economic factors 84
Global Administrative Law (GAL) 68
institutions and expertise and the role of science 451, 458
(p. 790) science and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 640
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99, 121, 209, 262, 267
consensus negotiating procedure 37
consequential environmental damage 474
Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications 134
consumption-based GHG accounting 90
Convention on Biological Diversity 21, 46, 53, 204, 368, 388, 436
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species and Wild Animals 368
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 66
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) 121
Task Force and Working Group 460
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention) 31
Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and Lakes (1992) 194n
Convention on the Rights of the Child 217
cooperation 211, 364, 367, 562n
human rights principles 223–4
intergovernmental 58n, 60
coordination 61, 153
Copenhagen Accord (2009) 10–12, 29, 35, 117–18
China 117
finance agreements 143
forestry and agriculture 585
institutional problems: negotiating framework 38
intra- and inter-generational equity 198
legalization of finance commitments 156
Costa Rica 572
cost-benefit effectiveness 172
cryosphere 33–4
Cuba 467n
Cuomo, A. 619
Cyprus 579
Czech Republic 44n
damages 469–95
assessment 482
balance of probabilities 485
burden of proof 491
‘but for test’ or condition sine qua non formula 484
catastrophe modelling 478
causation 487, 491
climate change assessment 478
compensation 705
consequential environmental damage 474
contributory fault/negligence 488–9
costs of damage prevention 482
Damage and Loss Assessment Methodology 482
de minimis test 473
direct impacts/injuries 478, 482
Disaster Risk Management (DRM) 482
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) 478
disaster risks 479
environmental damages 470
equitable assessment 468
exposure 483–4, 487, 490
financially assessable damage 467
harm, threshold of 473
human rights 508n
indirect harm/impacts 474
injury, contribution to and concurrent causes 490–3
institutional arrangements 465
International Law Commission (ILC) and transboundary environmental damages 530
internationally wrongful act 487
key risks as reasons of concern 475
loss and damage 468n, 492
material losses/damages 468
moral damages 468, 494
non-economic damages 468
(p. 791) non-material damages 469
non-repetition guarantees 468
primary rules 474
proximate cause 486
pure environmental damage 474
quantification responsibility 490
reasonableness test 492
rehabilitation 470
reparation 468, 473, 474, 482, 486, 488–90, 493, 494
resilience 481n, 483
restitution 468, 474
satisfaction 468, 474
secondary rules 474
standard of proof 485
state of necessity 470
types 467
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) definition 443, 498
vulnerability 480, 482–9, 490
deforestation 315, 347, 564
Brazil 731, 732, 735, 739, 742
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757
Denmark 254, 335
desertification 752
development banks 155, 360
Inter-American Development Bank 156n
multilateral 159
regional 155, 159
disaster law 593–603
adaptation 593, 596, 598
climate refugees 593
compensation and rebuilding 600
disaster-linked securities (catastrophe bonds) 599
disaster risk 594, 595, 599, 600
emergency response 600
Fukushima nuclear accident (Japan) 595
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) 594
Haitian earthquake (2010) 624
humanitarian aid 597
International Relief Union (IRU) 597
mitigation 589, 599, 602
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (previously UN Disaster Relief Coordination) 599–600
poorer regions and countries 591
precautionary principle 597n
private insurance 599
Red Cross 598n, 602
reverse precautionary principle 597
scenario analysis 596n
sea level rise 592
Southeast Asian tsunami 598
Sphere Project 598
temperature rise 590–6
vulnerability 595
Disaster Risk Management (DRM) 482
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) 478
disaster risks 479
discounting 78–9
displacement of persons 525–40
complementary protection 525, 526, 538
‘failed States’ 527n
forced migration 521
human rights 529, 533, 537
inhuman or degrading treatment 526
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 532–5
International Law Commission (ILC): Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters 530
Kampala Convention on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 532, 533
managed migration 534, 538–40
Nansen Initiative on Disaster-Induced Cross-Border Displacement 534, 540
Protection Agenda 534
Nansen Principles 533, 540
persecution 525, 526
Refugee Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) 521, 535, 537
Protocol (1967) 521
refugees 523n, 528, 531, 533, 534
small island states 528
statelessness/stateless persons 521, 526, 528
timing of a claim 525
UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 533
(p. 792) UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 528
Ministerial Meeting (2011) 537
dispute settlement 21, 104, 421–40
cross-cutting issues 438
access and incentive 439
causation and burden of proof 438
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 421
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 421
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 426
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 429
multilateral consultative process 419n
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 425n
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 423
regional human rights courts 435
UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Committee 424
World Trade Organization (WTO) 411
Doha Amendment (2012) 38, 365
Doha Declaration (2001) 401
Doha Development Round (2001) 372
domestic industry measures 294–7
cap-and-trade scheme:
carbon offsets 292
free allowances allocation 294–6
safety valves 291
fund transfers as cross-subsidization 293
sector carve-outs 292
tax credits 293
double counting, avoidance of 568, 569, 582
Draft Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities (2001) 471
Draft Principles on Human Rights and the Environment 507
Dubai Electricity and Water Authority 364
due diligence 48, 51–2, 223, 225, 490
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2011) 5n, 11, 34, 35n, 115, 117,
common concern of humankind 212
forestry and agriculture 585
institutional problems: negotiating framework 40
intra- and inter-generational equity 199, 201
legalization of finance commitments 156
Eastern Europe 460
eco-cities 651
eco-compensation 660
eco-labelling 372
Economic Commission for Europe 121
Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) 748
economics and international climate change law 73
Coase, R. H.: scholarly imperative 73n, 79n, 80n, 81
emissions trading 83n, 84
externalities 80–2, 85
immanent critiques 86
information 92–3
international lawyers 73–5
path dependency 89–91
property and ownership 79
public goods 79–80
rationality 92–3
social cost 73n, 79n, 80n, 80–4, 85n, 87
temporality (time periods) 77
transaction costs 81–3, 85–6, 87–9
Economic Vulnerability Index 743
emergence of international climate change law 4–7
Emission Reduction Unit (ERU) 110, 113, 265, 267n, 369, 575
(p. 793) emissions:
inventories 128
limitation 126
net 765
per capita 89
per unit of GDP 89
emissions trading: linkages and legal frameworks 257, 274, 278, 282
concepts 262
definitions 259, 276
future perspectives for linking 273
law and institutions, role of 266
legal consistency 272
legal form 270
material provisions 270–6
linking in theory and practice 258
overview of linking research 261
conceptual phase 262
critical phase 264
instrumental phase 263
emissions trading 17n, 28n, 83n, 112, 246, 250, 251, 256–9, 261, 337n
additionality 346n
allowance allocation 342, 354
ambitious cap-setting 352
arbitrage 260
auctioning 345, 352
benchmarks 342
bilateral or multilateral link 260, 268, 269, 274, 277
and border adjustment 323–5
‘bubbling’ rule 245
business as usual 346
California and Québec link 263, 273–6, 277
cap-and-trade system 248–50
cap-setting 342
carbon dioxide 338
carbon unit 259
China 251, 254–5
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 249n
clusters or clubs 275
command-and-control mandates 241
competitiveness 345
compliance 350
compliance costs reduction 248
cooperation 264
coordination 153
coverage 340
credits 347
critical phase 264
decentralized trading system 246
direct linking 260
discount factors, ratios or exchange rates 275
domestic offsets 347
downstream regulation 339
economically feasible substitutes 247
economic factors 79, 85
enforcement 349
ethics 233
evolution and diffusion 335
financial penalties 349
flexibility 340
foreign units 259
free allocation 346–7, 349, 356
future prospects 265
grandfathering 343
harmonized standards 274
horizontal borrowing 336
hybrid systems 338
implications 265
India 699
indirect linking 260
informal negotiations 269
instrumental phase 263
international offsets 347
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 106
lead content in gasoline 246–8
leakage 346
learning and adaptation 354
learning-by-doing 341
learning or pilot phase 341
market stability reserve 349n
Memorandum of Understanding 269
methane 338
minimum list 275
multilateral links 275, 277, 280
(p. 794) negative list 275
‘netting’ rule 275
nitrous oxide 338
offsets 249
positive list 275
predictability 340
price ceiling (safety valve) 349
price collar 348
price floor 349
price management 350
quantitative restrictions 347
reciprocal links 269
registries 259
regulatory harmonization 271
reserve price for auctioned allowances 348
scope 341–4
sectoral coverage 339
technical standards 269
timing 342
tradable permit system 246
transaction costs 88
unilateral linkage 264, 271–2, 274, 277
United States 264
upstream regulation 339
vertical legal borrowing 335
windfall profits 343
working groups 271n
emissivity 250n
energy balance of the earth 546
Energy Charter Secretariat 422
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 362
Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects 367
energy efficiency:
Brazil 731
China 649
Russia 705
United States 615
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) 32
environmental degradation 504
environmental goods 371
environmental harm 221
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 43–5, 47, 433
Convention (1991) 43–5
environmental law principles 375
environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) 69, 84
environmental protection 428
see also under human rights
equity 55, 776–7, 776
distributional 175
Equity Reference Framework 194
erga omnes obligations 428
Espinosa, P. 38
Estrada-Oyuela, R. 105
Ethiopia 750
Climate Resilient Green Economy Strategy 365
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) 365
EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) 250n
carbon leakage 287
concerns: policy responses 302–5
legal implications of reduction measures 301
prevention 321
carbon trading 98
common concern of humankind 212
economic factors 73
emissions trading systems 267n
finance agreements 150, 152
GHG emissions trading 281n
market mechanisms 245
precautionary principle 175
rationality and information 92
spot market 88
transaction costs 88
Europe 10, 53
disaster law 590
human rights issues 508
Pigouvian taxes 255
renewable energy sector 259
(p. 795) trade law perspectives 51
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 377
European Commission 676
carbon leakage 299
GHG emissions trading 340
precautionary principle 170
European Committee of Social Rights 504
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 230
European Council 675
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 222
European Court of Justice 301
European Economic Area (EEA) 276
European Free Trade Agreement (EFTA) 260
European General Court (EGC) 300
European Parliament 300
European Social Charter 505
European Union 673n
‘20 per cent by 2020’ target 679
‘2050 Roadmap’ 675
adaptation 689, 692
afforestation 652
auctions 678
aviation emissions 687
‘Brussels effect’ 676
cap-and-trade systems 679, 698
carbon dioxide 675, 680
carbon leakage prevention 287
carbon market outreach strategy 258
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 679
climate ambitions and environmental leadership 680–3
climate change law and policy 672
Aviation Directive 435
revised EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) Directive 675
Climate and Energy Package 679n
climate refugees 682
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) 678n
contingent unilateralism 673
Directorate-General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA) 673
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 114
economic factors 85
emissions allowances (EUAs) 288
emissions trading 264
Energy Taxation Directive (2003) 300
environmental impact assessment 44
environmental protection 680
EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) Prohibition Act 685
‘Europe 2020’ 675
forestry and agriculture 585
‘gecko effect’ 683
Generalised System of Preferences Regulation 297
green economy 682
greenhouse gases (GHGs) 670
human rights principles 223–4
institutional problems: negotiating framework 36n, 40
institutions and expertise and the role of science 458
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 680
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 674
legalization of finance commitments 156
linkage 759
Lisbon Treaty 671
Maastricht Treaty 172
Member States’ National Allocation Plans 344
mitigation 677
multilateral regulatory context 672
multi-level governance 672
national and supranational actors 20
offset systems 684
path dependency 91
Pigouvian taxes 255
regulatory pluralism 684
regulatory politics approach 683n
renewable energy sector 397
security 683
state aid 344
State Aid Action Plan (2005) 304
sustainability criteria for biofuels 295n
(p. 796) trade law perspectives 50
Transport Agreement 305
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 689n, 691
European Union Allowances (EUAs) 267–2
exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 552
expert review teams (ERT) 127–8, 130–3, 135
exposure: damages 483
externalities 80–2, 85
facilitative exchange of views 130
fair and equitable treatment 200
feed-in tariffs (FITs) 322, 330
Fiji 770
finance/finance agreements 105–6, 138–60
adaptation 19n
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 775
complementarity and coherence 154
coordination 153
credibility 147
evolution of agreements 139
evolution of agreements for climate finance:
implementation 142–4
evolving landscape of institutions 144
multilateral funds 149t
foreign direct investment (FDI) 154
fragmentation 150
governance improvement 150
harmonization 150
India 699
information sharing 152
intra- and inter-generational equity 201
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 140
obstacles and opportunities 159
political and legal challenges 153
legalization of finance commitments 156
sources of finance 154
private sector loans 155
public sector 155
results-based 573
standardization 152
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 140
Financial Intermediary Fund 396
Finland 254
fisheries management organizations (FMOs) 556
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 148
food security 579
Forest Investment Program 148
Forest Management Reference Levels (FMRLs) 569
forestry and agriculture 585
absolute terms 575
accounting gaps, avoidance of 562
activity-based approach 578
adaptation 562, 575, 581, 586
afforestation see afforestation
agricultural emissions 568
agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU) sector 568
assigned amount units (AAUs) 567
bioenergy/biofuels 579
Brazil 730
business-as-usual removals 570
carbon pools 569
carbon storage (soils) 564
combined framework for developing and developed countries 581
cropland management 569
deforestation see deforestation
degradation 118
double counting, avoidance of 568, 569, 582
finance agreements 143
flexible mechanisms and land use 570
(p. 797) food security 579
forest management 566
Forest Management Reference Levels (FMRLs) 569
forest transition curve 752
grazing land management 569
gross–net approach 568
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 564–5, 569, 571–2, 574, 577–8, 583
land use 565
land use accounting, consolidation of 577
land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) emissions 570
land-based versus activity-based accounting 568
reporting requirements 568
second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol (1997) 569
leakage risks 571
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757
long-term credits (lCERs) 571
mitigation 564
obligations under the Kyoto Protocol (1997) 566
obligations under UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 565
net–net approach 566
outlook 583
paper tonnes 571
permanence risks 571
policies and incentives, alignment of 579
poverty reduction 576
recent developments in considering agriculture 574
REDD+ 578, 579
Reducing Emissions from All Land Uses 578
reforestation 566
Removal Units (RMUs) 567
revegetation 569
selective inclusion 578
sources and sinks 567
sustainable land-use policies 566
temporary credits (tCERs) 571
wall-to-wall comprehensive inventory 569
wetland drainage and rewetting 570
working group 579
work programme 574
forum shopping 266
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) 455
France 255
precautionary principle 170
fraud 334n
free allowances allocation 291
freedom of the seas principle 551
free-riding 121
fugitive methane emissions 615
G8 379
G20 155n
G77 705
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 145
and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 741
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 142
Gayoom, M. A. 762
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 323
carbon leakage 290
dispute settlement 436
renewable energy sector 370
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 370
geothermal energy 384
Germany:
dispute settlement 427, 429, 440
Friends of the Earth (BUND) 424
human rights issues 42
National Contact Points (NCPs) 425
renewable energy sector 383
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 106
Water Law 422
(p. 798) global administrative law (GAL) 68
Global Carbon Budget 702
Global Climate Fund (GCF) 730
Global Commission on the Economy and Climate: New Climate Report 119
global commons 203
Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (GCSDSIDS) 764
Global Energy Efficiency 379
Global Environment Facility (GEF) 151
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
Council 111n
finance agreements 144
funds 154
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 366
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 110
Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) 149t
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757, 758
legalization of finance commitments 156
Secretariat 111
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) 149t
Trust Fund 150t
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 140
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) 594
global temperature increase limited to below 2 degrees Celsius 10–11, 33–4, 53, 104, 122
common concern of humankind 212
Copenhagen Accord 113
finance agreements 154
forestry and agriculture 581
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 395
renewable energy sector 359
good faith 50–2
Gore, A. 610
Greece 371
Green Climate Fund (GCF) 10–12, 118, 153t
Board 153
Cancún Adaptation Framework 114
finance agreements 147–8, 150
forestry and agriculture 585
Governing Instrument 156n
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 395
legalization of finance commitments 156
performance measurement framework for mitigation 157
renewable energy sector 366
Results Management Framework 156n
Secretariat 153
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 119
green economy 682
green energy domestic support policies 321
Green G77 745
Green Group 770
greenhouse gases (GHGs) 8, 29–35
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
annual greenhouse gases (GHGs) inventories 13
Brazil 730, 731–9, 742
carbon leakage 286
China 640
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 107
common concern of humankind 212
consumption-based GHG accounting 90
damages 469
dispute settlement 427, 429, 440
emissions trading programs 244
European Union 28, 678–9
forestry and agriculture 585
human rights principles 223–4
Joint Implementation (JI) 106
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 105
law of the sea perspective 46–8
path dependency 91
precautionary principle 170
renewable energy sector 367
Russia 705
trade law perspectives 49
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 103, 104
(p. 799) United States 615
Greenpeace 421
gross–net approach 566–7
Hague Declaration (1899) 754
Haiti 598
harm:
environmental 222n, 223
indirect 478
threshold of 471
transboundary 226
Hedegaard, C. 682
High Level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing (AGF) 154
Hu Jintao 644
Human Assets Index (HAI) 744
Human Development Index 662n
humanitarian aid 597
Human Rights Commission 509
Human Rights Committee 224
Human Rights Council 218–21
Human Rights Covenants 217
human rights principles 223–4
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 508
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 505
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR) 229
assessment 222
civil and political rights 222n
collective rights 513
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 510
disaster law 597
displacement of persons 530
Draft Principles on Human Rights and the Environment 507
economic, social and cultural rights 224n
environment: developments from international, regional and national levels 507
environmental protection 221
non-state actors, application to 223
procedural obligations 221
substantive obligations 222
European Committee of Social Rights 505
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 229
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 227n
extraterritorial obligations 229
freedom of expression and association 221
Human Rights Commission 508
Human Rights Council 503
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 393
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 220n
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 434
interference with enjoyment of human rights and climate change 215
internally displaced persons 503
internal obligations 227
Inuit 423
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 757, 758
limitations 510
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Report (2009) 230
participation 222
prior consent 223
remedy 222
respect for private and family life 221
self-determination right 216
socio-economic rights: life, health, adequate housing, food, and water 500n
solidarity rights 510
Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment 512
tribunals 21
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 214
(p. 800) vulnerable to environmental harm (women, children, and indigenous peoples) 223
Hungary 198
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) phase-out 173
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 118
hydropower 386
Brazil 727
China 640
India 699
Iceland 261
illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing 431
imports, measures targeting 294–9
bans or quantitative restrictions on non-compliant exports 294
border adjustment duties 294
international reserve allowances (IRAs) 295
Independent Alliance of Latin America and the Caribbean (AILAC) 36n
India 8n, 9–10, 694
adaptation 697, 698–9, 707
Adaptation Fund 695
Advisory Council on Climate Change 695
afforestation 695
and Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 369
baseline determinations/additionality requirements 697
bilateral programs 695
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) 695
cap-and-trade system 698
carbon dioxide intensity reduction targets 725
carbon leakage prevention 287
carbon tax 698
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 107n
compensation 705
Conference of the Parties (COP) 15 Copenhagen (2009) 697
Constitution 689, 699
Copenhagen Accord 113
disaster law 594
Electricity Act (2003) 694
emissions trading 250
Energy Conservation Act (2001) 693
finance/finance agreements 149, 160, 696
flash flooding 690
flexible mechanisms 698
forestry and agriculture 585
future prospects: correct basis for action 697–9
Green Group 768
greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions 703
human rights issues 42
hydroelectric power 694
institutional problems: negotiating framework 40
Integrated Energy Policy (IEP) 694
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 393
intra- and inter-generational equity 201n
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) 694
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 659
law of the sea perspectives 48
legal response: treaties and national action 691
international climate change law 691–2
national laws 692
limits and challenges to climate change measures 695
market-based flexibility mechanisms 694
measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system 698
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) 693
Ministry of Finance 693
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy 694
mitigation 694
multilateral programs 693
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) 692–4
(p. 801) National Clean Development Mechanisms Authority 693
National Electricity Policy (2005) 693–4
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency 693
National Mission for a Green India 693
national and supranational actors 20
nuclear energy 694
Nuclear Suppliers Group 694
Patent Act 403
Planning Commission 693
precautionary principle 170
Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change 692
public health problems 691
regulatory scheme 688
renewable energy 693
solar energy 693
sustainable development 692
Tariff Policy (2006) 673–4
technology transfer assistance 692
threats and vulnerabilities 690–1
trade law perspectives 49
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 691
US–India Nuclear Agreement 694
World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM) 695
World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-related Investment Measures 696
indigenous peoples 434
see also Inuit
Indonesia 599
information-sharing 152
injury, contribution to and concurrent causes 495
institutions and expertise and the role of science 442, 450, 458
agency problems 459
asset specificity 452
collective action problems 458
credibility 455
epistemic communities 458–60
epistemic institutions 444, 452, 462–3
collective action problems and scientific cooperation 454
‘make or buy’ policy-relevant research 452
fisheries regimes 456
fragmentation 455n, 457, 459–60, 461–5
government control/influence 450–1
hierarchy 459
integration 456–7, 459–80
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 640
legal institutions 456–7, 460, 463–4
make-or-buy decisions 451, 456
opportunistic behaviour 453–4
scientific cooperation, international 446–50
transaction cost economics 451
uncertainty, scientific 154
Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility 103
insurance factors 765
intellectual property rights, technology transfer, and patents 392
antitrust treatment 402
Cancún solution and subsequent actions 394
constraints and UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) obligations 397
government-funded alternatives 401
political and trade tensions 399
private funding and markets, reliance on 396
transfer of patented technologies through markets 400–1
compulsory licensing 402
Conference of the Parties (COP) 16 Cancun (2010) 394
consumer and business privacy protection 392
digital copyright 404
downstream development 403
essential facilities doctrine 404
exclusive licensing 405
foreign direct investment (FDI) 400
(p. 802) green technologies exclusion from patenting 394
investment climate 398
joint venturing 400
march-in rights 406
market conditions 398
most-favoured-nation treatment 406
national measures to promote innovation and reduce costs of patented technologies 402
eligibility, exclusions from 403–4
expansive exhaustion (parallel importation) criteria 406
experimental use 403
humanitarian licensing powers 404
interoperability exceptions 403
retained research 404
national treatment 406
non-exclusive licensing 405
patent pooling 394
price regulation, direct 402
principal modalities 395–6
public and private data sharing 392
research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) 399
reverse engineering 404
royalty-free compulsory licensing 394
scientific capability 398
third-party licensing 406
trade 400
trademarks and certification marks 392
trade retaliation 407
trade secrets 392
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) 276
Submission Portal 118
InterAcademy Council (IAC) 459
Global Administrative Law (GAL) 68
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 225
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 434
Inter-American Development Bank 378
Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value (World Heritage Committee) 423, 425
Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) 99
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 53, 437
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 640
adaptation 18
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
Assessment Reports 225, 445
autonomy 445
Chair 64
China 640
Climate Change Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (working group) 62
credibility 445
damages 469
disaster law 595
dispute settlement 427, 440
emissions trading systems 258
establishment, principles and status 58–61
Executive Committee 459
Executive Director 459
Executive Team 64–5
Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) 5–6, 22, 35, 56, 65, 70, 475
Technical Summary 33–4
finance agreements 154
First Assessment Report (AR1) 60, 103
Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) 63, 69, 443
Full Technical Report 65, 69
funding and support 444–5
Global Administrative Law (GAL) 68
Governing Principles 445n
greater integration with UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 443
Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006) 568
institutions and expertise and the role of science 460
internal rules 445
intra- and inter-generational equity 189
(p. 803) Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 744
Mitigation of Climate Change (working group) 62
Physical Science Basis of Climate Change (working group) 62
precautionary principle 170
pre-history 56–8
Principles Governing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Work 59
public international law and scientific evidence 66–8
reform 63–6
renewable energy sector 367
Review Editors 65
Russia 705
Second Assessment Report (AR2) 60, 63
Secretariat 445
Special Report 60, 590
structure 62–3
Summary for Policymakers (SPM) 63, 65–6
Synthesis Report 63
Third Assessment Report (AR3) 61, 99
Trust Fund 444
Working Group 1 (WGI) 65, 70
Working Group 2 (WGII) 64
Working Group 3 (WGIII) 189
Working Groups 58
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 528
International Assessment and Review (IAR) 131
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 295
International Carbon Action Partnership 337
International Carbon Asset Reserve (ICAR) 280
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 421
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development 373
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 300
International Code Council 625
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT): Standing Committee on Research and Statistics 450
International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) 131
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) 32, 48
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 104
Advisory Opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons 51–4, 773
damages 469
dispute settlement 422, 424, 429, 431, 433, 435–40
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 222
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 215
International Emissions Trading (IET) 365
International Energy Agency (IEA) 362
Policies and Measures Database 377
International Energy Forum 377
International Finance Corporation 67, 378
international fisheries see oceans and adaptation rules
International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) 21
International Labour Organization (ILO) 69
International Law Association (ILA) 419
Committee 52
Draft Articles on Legal Principles Relating to Climate Change 188
International Law Commission (ILC) 440
Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities (2001) 471
Articles on State Responsibility (ASR) 473
Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters 530
Law on the Atmosphere 439
internationally wrongful act 487
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 296
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 599
Board of Governors 274n
(p. 804) International Negotiating Committee (INC) see under Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
International Relief Union (IRU) 597
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 387
Statute 362–4
international reserve allowances (IRAs) 295
International Seabed Authority: Assembly or Council 432
International Settlement Platform 276
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 429
Advisory Opinion on Seabed Activities (2010) 52
dispute settlement 433
forestry and agriculture 585
Statute and Rules 431
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 439
International Whaling Commission (IWC) 447
Scientific Committee 67
intra- and inter-generational equity 14, 186
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 771
and climate regime 193
distributive justice 188
doctrine development 190
duties of use 190
fairness 188–9
future of equitable climate regime 199–201
legal status 195
principles 188
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 99
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) 423
Inuit Petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (2005) 425, 433, 470
Iran 31, 467n
Iraq 469
Ireland 384
Israel 467n
Italy 323n, 321n, 375
Jackson, L. 613
Japan 28n, 29, 33, 35n, 763
carbon leakage prevention 287
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 116
emissions trading systems 258, 356
finance agreements 146
Fukushima nuclear accident 595–6
greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions 707
Pigouvian taxes 255
precautionary principle 170
rejection of second phase of Kyoto Protocol obligations 698
renewable energy sector 367
Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development 388, 496n
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation 369, 378
Johannesburg World Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development (2002) 378, 500
Joint Emissions Trading as a Socio-Ecological Transformation (JET-SET) 263
Joint Implementation (JI) 17n, 110–11, 423
carbon trading 109
Doha and second commitment period for Kyoto Protocol (1997) 116
emissions trading programs 244
forestry and agriculture 585
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 127, 128
renewable energy sector 367
Russia 705
Supervisory Committee 249
Joint Petroleum Development Area 369
Juncker, J.-C. 682
Kampala Convention on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 532
Kazakhstan 336
Ki-moon, Ban 98
Kiribati 535–6
Australia Nursing Initiative (KANI) 535
Knox, J. 508
Korea, Republic of 336, 376
Ksentini, F. Z. 508
Kuwait 770