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date: 17 August 2019

(p. lxxii) (p. lxxiii) Notes on the Contributors

(p. lxxii) (p. lxxiii) Notes on the Contributors

Daniele Archibugi is a Research Director at the Italian National Research Council, affiliated at the Institute on Population and Social Policy (IRPPS), and Professor of Innovation, Governance and Public Policy at the University of London, Birkbeck College.



Jean Michel Arrighi is Professor of Public International Law (University of Uruguay), Secretary for Legal Affairs at the Organization of American States, and Member of the Institut de droit international. Jean Michel Arrighi was born in Montevideo, Uruguay in 1953. He is Doctor of Law and Social Sciences at the Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay and Professor of Public International Law at the Universidad de la República, Uruguay. He has lectured at numerous universities and at The Hague Academy of International Law. Arrighi is a Member of the Institut de droit international and Vice-President of the Latin-American Society of International Law. He is the author of books and articles on international law, consumer law, and inter-American law, and has published in journals in the Americas and Europe as well as having collaborated in the treaty on Public International Law under the direction of Eduardo Jiménez de Aréchaga. Arrighi is also a contributor to the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press).



Jean d’Aspremont is Professor of Public International Law at the University of Manchester and Professor of International Legal Theory at the University of Amsterdam. He is the director of the Manchester International Law Centre (MILC). He used to be Editor-in-Chief of the Leiden Journal of International Law. He acted as counsel in proceedings before the International Court of Justice. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the European Journal of International Law.



Vasco Becker-Weinberg, Dr iur (Hamburg), Masters of Laws (Lisbon), is currently deputy and legal adviser to the Portuguese Secretary of State of the Sea. Before joining the Government of Portugal, he practised law for several years and was a full-time scholar at the International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs at the University of Hamburg. He has a law degree from the Portuguese Catholic University, a Masters from the University of Lisbon and a PhD from the University of Hamburg. He has published several works in public international law and the law of the sea. His research has also focused on maritime disputes and (p. lxxiv) the use and development of marine natural resources in disputed maritime areas. He has recently written Joint Development of Offshore Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Law of the Sea (Springer, 2014). He has further written on international dispute resolution, maritime law, international environmental law, maritime security, and the use of force at sea.



Niels Blokker is Professor of International Institutional Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden Law School, Leiden University, The Netherlands. He was appointed as Professor of International Institutional Law to the ‘Schermers Chair’ in 2003. He graduated from Leiden University (1984), where he also defended his dissertation (1989). From 1984 he was a lecturer, subsequently a senior lecturer in the law of international organizations at Leiden University. In 2000, he was appointed senior legal counsel at the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2007, he became Deputy Legal Adviser at that ministry. In August 2013, he left the Foreign Ministry and started working full-time at Leiden University. His publications include International Regulation of World Trade in Textiles (dissertation, 1989), International Institutional Law (5th edn, Brill, 2011, co-authored with the late Henry G. Schermers), Proliferation of International Organizations (2000, Martinus Nijhoff, co-authored with the late Henry G. Schermers), The Security Council and the Use of Force (2005, Martinus Nijhoff, co-edited with Nico Schrijver). He is co-founder and co-editor-in-chief of the journal International Organizations Law Review.



Dr Elizabeth Chadwick has been a Reader by research at Nottingham Law School, Nottingham Trent University since 2007. Her main research interests lie in the related fields of international humanitarian law, the self-determination of ‘peoples’, and international terrorism. Among her various publications, Elizabeth is the author of Self-Determination in the Post-9/11 Era (Routledge Research in International Law, 2011), and more recently of ‘Terrorism and Self-Determination’ in Ben Saul (ed), Research Handbook on Terrorism and International Law (Edward Elgar, 2014). She also has a long-standing interest in the laws of armed neutrality, and recently contributed the chapter on ‘Neutrality’ in Tony Carty (ed), Oxford Bibliographies in International Law (Oxford University Press, 2014).



Kalliopi Chainoglou is a Lecturer in International and European Institutions at the University of Macedonia, Greece, a Visiting Fellow at the Centre on Human Rights in Conflict at the University of East London, UK, and a Lecturer in Law at the University of Bolton, UK.



Theodora Christodoulidou, LLB (Athens), LLM (Bristol), PhD (London), Counsel (Human Rights Sector) for the Republic of Cyprus.



Olivier Corten, Professor at Université Libre de Bruxelles, Director of the Centre de droit international et de sociologie appliquée au droit international, Director (p. lxxv) of the Revue belge de droit international, and deputy director of the LLM in international law.



James Crawford, AC SC FBA, is Whewell Professor of International Law, University of Cambridge. He was the first Australian Member of the United Nations International Law Commission and in that capacity was responsible for the ILC’s work on the International Criminal Court (1994) and for the second reading of the ILC Articles on State Responsibility (2001). In addition to scholarly work on statehood, collective rights, investment law, and international responsibility, he has appeared in more than 100 cases before the International Court of Justice and other international tribunals, and is engaged as expert, counsel, and arbitrator in international arbitration. In 2012, he was awarded the Hudson Medal by the American Society of International Law. Recent work includes The Cambridge Companion to International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2012, co-edited with Martti Koskenniemi), Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law (8th edn, Oxford University Press, 2012), State Responsibility: The General Part (Cambridge University Press, 2013), and the 2013 Hague Academy General Course, entitled Chance, Order, Change: The Course of International Law (Brill, 2014). He was elected to the International Court in November 2014.



Mariano Croce (MA, PhD). Mariano Croce is FWO Pegasus Marie Curie Fellow at the Centre for Law and Cosmopolitan Values of the University of Antwerp. He held the position of Adjunct Professor of Philosophy of Law at Sapienza—University of Rome from 2007 to 2012. He has published Self-Sufficiency of Law: A Critical-Institutional Theory of Social Order (Springer, 2012) and The Legal Theory of Carl Schmitt (Routledge, 2013, with Andrea Salvatore). His articles have been published by journals such as the Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, Cultural Critique, the European Journal of Social Theory, the Journal of Legal Pluralism, Law & Critique, Ratio Juris, and others. His research interests lie in the areas of political philosophy, jurisprudence, legal pluralism, and law and sexuality.



Dr Shane Darcy is a lecturer at the Irish Centre for Human Rights at the National University of Ireland Galway. He teaches and researches in the fields of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, business and human rights, and transitional justice. He is the author of several books and articles in these fields, including most recently Judges, Law and War: The Judicial Development of International Humanitarian Law (Cambridge University Press, 2014). In 2007, he was awarded the Eda Sagarra Medal for Excellence in the Humanities and Social Sciences by the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences, and in 2010 the Journal of International Criminal Justice Prize.



Ashley S. Deeks is Associate Professor, University of Virginia Law School, and a former Academic Fellow at Columbia Law School. Her primary research and teaching interests are in the areas of international law, national security, and the laws of war. Before joining Columbia in 2010, she served as the assistant legal (p. lxxvi) adviser for political-military affairs in the US Department of State’s Office of the Legal Adviser, where she worked on issues related to the law of armed conflict, the use of force, conventional weapons, and intelligence. In previous positions at the State Department, Deeks advised on international law enforcement, extradition, and diplomatic property questions. In 2005, she served as the embassy legal adviser at the US Embassy in Baghdad, during Iraq’s constitutional negotiations. Deeks was a 2007–8 Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow. Deeks received her JD with honours from the University of Chicago Law School, where she was elected to the Order of the Coif and served as comment editor on the Law Review. After graduation, she clerked for Judge Edward R. Becker of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. She serves on the State Department’s Advisory Committee on International Law and is a senior contributor to the Lawfare blog.



François Dubuisson is Professor at Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), member of the Centre de droit international et de sociologie appliquée au droit international (ULB), director of the LLM in International Law (ULB), and President of the Réseau francophone de droit international (RFDI).



Professor Mathias Forteau is Professor of Law at the University of Paris Ouest, Nanterre La Défense (France); Member of the International Law Commission; Former Secretary-General of the French Society for International Law. Author of many books and articles in various fields of international law (Law of Responsibility, UN Law, Statehood, International Organizations Law, Settlement of Disputes, Investment Law, etc). Co-author (with P. Daillier and A. Pellet) of the last edition of the Treatise of ‘Droit international public (Nguyen Quoc Dinh†)’ (2009, 1709 p.) and co-editor (with J.-P. Cot and A. Pellet) of the French Commentary, article by article, of the UN Charter (2005, XX + 2363 p.). Advocate-counsel for states before international courts and tribunals (ICJ, ITLOS, International Arbitration).



Gregory H. Fox is Professor of Law and Director of the Program for International Legal Studies at Wayne State University Law School. Professor Fox has been a visiting professor or researcher at the Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City, the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law at Cambridge University, the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and Public International Law in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Schell Center for Human Rights at Yale Law School. He is the author of Humanitarian Occupation (Cambridge University Press, 2008) and the editor of Democratic Governance and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000, with Brad Roth), as well as the author of numerous articles and book chapters on topics such as democratic governance, the law of belligerent occupation, and the nature of statehood in the international legal system. Professor Fox was co-counsel to the State of Eritrea in the Zuqar-Hanish Islands Arbitration (p. lxxvii) with the Republic of Yemen, as well as counsel in several international human rights cases in US courts.



Professor Dr Terry D. Gill (1952): BA 1982, LLM 1985, PhD (cum laude) 1989, is Professor of Military Law at the University of Amsterdam and the Netherlands Defence Academy and was first Assistant and later Associate Professor of Public International Law at Utrecht University from July 1985 until February 2013. He is Director of the Research Program on the Law of Armed Conflict and Peace Operations at the Amsterdam Centre for International Law and of the Netherlands Research Forum on the Law of Armed Conflict and Peace Operations (LACPO). He is Editor-in-Chief of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Conflict and Security Law and the Journal of International Peacekeeping. He was Fulbright Visiting Scholar at Columbia University and Visiting Fellow at Cambridge University, The International Institute of Humanitarian Law (San Remo), University of Coimbra, and University of Granada. He is co-editor/author of The Handbook of the International Law of Military Operations (Oxford University Press, 2010) and of numerous publications in the areas of the use of force, international humanitarian law, and related topics.



William C. Gilmore is Emeritus Professor of International Criminal Law in the School of Law of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. He was Dean and Head of School from 2004 to 2007. He has written extensively in the field of transnational criminal law. Other areas of scholarly interest are the law of the sea and the law relating to armed conflict and the use of force. He has been the Legal Scientific Expert to the MONEYVAL Committee of the Council of Europe since its creation in 1997.



Michael J. Glennon is Professor of International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He has been Legal Counsel to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1977–80); Fulbright Distinguished Professor of International and Constitutional Law, Vytautus Magnus University School of Law, Kaunas, Lithuania (1998); a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC (2001–2); Thomas Hawkins Johnson Visiting Scholar at the United States Military Academy, West Point (2005); Director of Studies at the Hague Academy of International Law (2006); and professeur invité at the University of Paris II (Panthéon-Assas). Professor Glennon has served as a consultant to various congressional committees, the US State Department, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. He is a Member of the American Law Institute, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Board of Editors of the American Journal of International Law. Professor Glennon is the author of numerous articles on constitutional and international law as well as several books. A frequent commentator on public affairs, he has spoken widely within the United States and abroad and appeared on Nightline, the Today Show, NPR’s All Things Considered, and other national news programmes. His op-ed pieces have appeared in the New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles (p. lxxviii) Times, International Herald-Tribune, Financial Times, and Frankfurt Allgemeine Zeitung. His latest book, National Security and Double Government, will be published in October 2014, by Oxford University Press.



Douglas Guilfoyle is a Reader in Law at the Faculty of Laws, University College London where he teaches the international law of the sea and international criminal law. He is the author of Shipping Interdiction and the Law of the Sea (Cambridge University Press, 2009) and numerous articles on Somali piracy and maritime security and law enforcement. He has acted as a consultant on piracy and maritime security issues to the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (Working Group 2), the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons, and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime. He holds a PhD and LLM from the University of Cambridge, where he was a Gates Scholar, and undergraduate degrees in law and history from the Australian National University.



Gina Heathcote is a senior lecturer at the School of Law and the Centre for Gender Studies at SOAS, University of London where she teaches courses on international law, armed conflict, and gender and feminist legal theory and writes on issues in relation to collective security, peacekeeping, and feminism. She is the author of The Law on the Use of Force: A Feminist Analysis (Routledge, 2012). She is the co-editor, with Professor Dianne Otto, of Rethinking Peacekeeping, Gender Equality and Collective Security (Palgrave, 2014), a member of the Feminist Review editorial collective, and the author of numerous journal articles.



Professor Dr Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg holds the Chair of Public Law, especially Public International Law, European Law and Foreign Constitutional Law at the Europa-Universität Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder), Germany. In the academic year 2003/4 he was the Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Law at the US Naval War College and he held that position for the academic year 2012/13. From October 2004 until October 2008, he was the Dean of the Law Faculty of the Europa-Universität. From October 2008 until November 2012, he was the Vice-President of that university. Previously, he served as Professor of Public International Law at the University of Augsburg. He had been a Visiting Professor at the Universities of Kaliningrad (Russia), Almaty (Kazakhstan), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba), and Nice (France). He was the Rapporteur of the International Law Association Committee on Maritime Neutrality and was the Vice-President of the German Society of Military Law and the Law of War. Since 2007, he has been a Member of the Council of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in San Remo, Italy. Since May 2012 he has been the Vice-President of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War.



Dr André de Hoogh is a senior lecturer in International Law at the University of Groningen. In 1996, he defended his PhD dissertation at the (Radboud) University of Nijmegen, which dealt with the topics of obligations erga omnes and international (p. lxxix) crimes of state. Having worked for a while at Utrecht University, he transferred to Groningen in 1998. In the following year he served as an international observer, accredited by the UN, to the popular consultation in East Timor to determine the political future of the former Portuguese colony. His publications have focused on the powers of the Security Council, the Tadić case and attribution of conduct in the law of state responsibility, legislative powers of UN peacekeeping operations, the war against Iraq (2003), the Bush doctrine of pre-emptive self-defence, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, jurisdiction of states, and the rules of treaty interpretation.



Ian Johnstone is Academic Dean and Professor of International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Prior to joining Fletcher in 2000, he served as a political and legal officer in the United Nations, including for five years in the Executive Office of the Secretary-General. He continues to work as a consultant to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Political Affairs on an ad hoc basis. Past positions include Adjunct Professor of International Law at New York University Law School, Senior Fellow in International Law at the Center on International Cooperation, Warren Weaver Fellow at the Rockefeller Foundation, and Judicial Clerk at the Ontario Court of Appeal. His most recent book is The Power of Deliberation: International Law, Politics, and Organizations (Oxford University Press, 2011). From 2005 to 2007, Johnstone was the lead author and founding editor of the Annual Review of Global Peace Operations. He is currently co-writing the second edition of Law and Practice of the United Nations and co-editing The Oxford Handbook on International Organizations. Both will be published in 2015. A citizen of Canada, he holds an LLM degree from Columbia University and JD and BA degrees from the University of Toronto.



Daniel H. Joyner, JD, MA, PhD is Professor of Law, University of Alabama School of Law. He received his BA from Brigham Young University, his JD from Duke University School of Law, his MA from the University of Georgia, and his PhD from the University of Warwick. His books include International Law and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Oxford University Press, 2009) and Interpreting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Oxford University Press, 2011). He is the founder of the online blog Arms Control Law.



Jörg Kammerhofer, (Mag. iur., Dr. iur., Vienna; LL.M., Cantab) is a Senior Research Fellow and Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Freiburg, Germany. He is currently working on international law with a focus on its general, procedural and theoretical aspects, as well as on the jurisprudence of the Vienna School. As a member of the Hans Kelsen Research Group he is also involved in publishing the collected works edition of Hans Kelsen’s writings. Since 2006 he has been a member of the Co-ordinating Committee of the ESIL Interest Group on International Legal Theory. He is a co-organiser of the Annual ASIL-ESIL-MPIL Workshop Series on International Legal Theory. For a number of years he has been a reviewer for publishers, journals (p. lxxx) and research institutes (e.g. CUP, OUP, EJIL, LJIL, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin). Together with Jean d’Aspremont he recently directed the project “International Legal Positivism in a Post-Modern World”, funded by the German Research Fund (DFG).



Jan Klabbers is Academy Professor (Martti Ahtisaari Chair), University of Helsinki. He studied international law and political science at the University of Amsterdam, where he also obtained his doctorate (with distinction). Having taught at the same university, he moved to Helsinki in 1996. He has held visiting positions at, amongst others, New York University, the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva), and the University of Paris II (Pantheon-Assas). In 2013, he was appointed as the first incumbent of the Martti Ahtisaari Chair. Main publications include International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2013), Treaty Conflict and the European Union (Cambridge University Press, 2008), The Concept of Treaty in International Law (Brill, 1996) and An Introduction to International Institutional Law (2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, 2009; 3rd edn in preparation).



Vaios Koutroulis is Lecturer at the Centre de droit international, Université Libre de Bruxelles. Vaios Koutroulis studied law at the University of Athens and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). He received his PhD in 2011 for a thesis on the relations between jus contra bellum and jus in bello, under publication by Bruylant editions (Brussels). Vaios has taught public international law, international humanitarian law, international criminal law, and the law of international responsibility at the ULB and the Royal Military School of Belgium. He has also given lectures at various training courses for members of the armed forces. Since 2012, Vaios has also taught as a visiting lecturer at the Faculté Libre de Droit de Lille and the Université Catholique de Lille. His publications focus on jus contra bellum and jus in bello and include a monograph on belligerent occupation published by Pedone editions (Paris).



Claus Kreß is Professor for Criminal Law and Public International Law. He is Director of the Institute of International Peace and Security Law as well as Chair for German and International Criminal Law at the University of Cologne.



Charlotte Ku is Professor of Law and Assistant Dean of Graduate and International Legal Studies at the University of Illinois College of Law. She is director of the College’s Graduate and International Studies Program, including the LLM and JSD programmes and has spearheaded College-wide efforts to increase awareness of law as a global profession through the Global Fellows Initiative. She is also co-director of the Center on Law and Globalization at the College of Law. Recent publications include International Law, International Relations and Global Governance published as part of the Routledge Global Institutions Series.



Anne Lagerwall is a Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles, affiliated to the Centre de droit international et de sociologie appliquée au droit international at the Université libre de Bruxelles in Belgium. As a researcher, she is mainly concerned (p. lxxxi) with the rules relating to jus contra bellum and the interactions between different legal orders. Amongst others, she teaches the courses of International Legal Theory and International Litigation in the LLM in International Law. She is the co-Editor-in-Chief with Olivier Corten of the Belgian Review of International Law.



Randall Lesaffer is Professor of Legal History, Tilburg University, Professor of International and European Legal History, University of Leuven. He is a historian of international law, and studied law and history at Ghent and Leuven. In 1998, he obtained a PhD in Law at the University of Leuven on a study of peace and alliance treaties of the Early Modern Age and the Cold War. Since 1999, he has been Professor of Legal History at Tilburg Law School. He also holds a part-time position as Professor of International and European Legal History at the University of Leuven. From 2008 to 2012, he served as Dean of Tilburg Law School. He is founding co-president of the Law Schools Global League. He is the author of European Legal History: A Political and Cultural Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2009) and the editor of Peace Treaties and International Law in European History: From the End of the Middle Ages to World War I (Cambridge University Press, 2004).



Noam Lubell is a Professor in the School of Law at the University of Essex, and was appointed Head of the School in January 2014. He holds a PhD in Law and an LLM, as well as a BA in Philosophy. In previous years, he has taught courses on international humanitarian law and human rights law in a number of academic institutions in Ireland, Israel, the UK, and the United States. In addition to his academic work, during the last 15 years he has worked for human rights NGOs, as international law adviser, and director of a prisoners and detainees project. He has also provided consultancies and training in human rights law and the laws of armed conflict, for international bodies such as Amnesty International, government bodies, and the BBC. He is the Rapporteur of the International Law Association’s Committee on the Use of Force, and holds the 2013–15 Swiss Chair of International Humanitarian Law at the Geneva Academy. He has published on a variety of topics in the field of international law, including on new technologies such as drones and cyber operations, and is the author of Extraterritorial Use of Force Against Non-State Actors (Oxford University Press, 2010).



Ralph Mamiya served on the Protection of Civilians Team for the UN Department Peacekeeping Operations/Department of Field Support and has spent most of his career working on conflict issues in Africa, including tours with the UN peacekeeping missions in Sudan and South Sudan. He has also taught as an Adjunct Professor with the Human Rights Program at Hunter College in New York. Mr Mamiya holds a Juris Doctor from Cornell Law School.



Marina Mancini, JD, PhD is Senior Lecturer in International Law, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria and Adjunct Professor of International Criminal Law at LUISS University in Rome. She holds a PhD in International Law from Sapienza (p. lxxxii) University of Rome (2003) and is the author of Stato di guerra e conflitto armato nel diritto internazionale (Giappichelli, 2009), a book that explores the concept of ‘state of war’ and investigates the consequences of the outbreak of international armed conflicts in contemporary international law. She is a member of the editorial committee of the Italian Yearbook of International Law.



Jean-Christophe Martin is Professor of International and European Law, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis (France); Centre d’Etudes sur le Droit des organisations européennes (EA 2139). He has been Professor of Public Law (international and european law) since 2008 at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France. He has also been the Vice-President in charge of International Relations at the university since May 2012. In 2006, he published his thesis on ‘Les règles internationales relatives à la lutte contre le terrorisme’ (defended in 2005 at the University Aix-Marseille), and has published many articles mainly related to international security issues, the law of the sea, and environmental law.



Rob McLaughlin, Associate Professor, Australian National University College of Law. He is Director of the Centre for Military and Security Law in the College of Law at the Australian National University. He served in the Royal Australian Navy as a seaman officer and a legal officer, including as the Director of the Naval Legal Service, and Director of Operations and International Law in the Department of Defence.​



Lindsay Moir is Professor of International Law and Deputy Director of the McCoubrey Centre for International Law at the University of Hull Law School, UK and has held a Visiting Fellowship at the International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University College of Law, Chicago. He has written extensively on the use of force and international humanitarian law, with publications including Reappraising the Resort to Force: International Law, Jus ad Bellum and the War on Terror (Hart Publishing, 2010) and The Law of Internal Armed Conflict (Cambridge University Press, 2002).



Sean D. Murphy is the Patricia Roberts Harris Research Professor of Law at the George Washington University Law School in Washington, DC, where he teaches international law and US foreign relations law. Since 2012, he is also a Member of the UN International Law Commission. Professor Murphy received his JD from Columbia University, LLM from Cambridge University, and SJD from the University of Virginia. From 1987 to 1995, Professor Murphy served in the Office of the Legal Adviser at the US Department of State, specializing in international dispute resolution, international environmental law, and the law of war. From July 1995 to July 1998, Professor Murphy served as the Legal Counselor of the US Embassy in The Hague, representing the US Government before the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and as the US Agent to the Iran-US Claims Tribunal. Professor Murphy has represented (p. lxxxiii) several countries in international courts and tribunals, including Ethiopia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Suriname, and the United States. He has published articles in a variety of national and international law journals and his books include International Law: Cases and Materials (6th edn, 2014, with Damrosch); Litigating War: Mass Civil Injury and the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission (2013), with Kidane and Snider); Public International Law in a Nutshell (5th edn, 2013), with Buergenthal); Principles of International Law (2nd edn, 2012); Foreign Relations and National Security Law (4th edn, 2012), with Franck, Glennon, and Swaine); and Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order (1996). Professor Murphy is a Member of the American Law Institute and a Counselor to the American Society of International Law, and served for a decade on the Board of Editors of the American Journal of International Law.



Penelope Nevill, LLB (Hons)/BA (Auck); LLM (Cantab), is a Barrister at 20 Essex Street. Penelope specializes in public international law and related areas of EU and commercial law. In addition to her professional work, Penelope lectures on the Law of Armed Conflict LLM course at the University of Cambridge, where she is an affiliated lecturer. She also teaches at King’s College, London, on undergraduate and postgraduate courses in international law, and is a visiting lecturer at the University of Auckland, where she teaches the LLM course on International Dispute Resolution. Before going to the bar in 2010, Penelope was a Fellow and College Lecturer in Law at Downing College, Cambridge, where she taught international law and EU law, and a Fellow of the Lauterpacht Centre of International Law. She is also a qualified barrister and solicitor in New Zealand, where she practised in the litigation team at Chapman Tripp for four and a half years.



Rowan Nicholson is the Senior Associate to Professor James Crawford, Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, Cambridge. He is a PhD candidate in international law, University of Cambridge, and has an LLM in international law, also from Cambridge.



André Nollkaemper is Professor of Public International Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Amsterdam. He is also a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, External legal adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, President of the European Society of International Law, and a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Netherlands.



Keiichiro Okimoto is a Member of the Office of the Legal Counsel, Office of Legal Affairs, Secretariat of the United Nations. Visiting Professor (2012, 2013, 2014), Department of International Law and Human Rights, University for Peace. Formerly a member of the Treaty Section, Office of Legal Affairs, Secretariat of the United Nations; a legal adviser and a delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross in Iraq, Israel and the Occupied Territories, the Philippines, and Rwanda. PhD, University of Cambridge; LLM, London School of Economics and Political Science.



Alexander Orakhelashvili, LLM Leiden, PhD Cantab, is a lecturer in law at Birmingham University, UK. Previously he was Shaw Foundation Junior Research Fellow at Jesus College, Oxford (2005–8), and has taught international law at the universities of London, Oxford, and Cambridge. He has authored Peremptory Norms in International Law (Oxford University Press, 2006), Interpretation of Acts and Rules in International Law (Oxford University Press, 2008), Collective Security (Oxford University Press, 2011), as well as over 65 articles and chapters in leading journals and edited collections.



Paolo Palchetti, PhD (University of Milan), is Professor of International Law at the Department of Law of the University of Macerata (Italy). He is the director of the PhD programme in Legal Studies of the University of Macerata and was visiting professor in several universities (including Université Panthéon-Assas/Paris 2, Université de Nice/Sophie Antipolis, and Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). He is co-editor of QIL—Questions of International Law, member of the Board of Directors of Diritti Umani e Diritto Internazionale, member of the editorial committee of the Rivista di diritto internazionale. He has sometimes acted as adviser to the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affairs and was counsel of several states in international disputes before the International Court of Justice.



Jordan J. Paust is the Mike and Teresa Baker Law Center Professor of International Law at the Law Center of the University of Houston. He received an AB and JD from UCLA, an LLM from the University of Virginia, and is a JSD Candidate, Yale University (in residence, Ford Foundation Fellowship, 1973–5). Professor Paust has also been a Visiting Edward Ball Eminent Scholar University Chair in International Law at Florida State University (Spring, 1997), a Fulbright Professor at the University of Salzburg, Austria (1978–9), and a member of the faculty of the US Army Judge Advocate General’s School, International Law Division (1969–73, mob. des. 1973–5). He has served on several committees on international law, human rights, laws of war, terrorism, and the use of force in the American Society of International Law, the American Branch of the International Law Association, and the American Bar Association, and was the Co-Chair of the American Society’s International Criminal Law Interest Group (1992–2008). He was also the Chair of the Section on International Law of the Association of American Law Schools and was on the Executive Council and the President’s Committee of the American Society of International Law. He is one of the most widely cited law professors in the United States and is ranked among the top 2 per cent in Leiter’s studies for 2000–7 and 2005–9. Professor Paust has published over 190 articles, book chapters, papers, and essays in law journals in Belgium, Canada, China, England, Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Serbia, and the United States.



Marco Pertile, PhD, is Senior Lecturer in International Law, Faculty of Law, School of International Studies, University of Trento, where he teaches public international law (p. lxxxv) and the international law of armed conflict. Until 2012, he was Marie Curie Fellow at the Graduate Institute for International and Development Studies, in Geneva, where he worked on a project on the linkage between natural resources and armed conflicts. He is now Visiting Professor in the interdisciplinary programmes of the Graduate Institute, where he teaches a course on Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts under International Law. Previously, he was Visiting Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg and Visiting Professional at the International Criminal Court.



Ian M. Ralby is Executive Director of I.R. Consilium, Ltd. As Executive Director, Dr Ralby provides high-level advice and assistance to governments and organizations, employing a multi-disciplinary approach to complex problem solving. He has extensive experience in legal and policy advisory work, as well as political negotiation, having worked with governments on five continents. His background includes practice in maritime, military, criminal, international and national security law. He is a leading expert on the regulation, governance, and oversight of private security companies—both land and maritime—and has played a major role for five years in various national and international efforts to develop codes, standards, and governance mechanisms for that industry. Dr Ralby lectures widely on matters of private military and security companies, maritime security, and international law. He earned a BA in Modern Languages and Linguistics and an MA in Intercultural Communication at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; a JD at the College of William and Mary; and an MPhil in International Relations and a PhD in Politics and International Studies at St John’s College of the University of Cambridge.



Professor Sir Nigel Rodley KBE, PhD, LLD (hon) is Professor of Law and Chair of the Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex, where he has taught since 1990. He is the UK-nominated Member of the UN Human Rights Committee (since 2001), of which he is currently the Chair. Starting as an Assistant Professor of Law at Dalhousie University, Canada (1965–8), he worked as an Associate Economic Affairs Officer at UN Headquarters in New York (1968–9) and then as a Visiting Lecturer in Political Science at the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research (1969–72) and Research Fellow at the NYU Center for International Studies (1970–2). He was appointed the first legal adviser at the International Secretariat of Amnesty International (1973–90). He served as the Special Rapporteur on Torture of the UN Commission on Human Rights (1993–2001). Since 2012, he has been the President of the International Commission of Jurists. His extensive publications include The Treatment of Prisoners under International Law (3rd edn, Oxford University Press, 2009, with M. Pollard).



Andrea Salvatore is Post-Doctoral Research Fellow of Political Philosophy at Sapienza—University of Rome and Adjunct Professor of Business Ethics at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Rome). His research interests include (p. lxxxvi) contemporary political philosophy, legal theory and applied ethics, with a focus on political violence (Schmitt, Girard, Walzer), and the philosophy of war and peace (pacifism, just war theory, anarchism). His publications include Undoing Ties: Political Philosophy at the Waning of the State (Bloomsbury, 2015, with Mariano Croce), The Legal Theory of Carl Schmitt (Routledge, 2013, with Mariano Croce), Giustizia in contesto. La filosofia politica di Michael Walzer (Liguori, 2010), Il pacifismo (Carocci, 2010).



Michael N. Schmitt, Charles H. Stockton Professor of International Law and Director, Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, United States Naval War College; Professor of Public International Law, Exeter University; Senior Fellow, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. He was previously Dean of the George C. Marshall Center in Germany. Professor Schmitt directed the International Group of Experts who produced the Tallinn Manual on the International Law of Cyberwarfare. He also participated as an international expert in the Harvard’s Air and Missile Warfare and the ICRC’s Direct Participation in Hostilities projects. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and sits on many editorial and advisory boards in the field of international law and conflict.



Nico Schrijver is Professor of International Law and Academic Director of the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University and a member of the Dutch Upperhouse. He is also a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and the chairperson of its Legal Section. From 2010 to 2012 he served as the President of the worldwide International Law Association. Furthermore, he is a member of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and a member of the Institut de droit international. From 2009 to 2010 he was the international law member on the Dutch Inquiry Commission on the War in Iraq. Among many other publications Nico Schrijver is the author of Sovereignty over Natural Resources. Balancing Rights and Duties (Cambridge University Press, 1997), The Evolution of Sustainable Development in International Law (Brill, 2008), and Development without Destruction: The UN and Global Resource Management (Indiana University Press/UN Intellectual History Project, 2010). With Niels Blokker, he co-edited The Security Council and the Use of Force. Theory and Reality—A Need for Change (Leiden, 2005).



Scott Sheeran is Senior Lecturer and Director of the LLMs and MAs in Human Rights, at the School of Law and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex. He is also Director of the Human Rights in Iran Unit, providing support to the UN Special Rapporteur for Iran. He worked previously as a New Zealand diplomat and legal adviser, including in New York and Geneva and as Vice-Chair of the Legal Committee of the UN General Assembly, and is on the advisory council of several human rights NGOs. He has published on international human rights law, public international law, and law of the United Nations.



(p. lxxxvii) Ramesh Thakur is Director of the Centre for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University. He was Senior Vice Rector of the UN University (and UN Assistant Secretary-General), Commissioner and a principal author of The Responsibility to Protect, and the principal writer of Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s second reform report (2002). The author/editor of 50 books and 400 articles/book chapters and the Editor-in-Chief of Global Governance, he serves on the international advisory boards of institutes in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. His books include The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect (Cambridge University Press, 2006); Global Governance and the UN: An Unfinished Journey (Indiana University Press, 2010); The Responsibility to Protect: Norms, Laws and the Use of Force in International Politics (Routledge, 2011); The Group of Twenty (G20) (Routledge, 2013); and The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy (Oxford University Press, 2013). He is also Co-Editor of Nuclear Politics.



Kimberley N. Trapp is a Senior Lecturer in Public International Law at the Faculty of Laws, UCL. Prior to joining UCL in 2012, she was a Lecturer at Newnham College and an Affiliated Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge. Kimberley obtained a BA (philosophy), BCL and LLB (all with great distinction) from McGill University, and an LLM and PhD from the University of Cambridge. During her doctoral studies, Kimberley clerked for Vice-President Al-Kasawneh and Judge Simma at the International Court of Justice. Her doctoral thesis was awarded the Cambridge Yorke Prize for a dissertation of distinction, and is the basis of her OUP monograph State Responsibility for International Terrorism (2011). Kimberley collaborates as an academic advisor on issues of international humanitarian law with various NGOs and Government departments, has published widely on issues relating to the use of force, state responsibility, the interaction between international humanitarian law and terrorism suppression and the settlement of international disputes, and has presented related scholarship at various forums, including the Annual Meetings of the Canadian Council on International Law and American Society of International Law.



Nicholas Tsagourias, Professor of International Law, University of Sheffield. Nicholas Tsagourias also sits on the editorial board of the Journal of Conflict and Security Law and is a member of the cyber terrorism study group of the International Law Association. He has published widely on issues relating to the use of force, cyberwar, collective security, peacekeeping, and international responsibility. He is co-author with Nigel D. White of Collective Security: Theory, Law and Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2013).



Guglielmo Verdirame is Professor of International Law, King’s College London and Barrister, 20 Essex Street, London.



Martin Wählisch serves as Political Affairs Officer in the Office of the Special Coordinator for Lebanon (UNSCOL). Among others, he is an Affiliated Scholar (p. lxxxviii) of the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (American University of Beirut). He is a Lecturer at the Center for Peace Mediation and the Institute for Conflict Management at the European University Viadrina and La Sagesse University in Beirut (Master’s Program in Diplomacy and Strategic Negotiations). Among others, he has been a visiting scholar at the Harriman Institute (Columbia University), Institute for Global Law, Justice & Policy (New York Law School), Durham University (Faculty of Law), and the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law (University of Cambridge).



A. Mark Weisburd is Reef C. Ivey, II Distinguished Professor of Law, School of Law, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. A native Arkansan he received his AB from Princeton University in 1970 and his JD from the University of Michigan in 1976. He joined the United States Foreign Service after earning his undergraduate degree, serving in East Pakistan/Bangladesh from 1971 to 1973. From 1976 to 1981, he was an associate with the Washington, DC, law firm of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering. He joined the faculty at the School of Law of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1981. His writing addresses questions related to public international law and to the relationship between that body of law and federal law in the United States.



Marc Weller, MA, MALD, Dr jur, Dr phil, PhD, FCIArb, Barrister (Middle Temple) is Professor of International Law and International Constitutional Studies at the University of Cambridge, and Director of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law. He served as Senior Mediation Expert in the UN Secretariat and as Senior Legal Advisor in a significant number of international peace negotiations. He is the author, editor or co-editor of some 25 books, including specialist works on conflict and the use of force in international law.



Erika de Wet is Professor of International Law in the Faculty of Law of the University of Pretoria and Co-Director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa. Since 2011 Erika de Wet has been Co-Director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa and Professor of International Law in the Faculty of Law of the University of Pretoria. Between 2004 and 2010 she was tenured Professor of International Constitutional Law at the Amsterdam Center for International Law, University of Amsterdam, a position which she thereafter held part-time until December 2013. She further lectures in international law at the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and the University of Bonn (Germany) on a regular basis. Between 2006 and 2014 Erika de Wet was co-Editor-in-Chief of the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts (ILDC); and between 2011 and 2014 she was one of the General Editors of Oxford Constitutions Online. She currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Board for Development Policy of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rules of Law, as well as the General Council of the International Society of Public Law (ICON*S).



(p. lxxxix) Nigel D. White is Professor of Public International Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nottingham. Professor White re-joined the School of Law at Nottingham in 2009 as Chair in Public International Law. Prior to that he held the Chair of International Law at the University of Sheffield from 2005 to 2009, and the Chair in International Organisations at the University of Nottingham from 2000 to 2005. He has held an academic post in law since 1987, and gained his doctorate from Nottingham in 1988. He gained a First Class BA (Hons) in Jurisprudence from Oxford in 1982. He has served as Head of the School of Law at Nottingham and Dean of the Faculty of Law at Sheffield. He is currently Head of School at the University of Nottingham and Co-Director of Research. He is also Co-Director of the Nottingham International Law and Security Centre with Professor Mary Footer.



Haidi Willmot serves in the Office of the Chief of Staff of the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations/Department of Field Support. She has held a number of positions in the United Nations Secretariat, including in the United Nations Operations and Crisis Centre and the Office of Military Affairs. Prior to joining the Secretariat, Ms Willmot was the Peacekeeping Policy Officer at the Australian Mission to the United Nations, and worked as an analyst with the New Zealand Government. She previously worked in Vanuatu with the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid) and in legal practice in Australia and throughout the island nations of the Pacific. Ms Willmot holds an BA/LLB (Hons) from the Australian National University and a MPhil in International Relations from the University of Cambridge.



Professor David Wippman is Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and William S. Pattee Professor of Law. He writes and teaches on international law, human rights, and law of war issues. Previously, he was a professor and Associate Dean at Cornell Law School and served as Vice Provost for International Relations at Cornell University. In 1998–9, he served as a director in the US National Security Council’s Office of Multilateral and Humanitarian Affairs, where he worked on war crimes issues, the International Criminal Court, economic sanctions, and UN political issues. Before joining Cornell, Professor Wippman practised law for nine years in Washington DC, with a focus on international arbitration, political consulting on public and private international law issues, and representation of developing countries in litigation.



Sir Michael Wood, KCMG, MA, LLB, member of the English Bar, is a member of the International Law Commission and a Senior Fellow of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge. He is a barrister at 20 Essex Street, London, where he practises in the field of public international law, including before international courts and tribunals. He was Legal Adviser to the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office between 1999 and 2006, having joined as an Assistant Legal Adviser in 1970. (p. xc)