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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 1239) Index

(p. 1239) Index

Introductory Note

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about ‘use of force’, the use of this term (and certain others which occur constantly throughout the book) as an entry point has been restricted. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

A
Åland Islands 759
Abkhazia 497, 620, 700, 923
abstentions 207, 234, 300, 418, 480, 513–14, 901
Abu Ghraib 1142, 1148
Abuja Pact 172
Abyssinia 9, 11, 190–1, 469
accountability 119, 196, 200, 416–17, 419–23, 425–9, 431–6, 791–3
blended system of accountability and responsibility 425–6, 432
evolving national accountability mechanisms 426–32
Achille Lauro 1018, 1027, 1033
acquiescence 160, 233, 686, 728, 792, 796, 1232
‘act’ and ‘crime’ of aggression 552, 555–6
acts of aggression 148–9, 499, 512, 537–41, 554–7, 559, 566–7, 1174
suppression of 12, 14, 294, 472
acts of war 9, 276, 823, 885
admissibility 341, 343, 345, 917, 929, 949, 1163
and justiciability 329–46
aerial blockade 926, 928, 933, 945
aerial exclusion zones, see NFZs
AFISMA (African-led International Support Mission to Mali) 242, 387, 392–3, 1206
African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) 323–4
African Union, see AU
Agenda for Peace 354, 424, 984
aggression 50–4, 470, 498–502, 511–16, 533–60, 680–3, 1174–7, 1229–32
act and crime 552–5
armed 194, 310, 1195, 1197
crime of, see crime of aggression
definition 165, 172, 537, 581–4, 631, 634, 681–2, 689
external 51, 194, 316, 467
jurisdiction 544, 547–8, 558
prohibition of 470, 867, 1082, 1088, 1166, 1169, 1173–5, 1185–6
wars of 534–6, 538, 541, 618, 750, 913, 1086, 1213
aggressive wars, see wars, of aggression
aggressor states, see aggressors
air exclusion zones, see NFZs
air power 211, 405, 428–9, 769, 912
airspace 252, 254, 258, 262, 757, 759–62, 767, 770–1
international 262, 758–9, 762, 770–2, 940–1, 945
national 757, 762, 772, 908, 931, 940
Al Qaeda 25, 676, 690, 693, 721, 724–7, 735, 737
Albania 105, 283, 332–3, 501, 551, 573, 914, 917
Alciato, Andrea 38
alien occupation 215–16, 474, 838, 850, 1183
all necessary means 205, 211, 213, 258–9, 289, 825, 1059, 1061–2
authorization 258–9
all necessary measures 208, 210–13, 225, 256, 747, 985, 1061
alliance treaties 45
alliances 4–5, 10, 48, 110, 181, 316, 787, 973
ambiguities 242–3, 542, 562, 567–8, 597–8, 600, 685, 690–1
deliberate 243, 655
American Civil War 48, 822
AMIB (African Mission in Burundi) 323–4
AMIS (AU Mission in Sudan) 324–5, 387, 453
AMISON (AU Mission in Somalia) 219, 326
Amnesty International 200, 783
Angola 479, 853, 919, 1092, 1137, 1154
animosity, general 711, 716
animus aggressionis 1175
animus belligerandi 989–90
Anjouan 326–7
Annan, Kofi 179, 187–8, 193, 247–8, 384, 386, 389, 430–2
annexation 67, 103, 183, 498, 1082–3, 1087, 1094
purported 16, 101
anti-terrorist operations 393, 1202–3
and proportionality 1199–1202
anticipatory action 697, 699–700, 708–9, 715, 719, 1032, 1038
anticipatory self-defence 579–81, 599–600, 662–3, 665–6, 697–709, 712–14, 716, 1041–3
legitimacy of 701, 709, 719
right of 579, 665, 1043, 1052–4, 1126
apartheid 15, 307, 495, 800, 1137
appeals 92, 97, 342–3, 428, 457, 786, 790, 803
applicable law 163, 167–8, 269–70, 933, 1058, 1060, 1063, 1067
Aquinas, Thomas 37, 40, 466
Arab League 248, 493
arbitral awards 467, 609–14, 616–17, 625, 885
application of jus contra bellum 613–24
legal significance 610–13
arbitral tribunals 605, 607, 609–12, 614, 616, 619, 884–5, 920
arbitrations 6, 8, 10–11, 14, 48–9, 51, 509–10, 605–26
arbitrators 51, 110, 610–11, 911, 948
archaeological sites 755
archipelagic waters 759, 1019–20
Arend, Anthony 80
Argentina 522–3, 960, 992, 1001, 1008
Aristide, Jean Bertrand 806–8, 835
armed action 18, 21, 46–7, 586, 741, 744, 953, 958
cross-border 574, 586, 1169
armed aggression 194, 310, 1195, 1197
armed attack 20–5, 579–93, 629–31, 661–6, 720–8, 738–45, 1105–9, 1119–28
imminent 25, 579–81, 603–4, 662, 665, 931, 939, 942
imminent threat of 580, 701
indirect 584, 722, 731, 735
initial 623, 750, 873, 1125, 1218
modalities in relation to duration of exercise of right of self-defence 738–43
and non-state actors 679–96
ongoing 171, 588–9, 742–3
per se 720, 724, 735
ratione materiae 581, 598
threat of 1196–7
thresholds 708, 1121, 1129
un-attributable 680, 689–91, 693–4, 696
armed bands 583, 631, 681–3, 722–3, 732, 740, 1073, 1121
armed conflict 266–7, 752–62, 764–8, 847–51, 995–1005, 1009–13, 1152–5, 1210–15
and application of law of war 1000–1
and belligerent rights 1001–2
and belligerents’ nationals on enemy territory 1005–7
in contemporary international law 998–1000
effects 1000–12
and contracts 1009–10
definition 999
and diplomatic relations 1004–5
effects 988–1013
and law of neutrality 1003–4
non-international 757–8, 765–6, 931–2, 939–41, 999, 1072–3, 1147, 1215
ongoing 286, 341–2, 566, 676
and trade relations 1008–9
and treaties 1010–12
armed cyberattack 1120, 1126–7
armed force 210–13, 403, 498–9, 681–3, 1096–7, 1102–5, 1161–77, 1179–86
acts of 493, 583, 722, 1121
threat of 297, 988, 996
armed forces 427, 522, 722, 731–2, 971, 999–1000, 1145, 1147–50
regular 583, 672, 722, 731–2, 1000, 1156
armed groups 355, 623, 631–2, 720–4, 729–32, 734–6, 744, 825
organized 635, 723, 740, 851, 940, 965, 999–1000, 1073–4
armed incursions 405, 731, 768
armed intervention 18–19, 478–80, 783, 786, 790, 793, 1162, 1167
armed personnel 377, 379, 1145
armed reprisals 18, 158, 171, 593, 862, 880–95
defensive 894
legality 889, 891
prohibition 891, 893
armed resistance 1181–2
armed robbery 210, 214, 902, 1059–62
armies 39, 58–9, 71–2, 236, 275, 1093, 1136, 1138; see also armed forces
arming 235, 574, 577, 584, 595
armistices 494, 750, 963, 966–9, 971, 977, 979, 983
arms 64–5, 73–5, 268, 274–5, 846–7, 940–1, 982, 986
control 5, 32, 298, 322, 336, 1139
embargoes 192, 217, 283, 285, 289–90, 784, 786, 871
arrest 575, 615, 898, 903, 906, 1020, 1022–3, 1032
aspirations 113, 156, 180, 430, 533, 537, 838, 964
collective 180
assassination 433, 885
assault 153, 880, 1168
Assembly of States Parties 539, 543, 546, 551, 560
assistance 817–18, 820, 822–3, 827, 839, 1128, 1149, 1225–6
external 820, 823, 827–8, 831
humanitarian 236, 255, 258, 323, 770–1, 951, 980–1, 983
international 408, 474
mutual 808, 812, 907
reciprocal 513–14, 517–18, 684
technical 323, 981
assurances 472, 535–6, 1166
asymmetric attacks 393, 1046
attacked states 516, 732, 870, 990, 1003, 1215
attackers 44, 403, 588, 664, 674, 1124, 1127, 1129
attacking states 22, 745, 990, 1002–3, 1128, 1225
attacks 18–26, 337–9, 661–75, 703–16, 718–24, 744–8, 1126–7, 1189–92
armed, see armed attack
(p. 1242) asymmetric 393, 1046
cyber, see cyberattacks
drone 26, 1097, 1198, 1200–1
identifiable 707, 711, 718
imminent threat of 94, 739, 745
indirect, see indirect attack
missile 590, 667, 691, 763, 770, 1024
non-state actor 1106, 1108
ongoing 732, 738, 742, 745, 750, 873
terrorist 24, 688, 690–3, 720, 722, 728, 1121–2, 1199
threat of 204, 214, 672, 745, 750, 838, 876, 1181
WMD 670, 709, 715, 719, 1043, 1046
attributability 682, 686, 688, 694, 696, 1113, 1122
attributable attacks by non-state actors 681–3
attribution 458, 583–4, 680, 683–7, 694, 721–5, 730–2, 735
double 457–8
AU (African Union) 204, 208, 237, 314–18, 320–8, 492, 813–14, 825
military intervention 321–7
Mission in Somalia, see AMISON
Mission in Sudan, see AMIS
Peace and Security Council 322, 324–6, 813
security system 813–14
AU/UN Mission in Darfur, see UNAMID
auctoritas 37, 42
Austin, John 131–2, 134–6, 153
Austinian imperatival handicap of international law 153
neutralization 131–7
Australia 103–4, 363, 491, 551, 667, 919–20, 1037, 1088
authoritative arbiters 1053–4
authoritative interpretations 105, 476, 482, 1054
authority
Chapter VII 232, 236, 552, 1051
effective 31, 200, 800, 983
governmental 818, 965, 999, 1073, 1092–4, 1113, 1146, 1156
legal, see legal authority
legitimate 57, 60, 71, 952
national 358, 417, 419, 486, 1181
ultimate 222–3, 747, 749, 1068
authorization 202–13, 215–22, 224–9, 239–41, 289–91, 317–19, 651–2, 654–7
all necessary means 258–9
Chapter VII 255, 770, 1061, 1221
coastal state 1029, 1061
enforcement of military sanctions in the absence of express authorization 272–92
of force 115, 119, 1039
imprecise 234–7
LOAC-based MEZ 267–8
prior 255, 315, 320, 784, 787, 804
standard 354, 480
authorized operations 203–4, 206, 212–15, 218–22, 224–6
conclusions and recommendations 224–6
duration 217
reporting 218–19
responsibility implications 219–24
Security Council control 219, 224–6
autonomy 58, 68, 70, 787, 915, 1103
Ayala, Balthasar de 40, 72–3
B
balance 16, 180–1, 397, 715, 717, 1191, 1194, 1196
political 64–5, 400
of power 4–5, 72, 309
Ban Ki-moon 195–6
ban on the use of force, see use of force, prohibition
banditry 383, 427
Bangladesh 101, 775–6, 781, 784
Bartolus of Sassoferrato 38
Belgium 468, 475, 536, 595, 866, 905, 951, 954
belligerency 277, 822–3, 827, 991, 996, 1007
non-belligerency 52, 992, 1228
state of 275, 823
threats of 971
belligerent parties, see belligerents
belligerent rights 273, 275–6, 823, 991, 1001–2
and armed conflict 1001–2
exercise of 929, 989, 1001–2, 1013
belligerent states, see belligerents
belligerents 275–8, 753–4, 757–60, 762–3, 769–72, 966–7, 988–98, 1003–11
former 42, 964–5
nationals on enemy territory and armed conflict 1005–7
opposing 992, 1003, 1010–13
Benelux countries 905, 907
Benin 172
Bentham, Jeremy 48, 66, 131
Berdal, Mats 350, 358, 366, 369
Berman, F. 650, 655
Béthune de Sully, Maximilien de 48
bilateral agreements/conventins/treaties 508, 523, 904, 976, 995, 1008, 1031
bilateral ship-boarding agreements 1029
bilateral treaties 49, 523, 976, 1008
bin Laden, Osama 25, 726–7
biological weapons 5, 968, 1018
Bismarck, Otto von 99
blended system of accountability and responsibility 425–6, 432
blockade 273–5, 277–9, 285–6, 291–2, 498–9, 624, 925–46, 1001
aerial 926, 928, 933, 945
law of 927, 930, 932, 934
legality of 926, 928, 930, 933–4, 945
naval 183, 277, 619, 804, 930, 933–4
under jus ad bellum and jus in bello 927–34
blockaded areas 930, 932–3
blockading powers 930, 932–4
boarding 264, 935, 938, 941–2, 1018–19, 1022–3, 1063, 1065
consensual 941–2
operations 1018, 1026, 1028–9, 1031–2
teams 937, 939
Bokassa, Jean-Bédel 783
Bolivia 470, 508, 512, 519
bombardments 237, 405, 495, 498, 767–8, 786, 976, 1174
bombs 87, 197–8, 343
border disputes/conflicts 508, 518, 523, 616, 982, 1080–1
border incidents 15, 21, 45, 495, 708, 741, 1195
Bosnia and Herzegovina 16, 29, 214, 216, 254, 768–71, 871, 984–5
Bosnian Serbs 143, 428, 449, 768, 809
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 239, 424–5, 984
Bowett, Derek 54, 169, 579, 650–2, 654, 656, 658–9, 892–5
Brahimi Report 187, 367–8, 401, 403, 410, 431–2, 435, 452
Brazil 88, 90, 234, 237, 470–1, 508, 513, 517
breach of peremptory rules 1227–31
breach of the peace 147, 149, 297, 301, 304, 489, 494, 496
breaches of international law 298
UN and peace and security 297–9
Brierly, J.L. 83, 884, 886, 888, 901
Brownlie, Ian 664, 720–1, 776, 781, 883, 888, 895, 1040–1
buck-passing 444, 456–8
Bulgaria 919, 969, 994–5
burden of proof 165–6, 169, 171, 333, 335
double 165
Burundi 322–3, 439, 451, 453, 969, 1063, 1080
Bush, President George Jr 93, 918, 1026, 1032, 1044
Bush, President George Sr 26–7, 790
Byers, Michael 169, 243, 452
bystander states 440–8, 456
bystanders 437–40, 447–8, 454–6, 458
individual 439–40, 448, 455
C
(p. 1244) CACI (Consolidated Analysis Centers, Inc) 1142–51
Cambodia 16, 185, 191, 495, 538, 782–4, 911, 1063
Cameroon 919
Caminos, H. 908
canon law 37–9, 41, 63
capabilities 120, 387–8, 453, 706, 710, 1032, 1037, 1101–3
cyber 1110, 1113, 1116, 1118, 1127
enforcement 130, 404–5, 412
military 98, 200, 261, 1148
operational 184, 371, 1100
capacity 420, 422–4, 442–4, 551–2, 663–4, 666, 817–18, 1046
legal 819, 839
military 22, 696, 1152, 1223
personal 202, 375
representative 818, 839
capacity-building 408–9
capricious veto 232, 244
Capstone Doctrine 357–8, 361, 402, 404
cargoes 265, 269–70, 274, 287–8, 291, 935–6, 1029, 1031
sanctioned 264–5
Caroline
test 20, 665, 670–1, 677
case-by-case basis 257, 421, 429, 876–7, 1116, 1123, 1181, 1189
casualties 19, 354, 708, 714–15, 842, 999
civilian 932–3
causa justa 37; see also just war
causation 82, 84–5, 90, 455, 458
causes of war 42, 62, 71, 76
ceasefire agreements 323–4, 966, 968–9, 974, 977, 979–84
ceasefire orders 745, 748–9
Central African Republic 208, 218, 231, 387, 391, 452, 957
Central Intelligence Agency, see CIA
centralization of enforcement 137–45
certainty 94, 211–12, 225, 663, 667, 676–7, 702–3, 718–19
and imminence 713–16
certification schemes 1091–2
cessation of hostilities 478, 522, 749, 824–5, 965, 974, 976, 982–3
Chaco War 512, 527
Chad 13, 208, 218, 322, 387, 391, 954, 957
Chapter VI 13, 15, 181, 236, 297, 304, 359, 361
Chapter VII 15, 209–10, 235–9, 324–6, 353–5, 649–53, 1152–4, 1218–23
authority 232, 236, 552, 1051
authorization 255, 770, 1061, 1221
and international humanitarian law (IHL) 1218–23
mechanisms 134, 148–50, 152
operations 226, 361, 368, 427
resolutions 16, 22, 25, 91, 100, 210, 365, 370
Chapter VIII 229–30, 316–17, 320, 418, 420, 780, 784, 786
Charter rules 100–3, 105, 108–9, 112–13, 230, 569, 620, 887
collapse of use of force regime 90–5
indeterminacy 105–6
in practice 100–5
strictness 106–8
weaknesses 85–7
weaknesses in compliance by sovereign equals 88–90
Chatham House Principles 598, 643, 733
Chechnya 28, 1207
chemical weapons 6, 148, 498, 504, 1028
Cheonan 553–4
children 119, 389, 407, 764, 783, 1008
Chile 508, 519, 527, 919
Chinkin, C. 115, 117, 127
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 671, 677, 1099, 1149
circumstances
exceptional 931, 940, 942, 944
mitigating 784, 955
precluding wrongfulness 18, 680, 864–5, 867, 1165–70, 1173, 1178
relevant factual 743, 745
citizens 68, 90, 107, 408, 510, 623, 832–3, 840
civil aircraft 261, 285, 908–9, 928, 938–9
civil conflicts 15, 321, 1207–8
civil society actors 196, 201
civil wars 817–19, 821–4, 826–8, 830–2, 838–9, 848, 850–1, 1078–80
intervention in 827–9
civilian casualties 932–3
civilian deaths 377, 691, 1101, 1195
civilian infrastructure 1195, 1202
civilian personnel 349, 353, 358, 1142
civilian populated areas 204, 214–17, 300, 392, 411, 658, 838, 1181
civilian population 234–5, 237, 239, 319, 321, 411, 413, 932–3
clarification 158, 415, 422, 459–60, 553, 702, 849, 872
clarity 249, 253, 371–3, 658, 722–3, 943, 945, 1053
classical international law 8, 18, 35, 1000, 1005, 1013
and creation of a state of war 989–91
and effects of a state of war 991–5
Clausewitz, Carl von 46, 69
cleansing, ethnic 194, 408, 444, 486, 776–7, 788, 792, 1181
clear chain of command 183, 432
coastal states 899, 901, 937
authorization 1029, 1061
coercion 132–3, 144, 553–4, 556, 798, 802, 843–4, 882
decentralized 132, 134
economic 598, 607, 1113, 1115
essential role in internal affairs of states 843–6
military 474, 776, 954
physical 133, 379
coercive action, see coercive measures
coercive measures 144–5, 147, 304–5, 309, 777, 779, 790–1, 867
forcible 140–1, 144
non-forcible 139, 141
coercive military action 318, 322
coercive powers 57, 61, 71, 139–40, 144–5, 897, 903, 909
exercise of 140, 145
non-forcible 142–4, 146
coercive reactive mechanisms 144–5
Cohen, Avner 671
collateral damage 761, 1194, 1201
collective action 17, 33, 50, 278, 408, 417, 486, 500
effective 436
collective aspirations 180
collective defence 53, 182–3, 514–15
collective enforcement 182, 185, 468, 486, 775
collective expulsions 1005
collective punishment 624
collective responsibilities 194–5, 435
collective security 7–11, 50–1, 179–83, 191–3, 309, 650–3, 655, 657–9
agreement 350, 378, 380
ICJ case law on use of force within 578
measures 650, 655, 738
mechanisms 8, 21, 27–8, 156, 500
and pacific settlement 180–3
and self-defence 649–60
1990–91 debate 650–3
clear distinction 653–8
important distinction 658–9
system 107–8, 129–56, 180–3, 193, 199–201, 469, 578, 877–8
coexistence with other coercive reactive mechanisms 144–51
enforcement through 146–52
need of catharsis 152–6
move to 138–42
reconfiguration 179–201
(p. 1246) from UN collective security to UN-centred global governance 199–201
collective self-defence 20–1, 512–13, 620, 649–56, 658–9, 1225–31, 1233–4, 1236–7
and enforcement of erga omnes obligations 1230–4
exercise of 481, 1128, 1231
ICJ case law 591–6
right of 286, 334, 563, 579, 591–2, 595, 687, 943
collective will 228, 244–5, 1105
Colombia 90, 524, 555, 682, 692, 1141, 1146, 1148
government 520, 1141, 1146
colonialism 28–9, 474, 781
combat operations 242, 752, 754–5, 764, 1074
combatants 8, 260, 394, 405, 433, 765, 767, 1074
command 131–2, 158, 165, 167, 226, 424–5, 427–8, 937–8
unified 208, 651, 656
command and control
facilities 1115
national 419
commanders 96, 200, 235, 338, 351–2, 370, 372–3, 944
common interest 19, 1103–4
community of states 166, 170, 174–5, 953
companies 77–8, 1131–8, 1140, 1142–3, 1145, 1148–50, 1153–4, 1156
private military, see private military companies
private security 1070, 1133–4, 1138
competence 293–7, 299, 301–2, 307–8, 521, 525, 563, 566
division of 294
in practice 306–8
under Charter 301–6
complex peacekeeping 16, 150, 187, 424, 431
compliance 83, 92–4, 137, 976–7, 979, 985, 1096–7, 1099–1100
level of 94, 435
pull 84, 94
by sovereign equals 88–90
comprehensive peace agreements 963, 967–8, 978, 982
compromise 51, 236, 241, 335, 539, 542, 656, 682
compulsory dispute settlement 11, 13–14, 468
compulsory jurisdiction 9, 14, 98, 549–50, 1022, 1054
computer glitches 1102–3
Concert of Europe 6, 108, 180
conciliation 6, 8, 11, 512, 607
condemnation 116, 118, 170, 172, 274–6, 692–3, 703, 799
international 733, 795
conditional declarations of war 467, 989–90, 997
conduct of hostilities 65, 623, 755, 995, 1000, 1195, 1216
confidence 79, 153, 156, 667, 1046, 1113, 1115
conflicts
border 518, 982, 1080–1
civil 15, 321, 1207–8
internal 15, 19, 378, 400, 823–4, 826, 833, 876
internal armed 19, 31, 319, 342, 816, 845, 850
international 67, 827, 1004, 1094, 1207–8
interstate 424, 426, 839, 967, 969, 1078–9, 1084, 1087
intrastate 354, 369, 424, 967–9
liberation 842, 844, 850
non-international armed 757–8, 765–6, 931–2, 939–41, 999, 1072, 1147, 1215
of norms 1177, 1183–6
self-determination 819, 845, 857
consensual boarding 941–2
consent 82–3, 167–8, 577, 805–7, 821, 829–30, 950–2, 1165–8
contemporaneous 810, 812
flag state 264, 291, 943
(p. 1247) of ousted government 806–8
prior 547, 832–3, 1236
and pro-democratic intervention 805–14
state 167, 547, 550, 829–30, 1031
strategic 381, 392, 395–7
treaty-based 808–14
valid 577, 821, 1166
Consolidated Analysis Centers, Inc, see CACI
conspiracy 535–6, 1142
constitutional order 167, 295, 529–30, 809, 813–14, 825–6, 1150
containment 1044–5, 1225, 1237
contemporaneous consent 810, 812
contiguous zones 263, 285, 759, 899, 901, 931, 937, 1019–20
continental shelf 84, 93, 282, 759, 899, 1019–21, 1028, 1081
continuous combat function 1109, 1147
contraband 267, 273–5, 277–8, 291–2, 902, 939
control 928, 996, 1001
measures 274, 279, 285–6
contractors 1070, 1132, 1134–5, 1141, 1143, 1146, 1148
contracts 994, 1009–10, 1138–9, 1141, 1149, 1151, 1153, 1170
and armed conflict 1009–10
suspension of 994, 1009
contras 524, 563, 577, 595, 634, 687–8
control 203–6, 220–1, 223–6, 419–21, 724, 730–3, 806, 1113–14
arms, see arms, control
effective, see effective control
overall 502, 631, 723
physical 1084, 1087–8
territorial 285, 819, 822, 827–8, 833, 839, 858
cooperation 77, 207, 209, 510, 512, 907, 909, 1177
close 320, 393
international 8, 27, 81, 743, 778
obligation of 461, 1229
coordination 144, 723, 738, 769, 950, 983
Costa Rica 471, 483, 518, 911
Côte d’Ivoire 231–3, 387, 413, 836, 957, 981, 1092, 1206
Council authorization, see Security Council, authorization
counter-constitutional coups 16, 31
counter-piracy 935, 1057–8, 1061, 1074
countermeasures 889–91, 944, 1027, 1128–9, 1165–6, 1177, 1230–1, 1233–8
forcible 592–3, 599, 891, 1027, 1231
unilateral 1026–7, 1234–5, 1238
counterproliferation 1018, 1036–7, 1043–4, 1046, 1052–3
counterproliferation-oriented pre-emptive uses of force 1050, 1052, 1056
counterterrorism 19, 393, 673, 943, 1110
coups 526, 782–3, 798–9, 803, 807, 810–15, 832, 835
counter-constitutional 16, 31
palace 806
credibility 8, 10, 32, 242, 388, 423, 712, 780
credible evidence 663, 1093
crews 279, 281, 933, 1066–7, 1069
crime of aggression 14, 126, 599–600
collateral effects on jus ad bellum 556–7
exercise of national jurisdiction 557–8
and institutional role of Security Council 558–60
and International Criminal Court (ICC) 533–60
Kampala Amendments 539–41, 545, 552
procedural issues 541–52
substantive and institutional issues 552–60
Versailles to Kampala 534–9
crime of genocide, see genocide
Crimea 28, 101, 1089
Crimean War 48, 822
criminal jurisdiction 539, 843, 936–7
criminal responsibility 18, 126, 449
individual 538, 547, 572, 857
Croats 266, 809, 1139–40
cross-border armed actions 574, 586, 1169
Crucé, Emeric de 48, 66–72, 74, 76, 78
Cuba 190–1, 233, 277–8, 478, 520–1, 711, 804, 960
Missile Crisis 277, 601, 711, 804, 917
cultural property 755
(p. 1248) cumulative requirements 1210, 1215–16, 1223
custom-generation 160, 164, 166, 174
customary international law 363, 481–2, 567, 569–71, 579–83, 1040–2, 1169–71, 1185–6
proportionality 1189–92
customary norms, see customary rules
customary rules 83–4, 110, 112, 156, 159, 161, 163–5, 637–8
new 112, 158, 160, 952
cyber attacks, see cyberattacks
cyber capabilities 1110, 1113, 1116, 1118, 1127
cyber force 1110–30; see also cyberattacks; cyber operations
Ch VII and cyber operations 1117–18
prohibition of use 1111–16
self-defence against cyber operations 1119–29
cyber operations 761–2, 772, 1110–17, 1119–25, 1127–9
and Ch VII of Charter 1117–18
self-defence against 1119–29
cyber theatres of operations 753, 761, 772
cyber warfare 95, 753, 756, 758, 761, 1110–11, 1189, 1197
cyberattacks 670, 673, 677, 1122–5, 1128–9, 1197; see also cyber force; cyber operations
armed 1120, 1126–7
intrastate 1121
cyberspace 754, 761, 1111–12, 1130
cyberwarfare, see cyber warfare
Cyprus 495, 682, 809, 831, 916, 950
Czechoslovakia 478, 536, 681, 793, 831
D
Dallaire, General Romeo 364, 384–5
damage
collateral 761, 1194, 1201
physical 576, 1120
damages 38, 42, 50, 52, 188, 422, 618, 883
de facto authorities 530, 811
de facto incorporation 1145, 1147
de facto veto 90
de facto wars 888, 989
De jure belli ac pacis 37, 41
de jure governments 275, 848
de-mining 222, 980, 985
assistance 982
operations 1153
decentralized coercion 132, 134
decentralized response 1234, 1236
decision-making 416, 418–19, 429–30, 432, 436, 715, 1048, 1050
processes 118, 714–16, 719, 793, 1047, 1188, 1207
structures 115, 119–21
declarations of war 467, 540, 989, 997, 1013
decolonization 114, 122, 418, 593, 1080, 1084, 1087, 1094
Decretum Gratiani 37
defensive action 587–8, 663–4, 721, 723, 730–1, 735, 1125–7, 1197–9
forceful 1112, 1124
defensive armed reprisals 894
defensive measures 589, 689, 726, 736, 1107, 1190, 1198, 1200
forceful 590, 1112, 1124–5
defensive operations 589, 599, 1124–5, 1127
defensive responses 731, 735, 741, 1125, 1127, 1196, 1198–9, 1201–2
defensive use of force 87, 587, 604, 676, 1125–6
defensive wars 44–6, 54
degree of force 283, 939, 1065, 1125, 1193
delegation of enforcement powers 229–33
to individual states or coalitions 232–3
to regional organizations 229–32
deliberate ambiguity 243, 655
delinkage 633
delivery 192, 272, 277, 323, 364, 386, 670, 674
means of 364, 1018
vehicles 1018–19
demilitarization 384, 388, 760, 974
demilitarized zones 765–6, 968
demobilization 186, 402, 978, 982
(p. 1249) democracy 102, 189, 526–30, 798–802, 805, 813–14, 969, 973
representative 526–8, 531
Western liberal 797, 1137
democratic deficit 120, 792
democratic entitlement 798, 801–2, 814–15
democratic governance 31, 194, 797–8, 800–2, 815, 826, 833, 849
democratic institutions 801, 817, 826, 835
democratic legitimacy 807, 828, 834–5, 837
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, see DPRK
democratically constituted governments 529, 805–6, 808
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 185, 199, 377, 421, 426, 430–1
deployment 334–5, 387–8, 394, 396, 411, 413, 453, 825
Desert Storm 218, 302, 651–2, 659, 786
desuetude 29, 93–4, 109–11, 156, 792, 821, 823
detention 222, 351, 354, 403, 847, 906, 1146, 1148
deterrence 26, 84, 161, 316, 604, 882, 1037, 1043–5
nuclear 5, 32
deterrent effect 181, 556–7
diamonds 1078, 1091–2
dictatorships 518, 526, 528, 805, 853
diffused responsibility 454–9
Dinstein, Yoram 172, 650, 708–9, 741, 743, 747, 894, 1143–4
diplomacy 45, 93, 188, 672, 1037, 1045, 1125, 1128
diplomatic protection 950, 959–60
diplomatic relations 60, 70, 519, 521, 524, 986, 992, 1004–5
and armed conflict 1004–5
diplomatic sanctions 800, 871
direct application 380, 620, 1114
direct physical protection of civilians 376, 382–4, 388
disarmament 58, 125–6, 322–4, 353, 355, 918, 920, 980
obligations 10, 32, 240, 977
discretionary powers 450, 473, 877
discrimination 65, 128, 275, 842, 951
discriminatory application 38, 1212, 1214
displaced persons 324, 769
dispute settlement 6–7, 14, 40, 50, 139, 743
disputed areas 160, 282, 921
disputed maritime areas 282, 920
diversity 115, 122, 127–8, 366, 862, 1051–2, 1177, 1236
of feminist approaches 115–16, 125, 128
division of competence 294
in practice 306–8
under Charter 301–6
domestic jurisdiction 18, 107, 246, 557, 778, 818, 822, 839
domestic law 19, 99, 102, 163, 276, 284, 843, 850
Dominican Republic 169, 478, 518–19, 523, 530, 793, 830
double attribution 457–8
double burden of proof 165
double proportionality 1201, 1205
measurement 1192–5
DPRK (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 264, 1063, 1219
drilling, unauthorized 282, 921
drones 677, 753, 757, 760, 1097–1107, 1193, 1201; see also remotely piloted warfare
attacks 26, 1097, 1198, 1200–1
errant 1102–3
weaponized 1105, 1107
Dubois, Jean 48
Dumbarton Oaks 54, 681, 684, 887
duties 9, 299, 372, 422–3, 511–12, 1183, 1225–9, 1237
of impartiality 1227, 1229
of neutrality 52, 286, 990
of non-recognition 1087–9, 1094
official 1150
dynastic legitimacy 64, 67
E
East Timor 16, 29, 103–4, 186–7, 479, 538, 551, 876
ECOMOG (Economic Community Monitoring Group) 387, 784, 803–4, 808, 983–4
(p. 1250) economic coercion 598, 607, 1113, 1115
Economic Community Monitoring Group, see ECOMOG
Economic Community of West African States, see ECOWAS
economic power 64, 67
economic relations 530, 1009, 1118
economic sanctions 210, 213, 277, 287, 289, 802, 806–7, 1003
economy, judicial 686, 689
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) 231–2, 237, 784, 801, 803–4, 807, 811–14, 825
security system 812–13
Ecuador 470, 519, 523–4, 555, 682, 692, 1141, 1146
territorial integrity 692, 1142
education 120, 755
EECC (Eritrea–Ethiopia Claims Commission) 607, 617–18, 708, 1005–8, 1213
effective authority 31, 200, 800, 983
effective control 220–2, 457–8, 722–4, 805, 807–8, 810–11, 835, 1146
degree/level of 221, 224, 226, 1142
test 223
effective enforcement 14, 33, 1229, 1235–6
effectiveness 100, 106–8, 113, 153, 155, 191, 865, 1207–8
principle 930, 933
egregious violations 297, 299, 312, 485, 556
Egypt 665, 919, 979, 983, 987, 996, 1001, 1006
EITI (Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative) 1091
El Salvador 334–5, 342, 521, 563, 588, 687, 870, 979
elected governments 70, 529–30, 798–800, 802, 804, 811–14, 824, 832–3
elections 118, 325–7, 788, 798, 825, 832, 834, 836
internationally monitored 806–7, 837
electoral fraud 529–30
elites 121, 1138
embargoes 189, 235, 273, 288, 308, 807, 926, 928
enemy aliens 42, 44, 992–4, 1005–8, 1013
property 993, 1007
enemy nationals, see enemy aliens
enemy subjects, see enemy aliens
enemy territory 771, 934, 992–3, 1005, 1007, 1013
enforceability 50, 155
enforcement 14, 129–56, 253–4, 256, 273–5, 283–5, 398–9, 928–30
action 229–31, 273, 276, 315, 317–20, 404, 784–6, 1231
collective 182, 486, 775
delegated 228–9, 232
maritime 279, 290
regional 230, 785, 794
capabilities 130, 404–5, 412
centralization and individualization 137–45
of the collective will 228, 244–5, 1105
of community interests 1237–8
of conservation and management measures 281, 1022
disability 129–31, 153
effective 14, 33, 1229, 1235–6
functions 131, 138, 144–6, 151–2, 156
of global community values 31–2
jurisdiction 284, 291, 904
mechanisms 9, 134–5, 146, 150, 192, 843
of military sanctions in the absence of express authorization 272–92
operations 184, 287, 311, 366, 405, 411–12, 414, 984
of peremptory norms 1162, 1184
powers 12–13, 18, 133, 228–9, 236, 324, 411, 603
(p. 1251) and role of law 14–17
sanctions, see sanctions, enforcement
through collective security system 146–52
need of catharsis 152–6
and UN 12–13
unilateral 228, 244–5
EO (Executive Outcomes) 1131, 1134, 1137–8, 1140, 1147–8
equal application 928, 1000, 1223
equality, sovereign 89–90, 107, 162, 792, 809, 972, 1116
erga omnes obligations 445–6, 1225–6, 1232–5, 1237
and collective self-defence 1230–4
Eritrea–Ethiopia Claims Commission, see EECC
Espósito, C 1184
established rules 96–7, 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111
Ethiopia 11, 323, 326, 554, 557, 607, 617–18, 1004–8
ethnic cleansing 194, 408, 444, 486, 776–7, 788, 792, 1181
EUFOR (European Union Force) 387, 985
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 220, 222–3, 458, 856, 876, 1178–9
European Union (EU) 81, 204, 207–9, 283, 285, 619, 905, 1089
European Union Force (EUFOR) 387, 985
evidence 91–4, 112, 164–6, 333–5, 337–40, 711–12, 716–19, 1198
credible 663, 1093
level of 715, 717
prima facie 498, 1174
sufficient 23, 850, 926
exceptional circumstances 931, 940, 942, 944
exceptionalism 123, 852
exclusion zones 262–4, 757, 762–3, 771–2, 912, 944
aerial, see NFZs
geographical extent 762–3
total 252
exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 263, 285, 758–9, 772, 899, 907, 1019–21, 1081
exclusive jurisdiction 15, 926, 941, 1020, 1033, 1067
Executive Outcomes, see EO
expansive interpretations 444, 486
expertise 334, 346, 611–12
military 332, 1140
exploitation 759, 1021, 1080, 1086, 1091, 1093
of natural resources 1085–7, 1089, 1092–3
sexual 433–4
expulsions, collective 1005
external aggression 51, 194, 316, 467
external assistance 820, 823, 827–8, 831
external intervention 74, 197, 802, 805–6, 819–20, 851
external sovereignty 68–9
extra-territorial jurisdiction 459
Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) 1091
extraditable offences 905–6
extradition 509, 904, 1178
extraterritorial jurisdiction 275–6, 287, 441, 455
F
fact-finding missions/reports 406, 605–26, 700, 703, 717, 918, 922, 953
application of jus contra bellum 613–24
legal significance 610–13
factions 75, 784, 835, 837, 839–40, 1207–8
factual context 686, 690, 750, 878
failed states 187, 731, 952
failure to act 238, 244–8
failure to protect-critique 390, 437–61
and diffused responsibility 454–9
as political critique 459–61
and UN 448–53
failure to protect-critique, and bystander states 440–8, 456
fair elections 797, 801, 831, 833
Falkland Islands 252, 657, 1001, 1080
(p. 1252) false negatives 714–15, 717
false positives 714–15, 717
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) 524, 555, 692, 1141
Farer, Tom 810
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, see FRY
feminist peace activism 116, 124–6, 128
feminist perspectives
diversity 115–16, 125, 128
enduring relevance of feminist peace studies 124–7
misrepresentation of western feminism as a universal feminism 121–4
Fichte, Johann 69
financial incentives 189, 396
First Gulf War 286, 288, 785, 977
First World War 9, 36, 50–1, 180–1, 191, 962, 969, 993–4
flag state jurisdiction 941, 1021, 1029, 1031, 1063
flag states 287, 902–3, 938, 940–1, 1020, 1029, 1066–9
consent 264, 291, 943
jurisdiction 941, 1021, 1029, 1031
third party 290
force
degree of 283, 939, 1065, 1125, 1193
level of 258, 400, 407, 410, 412, 415, 791, 798
threat of, see threat of force
use of, see use of force
forceful defensive measures/actions 590, 1112, 1124–5
forcible coercive measures 140–1, 144
forcible coercive powers 140
forcible countermeasures 592–3, 599, 891, 1027, 1231
forcible intervention 167, 174, 570, 596, 884
forcible measures 9, 138, 282, 408, 588, 591, 884, 888
at sea, history and background 273–9
forcible measures at sea, use of force definition 279–83
forcible reprisals 277, 279, 888, 895, 1166
forcible rescue missions 600, 603
forcible responses 724, 731, 735, 1119
forcible self-help 37, 140, 144, 146, 881
foreign aircraft 908, 934–5, 1102
foreign-flagged vessels 275, 285–7
foreign intervention 101, 167, 577, 780, 816, 821, 828
foreign nationals 21, 780, 957, 961
foreign occupation 215–16, 838
foreign soil 24, 574, 577
foreign territory 47, 680, 689, 692–4, 696, 898, 1082–6, 1102
foreign troops 480, 783, 816, 821, 1167
foreign vessels, see foreign ships
formal equality 64, 67, 119
formal recognition 822–3, 838
former Yugoslavia 29, 161, 265, 287, 291, 383–4, 429, 1222
frameworks, normative, see normative frameworks
fraud, electoral 529–30
freedom of movement 236, 353, 364–6, 388, 405
freedom of navigation 262, 270, 275, 926–7, 934, 1029, 1031, 1033
friendly relations 10, 277, 302–3, 468, 477, 484, 1005, 1088
FRY (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) 158, 174, 256, 265–6, 268, 970, 976
Fukuyama, Francis 797, 1137
Fulgosius, Raphael 38
fundamental human rights 369, 528, 554, 1185
further material breach 240–1
G
Gaddafi regime 118, 411, 838
Gazzini, Tarcisio 490
Gbagbo, Laurent 237, 413, 836
gender 116–17, 120–6, 128
imbalances 120, 122, 127
gendered violence 120, 124
general animosity 711, 716
General Assembly 422–3, 474, 476–7, 537, 781–4, 786–7, 792, 1181
and prohibition of use of force 476–8
(p. 1253) and Security Council 293–313
general international law 167, 449, 485, 760, 1023–4, 1162–3, 1171, 1228–9
peremptory norms of 864, 1162, 1165, 1229
subsequent norms of 485, 1162, 1171
general prohibition on the use of force 654, 798, 879, 1203
general welfare 302–3, 856
Geneva Conventions 453, 754, 763, 765, 847, 998, 1000, 1211
genocide 320–2, 430, 442–4, 449–50, 455–6, 459, 1179–81, 1185–6
commission of 444, 456, 460, 1185
Genocide case 440, 442, 449, 455, 459, 584, 595, 723
Gentili, Alberico 40–1, 62, 72–3, 76
geographical limitations 215, 753, 757, 761, 1124
geographical scope 215–16, 468, 572, 754, 756, 772, 1195, 1200
geopolitical change 858, 1045, 1055
Germany 50, 81, 88, 90, 161–2, 468, 473, 884–5
Nazi 7, 194, 469, 778
global governance 180
UN-centred 199–201
global inequalities 124–5
global war 26, 123, 486
good governance 200, 369
governance 26, 117, 380, 785, 813, 817–18, 842, 1135
democratic 31, 194, 797–8, 800–2, 815, 826, 833, 849
global 180, 201
good 200, 369
governmental authorities 818, 965, 999, 1073, 1092–4, 1113, 1146, 1156
governmental legitimacy 800–2, 852
governments
democratically constituted 529, 805–6, 808
legitimate 168, 327, 655, 806, 811, 827, 834, 837
ousted 804, 806, 810–11
previously-recognized 822–3
puppet 1087–8
recognized 327–8, 838
graduated responses 903, 1023, 1068
grave circumstances 317, 320, 322, 813, 832
gravity 552–3, 615, 674, 708–10, 741, 788, 1174, 1176
level of 729, 740
sufficient 537, 540, 617, 1104, 1174
threshold 581–2, 593, 598, 602, 708–9
Gray, Christine 102–3, 105–7, 110, 113, 358, 366, 368, 827
Great Lakes region 554, 898, 972, 1091
Great War, see First World War
Greece 479, 536, 809, 885
Greenwood, Christopher 246, 286, 629, 649, 655, 662, 672, 674
Grenada 168–9, 479–80, 531, 953
grey areas 412, 555, 584, 599, 602–3, 805, 1133, 1149
Grob, Fritz 965
Gross, Leo 423, 927
Grotius, Hugo 37, 41, 45, 61–3, 73–4, 76–8, 698, 702
ground interdiction operations 945
groups of states 19, 175, 246, 255, 551, 650, 875, 877
Guatemala 84, 109, 494, 508, 513, 518, 793
guidance 371, 373, 382–3, 391, 395, 1065, 1070–1, 1114
operational 372–3, 389
guidelines 196, 235, 357, 361, 372, 1202
guiding principles 385, 845, 858
Guinea 281, 495, 813, 865, 903
Gulf Wars 183, 186, 234, 263, 977, 1000, 1003–4, 1212–13
Guyana 105, 281–2, 513, 607, 614, 616, 918, 920
H
hacktivist groups 1113, 1121
Hague Conventions 6, 967, 977, 990, 992, 997, 1006–7, 1013
Hannikainen, L 1167, 1175
harmonious construction 568–9
(p. 1254) Hart, H.L.A. 83, 98, 106, 135–7, 230, 491, 708, 865
heavy weapons 19, 237, 391, 413, 836, 912
helicopters 237, 255, 394, 908, 1057
Henkin, Louis 87, 137, 153, 664
Hezbollah 672, 691, 728, 733, 742
High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change 27, 90, 179, 193–9, 434–5, 666, 1035, 1204
historic monuments 755
Honduras 334–5, 494, 521, 531–2
hospitals 763–5, 1103
host countries 424, 433–4, 436
host states of terrorist groups 720–36
failure/inability to prevent attacks 730–4
state control and attribution of indirect attacks 721–4
state involvement short of control 724–30
hostages 107, 475, 594, 847, 954, 956–8, 1073–4
hostile acts 258, 261, 368, 372–3, 616, 661, 754, 766–8
hostile intent 258, 270, 368, 372–3, 935, 944
hot pursuit 276, 285, 897–909, 937, 1021, 1024, 1141
in the air 908–9
on land 903–7
at sea 898–903
human rights 16–17, 298–9, 306–7, 378–80, 594–5, 778–9, 825–6, 856
protection, and proportionality 1202–8
treaties 442, 798, 1011, 1013, 1062
violations 306, 518, 528, 776–7, 790, 792–3, 1202, 1205–8
gross 319, 807–8
humanitarian assistance 236, 255, 258, 323, 770–1, 951, 980–1, 983
humanitarian catastrophes 246, 487, 595, 599, 653, 787
humanitarian intervention 74–5, 78, 173–5, 475–6, 770, 775–96, 862–3, 1169–70
forcible 1169
genuine 600, 603, 1180
lawful or pardonable 793–6
as new challenge 30–1
right of 447, 780, 1180
state practice 779–88
and terms of prohibition on use of force 777–9
threshold criteria for legality or mitigation of illegality 788–93
humanitarian law 17, 19, 147, 405, 407, 441, 444, 826
humanitarian personnel 364, 366–7, 376, 388
humanitarian relief 231, 238, 255, 364, 426, 783, 786, 1008
humanitarian values 398–9, 401, 403, 405, 407, 409, 411, 413
Hungary 865, 969, 994–5
I
identifiable attacks 707, 711, 718
Ignatieff, Michael 1208
I’m Alone 616, 1065
imminence 22, 24, 669–70, 672–4, 1041–3, 1051, 1126, 1188–9
and certainty 713–16
and modern threats 705–13
proving existence of imminent attack 716–18
requirement/criterion 23, 666, 698–702, 705, 707–8, 710, 712, 719
in uncertain world 697–719
imminent attack 579–81, 621, 669–70, 673–4, 699–701, 703–4, 712–18, 942
proving existence 716–18
imminent threat of armed attack 580, 701
imminent threat of attack 94, 739, 745
imminent threat of physical violence 236, 324–5, 367, 380, 387, 395, 413, 452
immovable property 755, 993, 1085
immunity 162, 194, 458, 755, 779, 1178–9
state 161, 163, 1179, 1182–4
impartiality 357–8, 380–1, 393–4, 398–403, 405, 407, 413–15, 612
duty of 1227, 1229
impending attacks 677, 699, 701, 705, 707–10, 712–14, 718–19, 744
imperatival handicap of international law, Austinian 132, 134–6, 153
implied mandates 227–8, 238–43
implied powers 233, 359–60, 363
impossibility 603, 670, 1009
supervening 1011
imprecise authorizations 234–7, 248
inaction 86, 116, 248, 373, 441, 447–8, 450, 456
inadmissibility 307, 346, 496
incentives 73, 148, 189, 335, 420, 598, 1028–9
incumbent regimes 814, 816–17, 819, 826, 829, 832, 834, 838
incursions, armed 405, 731, 768
independence 28–30, 74, 166, 507, 513–14, 612, 821, 853
India 90, 174, 191, 234–5, 781, 1001, 1003, 1039
indirect armed attack 584, 722, 731, 735
indirect attack 721, 728, 740
state control and attribution 721–4
individual responsibility 14, 18, 434, 439, 456, 459, 499
individual self-defence 271, 362, 654, 1068
ICJ case law 579–91
right of 563, 579–80, 586
individualization
of enforcement 137–45
of responsibilities 460
Indonesia 103–4, 108, 492–3, 500, 551, 853, 1060, 1088
ineffectiveness 102, 570
inequality 107–8, 127, 248, 858
global 124–5
inherent right of self-defence 582, 585, 720, 724, 1098, 1102, 1106, 1108
initial armed attack 623, 750, 873, 1125, 1218
injured states 897, 959, 1166, 1177, 1225, 1232–3, 1237
innocent passage, right of 270, 501, 939, 1020–1
instability 15, 80, 844, 895, 1070–1, 1078
institutionalization 66, 136, 139, 469, 650
instrument of national policy, war as an 10, 52, 468, 535, 561, 1143
insurgency 275, 334, 540, 822, 827
insurgents 275, 389, 498, 728, 819, 822–3, 848, 939
integrity, territorial 17–18, 491–2, 572–4, 680, 694–6, 777–9, 1082–3, 1173–5
intelligence 667, 669, 675, 677, 1051, 1098–9, 1198, 1207
intensity 18, 21, 24, 64, 575–6, 940, 992, 999–1000
level of 21, 999
intentions 159–60, 265–6, 386, 388, 918–19, 921, 923, 988–90
signalled 283, 914–15
interception 608, 616, 704, 938, 1018, 1026, 1028–9, 1031–2
interceptive self-defence 704–5
interdiction, shipping 943–4, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1023, 1025, 1027, 1029
interdiction operations 287, 926, 931, 934–46
ground 945
legality 926, 935, 940, 945
interference 884, 889, 925–6, 934, 936, 941, 944, 1064
unlawful 291, 1031
internal affairs 296, 470, 492, 509, 529, 532, 959, 963
internal armed conflicts 19, 31, 319, 342, 816, 845, 850
internal conflicts 15, 19, 378, 400, 823–4, 826, 833, 876
internal rebellion 72, 818
internal waters 276, 285, 759, 936–7, 1019–20, 1031
international airspace 262, 758–9, 762, 770–2, 940–1, 945
international armed conflict (IAC) 285, 762–3, 849–51, 928–32, 934–5, 939–40, 1072–3, 1215
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 198, 671, 1028
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 194, 247, 389, 408, 420, 1203
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 399, 452–3, 764–5, 850, 967, 998, 1147, 1214
international community 181, 191–2, 194–5, 375–6, 408–9, 485–6, 1114–15, 1168
organized 17, 31, 50
international condemnation 733, 795
international conflicts 67, 827, 1004, 1094, 1207–8
international cooperation 8, 27, 81, 743, 778
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 422–3, 549–51, 562–606, 686–8, 914–18, 920–4, 1022–3, 1188–92
case law on non-use of force 564–96
basic issues 564–72
collective self-defence 591–6
exceptions to prohibition 578–96
individual self-defence 579–91
overall picture 597–600
prohibition of use of force 572–7
threat of force 596
unilateral use of force 578–96
use of force within collective security system 578
and cases requiring exercise of non-legal judgement 331–40
and matters arguably within province of Security Council 340–6
and principle of non-use of force 561–604
and prohibition of use of force 481–3, 501–2
and Security Council 329–46
and self-defence 345–6
international crimes 163–4, 299, 456, 824, 956, 1109
International Criminal Court (ICC) 14, 246, 300, 499, 537, 539, 541–60, 825
and crime of aggression 533–60
institutional integrity 555–6
jurisdiction 534, 539, 543–51, 557–60
international criminal law 126, 312, 557, 826, 830, 1074
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 538
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 161, 502, 538, 722, 856–7, 965, 999, 1072–3
international humanitarian law (IHL) 285–6, 432, 849–51, 1062–4, 1072–4, 1155, 1211–12, 1214–23
and military enforcement measures under Ch VII 1218–23
and self-defence 1215–18
International Law Association (ILA) 645, 851, 999, 1212
International Law Commission (ILC) 220–1, 445–6, 483–4, 863–5, 1145–6, 1164–8, 1225–6, 1229–30
international legal community 80, 130, 844, 858
international legal personality 356, 422
international legal system 3, 33, 91, 130, 136, 138, 144–5, 154
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1019, 1027–9, 1033, 1067, 1071
International Military Tribunal (IMT) 534–6, 562, 565, 665, 701, 1213
international morality 50, 535
international operations 419–20, 426–8, 432, 435–6
(p. 1257) international organizations 203–4, 219–21, 223–4, 435–6, 448–50, 801–2, 1151–3, 1226–7
creation 78, 295
and private military companies 1152–4
international peace and security 12–15, 297–301, 306–10, 472–3, 477–9, 491–2, 495–8, 651–6
maintenance of 141–2, 298–300, 320, 341–2, 378, 418, 448–9, 491
restoration of 234, 310, 473, 487, 652, 739, 746–7
international politics 7, 57, 59, 72, 98, 169, 182, 248–9
international relations 97–8, 465–6, 469–70, 565, 568–9, 572, 603–5, 865
international responsibility 220–1, 223, 319, 446, 448, 450, 458
ramping up of 432
international security 180, 302, 484, 1021, 1047, 1055, 1137
International Security Assistance Force, see ISAF
international society 62, 160–1, 404, 858
international terrorism 16, 24, 26, 322, 686, 723, 744, 1052; see also transnational terrorism
international thought, origin 59–68
international trade, see trade
international treaties 14, 535–6, 646, 879, 886, 936, 941, 945
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 281, 613, 867, 899, 903, 1023, 1065
International Union (hypothetical) 66–8, 71–2
international waters 270, 291, 337–8, 761, 942, 944
internationally monitored elections 806–7, 837
interpretation 214–16, 544–7, 637–8, 645–8, 688–9, 876–7, 1052–3, 1191–2
authoritative 105, 476, 482, 1054
expansive 444, 486
lax 54, 703
legal 360, 395–6, 702
restrictive 869, 1040, 1043, 1165, 1171–2, 1197
intersection of race and gender 115, 121
interstate conflicts 424, 426, 839, 967, 969, 1078–9, 1084, 1087
interstate relations 29, 62–3, 66, 70–1, 76–7, 489, 996, 1111–12
interstate wars 77–8, 101, 986
intervening states 32, 369, 862, 866, 1087, 1094, 1148, 1150
intervention 234–5, 787–93, 798–800, 804–8, 815–21, 829–33, 1116, 1206–8
in civil wars 827–9
external 74, 197, 802, 805–6, 819–20, 851
forcible 167, 174, 570, 596, 884
foreign 101, 167, 577, 780, 816, 821, 828
humanitarian, see humanitarian intervention
by invitation 816–40
emergence of qualitative factors 833–9
points of tension in traditional doctrine 829–33
recent practice 833–9
traditional framework 818–29
military, see military intervention
non-intervention, see non-intervention
pro-democratic, see pro-democratic intervention
prohibited 106, 802, 820
nature 818–19
right of 322, 820, 959–60
alleged 105, 140, 573, 947
Security Council-authorized 248, 799, 815, 1206
unilateral 785, 794, 823, 830
unlawful 576–7, 631, 732, 777
US 182, 509, 577, 780, 831
Intervention Brigade 236, 267, 355, 358, 366–7, 393–4
intrastate conflicts 354, 369, 424, 967–9
intrastate cyberattacks 1121
invasions 191, 489–90, 495–502, 504–5, 518, 782, 1084, 1086
of Iraq 649, 676, 794, 1079
of Kuwait 183, 217, 302, 404, 500, 538, 742, 750
(p. 1258) invitations 318, 327, 816–21, 823, 827–31, 833–5, 837, 839
evolution of norms 820–6
legitimacy 829–30
treaty-based 831–3
valid 819, 823, 827
Iran–Iraq War 263, 280, 337, 748, 750, 1002, 1079, 1212
Iraq 183, 208–12, 217–18, 238–44, 267–9, 479–80, 918–19, 977
invasion of 649, 676, 794, 1079
northern 238, 254–5, 475, 733, 770, 785, 787
occupation of 1007, 1084
and threat of force prohibition 918–20
Iraqi aircraft 23, 255, 1003
irregular forces 477, 482, 583, 586, 682, 689, 721–3, 732
ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) 204, 207, 254, 266, 419, 747–8
isolation 116, 122, 130, 135–6, 435, 854, 1097, 1112
Israeli–Lebanese conflict 951, 983, 1002, 1202
Italy 7, 9, 11, 81, 190–1, 991, 994–5, 1182
J
Japan 7, 9, 183, 191, 468, 473, 546, 667–8
Jay Treaty 6
joint operations 221, 413
Jordan 248, 721, 960, 969, 971, 979, 983, 1097
judicial economy 686, 689
jura belli 38
jurisdiction 289, 334–5, 534–5, 541–6, 548–51, 556–7, 1179, 1184–5
aggression 544, 547–8, 558
compulsory 9, 14, 98, 549–50, 1022, 1054
criminal 539, 843, 936–7
domestic 18, 107, 246, 557, 778, 818, 822, 839
enforcement 284, 291, 904
exclusive 15, 926, 941, 1020, 1033, 1067
extra-territorial 459
extraterritorial 275–6, 287, 441, 455
flag state 941, 1021, 1029, 1031, 1063
territorial 98, 948, 1075
universal 62, 1020, 1178
jus ad bellum 50–1, 565, 927–9, 1085–7, 1131–3, 1143–5, 1155–7, 1192–5
and blockade 927–34
and jus in bello 1209–23
perspective 1187, 1203, 1205
and private military companies (PMCs) 1131–57
and proportionality 1187–1208
and remotely piloted warfare 1095–1109
and resource conflicts 1082–5
and self-determination 851–7
jus cogens 16–17, 30–1, 157–9, 165–9, 175, 484–5, 779, 794
change through state practice 157–75
demands for forcible action 1176–86
generally accepted circumstances precluding wrongfulness 1165–70
peremptory norms relating to use of armed force 1162–4
restrictions on use of armed force 1165–75
specific exceptions 1170–1
as jus cogens 1172–3
and limited scope of peremptory prohibition 1173–5
status 17, 175, 485, 1164–5, 1176, 1182, 1184
of prohibition of use of force 165–6
and use of armed force 1161–86
jus contra bellum 35–6, 565, 608–11, 625–6, 865, 867, 873, 1144
application in arbitral awards and fact-finding missions/reports 613–24
jus fetiale 37
jus gentium 61–2
jus in bello 40, 277–8, 1085–6, 1097, 1155–6, 1193–5, 1203, 1223; see also law of war
and blockade 927–34
(p. 1259) and jus ad bellum 1209–23
and self-determination 846–51
and unlawful parties 1211–14
jus post bellum 38, 41–2
jus victoriae 41–2
just and legal war 45
just war
in 19th century 45–9
Middle Ages 37–9
tradition 37, 44, 46, 50, 61–3, 1203
justice of war 38–41, 50
justiciability 688
and admissibility 329–46
justifications 43, 46–7, 121–3, 866–7, 949–50, 952–3, 1042–3, 1185–6
autonomous 951, 953
K
Kampala Amendments 539–41, 545, 552
Kampuchea, see Cambodia
Kant, Immanuel 8, 48, 61, 66, 70–2, 74, 77–8, 975
Kellogg–Briand Pact 10–11, 13, 52, 91, 100, 139–40, 468–9, 535
Kelsen, Hans 132–4, 151, 298, 647, 649, 880
Kennan, George 80, 89, 95
KFOR, see Kosovo Force
Khmer Rouge 782–3
kinetic actions 1112, 1121–2, 1124–5, 1127
Korea 108, 182–3, 234, 308–9, 311, 425–6, 650
South 234, 478, 494, 496, 500, 651, 1219
Korean War 101, 183, 301, 308–9, 750, 969, 1212
Kosovo Force (KFOR) 222–4, 232, 419, 976
Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) 497, 786, 912
Kurds 30, 238, 255, 475, 770, 803
Kuwait 183, 232, 234, 286, 651–3, 942–3, 1010, 1079–80
invasion of 183, 217, 302, 404, 500, 538, 742, 750
liberation of 15, 234
occupation of 618, 968, 1079
L
land-based mines 1103
land forces 182, 277, 472, 874, 1118, 1153, 1193
language of law and use of force 503–5
Lauterpacht, Hersch 88, 99, 1147
law enforcement 279, 281–3, 287, 289, 291, 743–4, 1099, 1109
activities/measures 282, 614–16, 744, 921, 950, 1024
operations 903–4, 1058, 1066, 1074–5
paradigm 939, 1074, 1109
purposes 897, 903, 908–9
law of armed conflict (LOAC) 252–4, 260, 589, 753–6, 760–3, 765–6, 772, 999–1000
law of nations (LN) 45, 54, 56–7, 59–61, 63–78, 273, 278, 897–8
evolutionary lines 68–70
law of neutrality 274–5, 291, 761, 989–91, 1003–4, 1013, 1225, 1227–9
and armed conflict 1003–4
narrowing of scope of applicability as a result of unlawful use of force 1227–30
law of occupation 1084–7, 1221
law of prize 935, 939–41
law of self-defence 629, 636, 642, 646, 1054, 1056, 1100, 1121–5
law of war 62, 273–4, 846, 865, 989, 991, 1000; see also jus in bello
and armed conflict 1000–1
lawful measures 446, 573, 721, 735, 1104, 1166, 1177
lawful parties 1210–12, 1214–15, 1219
lawful self-defence 334, 337, 695–6, 729, 735, 1217
lawful use of force 499, 556–7, 578, 604, 650, 1083, 1125, 1132
lawmaking 159, 637–8, 640, 642, 644
lax interpretation 54, 703
League of Arab States (LAS) 89, 209, 483, 609, 771, 919
League of Nations 7–8, 11–14, 50, 139–41, 349–50, 417, 467–8, 885
Lebanon 691, 728, 733, 950, 969, 971, 979, 983
southern 691, 742, 889
legal advisers 61, 163, 169, 256, 1111
legal authority 32, 339, 348, 356–7, 359, 361, 367, 370
of UN peacekeepers 348, 360, 370
legal basis 273–4, 282–5, 287–8, 359, 361–2, 936, 941–3, 945
general 208, 863
sufficient 807, 930, 941
for use of force to enforce sanctions 283–91
legal community, international 80, 130, 844, 858
legal consequences 503, 505, 684–5, 1177, 1179, 1216–18, 1220, 1229–30
legal effects 41, 275, 345, 838–9, 1162, 1180, 1186
legal equality 64–5, 510–11
legal frameworks 165, 168, 314–15, 356–7, 1019, 1079, 1082–3, 1085
legal interpretation 360, 395–6, 702
legal justification 32, 242, 290, 676, 949, 951–2, 1036, 1039
legal legitimacy 787, 792
legal obligations 24, 84, 244, 356, 656, 862, 1124, 1154–5
legal orders 17, 132–3, 137, 360, 601, 603, 628, 638
decentralized international 601, 604
legal personality 25, 29, 294, 449, 1153
international 356, 422
legal powers 58, 120, 294, 310, 453, 1167
legal responsibility 25, 618, 794, 1113
legal scholars 132, 134, 153, 573, 632, 705, 941, 1188
legal status 72, 171, 466, 484–6, 622, 815, 839, 847
legal systems 34, 80, 135–6, 173, 175, 284, 362, 638
national 252, 1069
legal war 39–43, 52–3, 63, 1144
legalists 98
legality 294–5, 312–13, 482, 798–800, 867–8, 928–9, 948–50, 1193–5
of armed reprisals 889, 891
of blockades 930, 934
of forcible rescue operations 960
of interdiction operations 926, 935, 940, 945
presumptive 1114–15
of self-defence 621, 711, 878
threshold of 501–2
of war, see legal war
legitimacy 68, 71–2, 77, 373, 694, 817–18, 839, 1204
of anticipatory self-defence 701, 709, 719
democratic 807, 828, 834–5, 837
dynastic 64, 67
invitations 829–30
legal 787, 792
political 788, 792–3
legitimate authority 57, 60, 71, 952
legitimate governments 168, 327, 655, 806, 811, 827, 834, 837
legitimate military targets 259–60, 482
legitimate orders 813, 932, 936, 938
legitimate representatives 837–8, 840
legitimate self-defence 311, 624, 1116
Leibniz, Godfried Wilhelm 48, 70, 72
less grave forms of the use of force 576, 581–2, 614, 616–17, 1023, 1119
lethal force 252–3, 258, 261, 264, 269–71, 1066, 1068, 1075
level of force 258, 400, 407, 410, 412, 415, 791, 798
level of intensity 21, 999
Levitt, Jeremy 811, 813–14
lex specialis 175, 542, 584, 850, 977
liberalization 154–5, 1084
liberation 28–9, 38, 841
conflicts 842, 844, 850
national 28–9, 474, 800, 841, 849, 858, 1087
liberty 64, 69, 74–5, 841
Libya 88–9, 119, 195–7, 214–17, 220, 300, 343–4, 837–9
Gaddafi regime 118, 411, 838
NATO action in 196, 205, 233, 317, 387, 394, 411
territory 215–16, 838
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. US 343–5
limitation of right to war 49–54
LOAC-based MEZs 263, 265–9
Lockerbie 15, 343
logistical support 327, 687, 728–9
M
McIlmail, T.P. 254, 256, 262
McNair, A.D. 900, 991, 996
Madison, James 69
maintenance of international peace and security 141–2, 298–300, 320, 341–2, 378, 418, 448–9, 491
major powers 7, 52, 182, 200, 319, 537, 805, 1207
Malaysia 233, 919
malware 575, 577, 1114, 1126–7
managerial approach 5–7
mandated operations 416, 422, 425, 435–6
mandates 214–16, 235–7, 256–62, 322–8, 351–9, 361–73, 375–96, 398–407
exploration of boundaries 391–5
implied 227–8
protection of civilians (POC) 359, 369, 375–7, 379–82, 385, 388, 390, 392–6
sources 417–20
UN operational and legal milestones 420–3
manifest threats 743, 750, 815
manifest violations 499, 540–1, 552–4, 599
maritime enforcement actions 279, 290
maritime exclusion zones (MEZs) 251–71, 762, 1002
LOAC-based 266–9
non-LOAC-based 263, 265–6, 268–70
UNSC-endorsed or mandated 262–70
conclusions as to UNSC use of force practice 269–70
general description 262–4
and sanctions enforcement generally 264–5
maritime interception operations, see MIO
maritime interdiction operations 943–4, 1017, 1019, 1021, 1023, 1025, 1027, 1029
maritime security 1021, 1026–7, 1070
mass destruction, weapons of, see weapons of mass destruction
material breach 239–40
further 240–1
Mauritania 327, 813–14, 954
means 211–13
all necessary, see all necessary means
of delivery 364, 1018
of warfare 102, 754, 761, 770, 772, 1193, 1216, 1218
measurability 1114, 1193
measures 211–13
all necessary, see all necessary measures
measures short of war 43, 46, 275
memoranda of understanding 377–8
mercenaries 58, 172, 268, 311, 1121, 1131–6, 1144, 1150–1
definition 1150–1
merchant vessels 274, 276, 285–7, 290, 337, 582, 1066, 1068
neutral, see neutral shipping
private 1058, 1073
Mexico 508, 515, 517, 525, 529, 901, 904, 1106
military action 81, 241–2, 305, 309–12, 317–19, 866–8, 872–3, 1207–8
coercive 318, 322
preventive 668, 1035
threat of 282, 615, 921, 1024
military aircraft 257–9, 261, 282, 285, 760, 899, 937–9, 1059
(p. 1262) military capabilities 98, 200, 261, 1148
military capacity 22, 696, 1152, 1223
military coercion 474, 776, 954
military drones, see drones
military enforcement measures 578, 929, 943
military enforcement measures under, and international humanitarian law 1218–23
military expertise 332, 1140
military flights 256, 771
military intervention 315, 321–3, 327–8, 798–9, 801–4, 806–8, 810–12, 953
by AU 321–7
full-scale 321, 327
joint 71, 784
multi-state 1153
military juntas 530, 806–8
military measures 305, 308–10, 870, 872, 875, 1187, 1193, 1196
military necessity 755, 761, 766, 865, 1007, 1169
military objectives 261, 366, 754–5, 766–7, 940, 1115, 1141, 1195
military occupation 498, 576, 588, 590–1, 1085
military operations 310–11, 622–3, 752–4, 756–60, 763, 765–8, 772, 1218
military personnel 183, 324, 432, 1106, 1133, 1140, 1143, 1146
Military Professional Resources, Inc, see MPRI
military reprisals 496, 889–90; see also armed reprisals
military responses 637, 803, 807, 1234
military sanctions, enforcement in the absence of express authorization 272–92
Military Staff Committee 71, 182, 228, 302, 420
military support 483, 745, 783, 871
military targets, legitimate 259–60, 482
military vessels 582, 914; see also naval vessels
single 337, 582, 590, 1098, 1102
Mill, John Stuart 79
mine-clearing, see de-mining
mines 333, 338–9, 583, 1102
naval 332, 1102
minesweeping operations 105, 562, 914
mining 335, 337–9, 562, 582, 590, 595, 1098, 1102
MINUSMA (UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali) 387, 392–4, 1206
MIO (maritime interception operations) 287, 936
missile attacks 286, 590, 667, 691, 763, 770, 1024, 1106–7
missiles 21–2, 280, 337, 668, 705, 760, 1018, 1030
Mission de l’Organisation de Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo, see MONUC
Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo, see MONUSCO
missions 323–6, 388–93, 403–4, 410–14, 424–6, 608–9, 612, 619–22
forcible rescue 600, 603
multidimensional 236, 358
peacekeeping, see UN, peacekeeping, missions
mitigating circumstances 784, 787
mobile military equipment 765, 767
modern threats 719, 1045
and imminence 705–13
monitoring 192, 196, 256, 323–5, 351, 421, 978–82, 985
Montreux Document 1070, 1154–6
MONUC (Mission de l’Organisation de Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo) 236, 354, 367, 387, 390–1, 411, 981
monuments 491, 755
MONUSCO (Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo) 236, 355, 358, 366–7, 387, 393, 981
morality 45, 95, 131–3, 856
(p. 1263) international 50, 535
Morocco 29, 481, 865
most grave forms of the use of force 581–2, 1023, 1119
mother ships 900–1, 1074
motives 93, 109, 169, 173, 189–90, 234–5, 246, 1028
Mousavian, Seyed Hossein 189
MPRI (Military Professional Resources, Inc) 1139–40, 1142, 1148
Mueller, J. and K. 190
multidimensional missions