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date: 22 August 2019

(p. 1197) Index

(p. 1197) Index

References such as “178–9” indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about “international organizations,” the use of this term (and certain others which occur constantly throughout the book) as an entry point has been minimized. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

Aarhus Convention 48–9, 1128
Abbott, Kenneth W. 576
absolute immunity 55, 1051, 1055–6, 1058–60, 1066
de facto 1048, 1058
abstentions 136, 990
abuses 38, 184, 258–9, 280, 432, 566, 623, 633, 996
human rights 226, 311, 528, 748
ACABQ (Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions) 693, 915
ACC (Administrative Committee on Coordination) 693–4
access to a court/tribunal, right of 55, 1066–7, 1102
access to information/transparency 49
access to judicial review 513, 1011
access to justice
in environmental matters 429, 1128
and jurisdictional immunity 1060–8
accountability 41–2, 44–7, 49–50, 54–6, 58–9, 70–3, 129–30, 1146–71, 1179–81, 1188–90
channels of 1149, 1165
deficits 44, 1146, 1151, 1155, 1164–5
definition 1147, 1169
democratic 46, 57, 727, 729, 1165, 1180
and effectiveness 58–9
forums 46, 56
gaps 56, 59, 1165
global health policy 1157–69
holders 1147–8
of international organizations 33, 41–58, 73, 130, 683, 1133, 1154
judicial 46, 49, 286, 1006
legal 56, 1006, 1149, 1154
participation and delegation as bases for 1151–3
political 1022, 1148–9
relationships 1147, 1155, 1161, 1166–7
surrogate 1164, 1167
way forward for assessing 1153–7
accreditation 51, 715–16, 974, 1175
Acharya, A. 12
acquiescence 39, 527, 577, 1038
activists 179, 308, 866, 1122, 1177
ad hoc bodies 882–6
ad hoc committees 767, 898, 1087
ad hoc tribunals 659, 1009
adaptability 78, 458, 679, 684–5
(p. 1198) adjudicative bodies 881–902
ad hoc 890
effectiveness 902
Adler, E. 11–12
administered protectionism 350, 352
Administrative Committee on Coordination, see ACC
administrative decisions 81, 1083, 1091, 1099
administrative governance 153–4, 157–61, 164–5, 167–9
administrative instructions 1074, 1080–1, 1097
administrative issuances 1074, 1076, 1080–2
administrative law 44, 99, 179, 462, 1082–4, 1096
administrative review 1086, 1091, 1101
administrative support 661, 886, 892, 899–900
Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization, see ILOAT
administrative tribunals 660, 1061, 1063–4, 1067, 1071, 1074, 1086–8, 1090, 1094, 1096–1103
admission of new members 145, 763, 768, 965, 968–9
ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) 662
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) 693, 915
advisory committees 541, 549, 693, 763, 915, 1091, 1101
advisory opinions 251, 654–5, 819, 897, 949, 956–9, 964–5, 1017–18, 1087–8, 1091
advocacy 313, 346, 449–50, 680, 713, 750, 877–8, 880, 1122
AfCHPR (African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights) 283–4
affected communities 724, 1132, 1144–5, 1165–6
affectedness 1154–5, 1165
affirmative votes 817, 973
Afghanistan 124–5, 209, 216, 219, 319, 324, 330, 532, 534, 642
Africa 273, 283, 317–18, 328, 330, 337, 529, 531, 533, 656
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 259, 273, 283, 513
African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights, see AfCHPR
African Development Bank (AfDB) 412, 450, 699, 888, 1090
African states 42, 123, 230, 273, 283, 785, 966, 1024, 1117
African Union (AU) 51, 282–4, 504, 513, 519–20, 809–10, 824, 965–8, 980–1, 1013
Peace and Security Council 980–1
agency relationships 997–8, 1004
agency slippage 399, 928
agenda-setting 258, 357, 666, 668, 672, 677, 738, 765
aggression 193, 293, 570–1, 605, 626, 628, 636, 639, 648
agriculture 108, 112, 355–6, 386, 389, 411–12, 416, 418, 452, 463
Algeria 891
all-affected principle 1154–6, 1164
alliances 14, 19, 91, 463, 468, 539, 548, 623, 626, 967
defensive 149, 640
all-subjected principle 1154
Alter, K. 20, 1183
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 662
alternative means, reasonable 1063–6
(p. 1199) alternative remedies 633, 1061, 1063–4, 1066–7
Alvarez, J. E. 70, 575, 578
American Convention on Human Rights 270–1, 273–4, 513, 587–8, 601, 887
amici curiae 360, 601, 901, 1133–4
Amnesty International 258, 505, 713
analytical reports 666, 674–5, 677
anarchy 208, 622, 641
Andean Community 513, 529, 657, 889, 948, 1012
Andean Tribunal of Justice 657, 661
Angola 199, 216, 526, 534
Annan, Kofi 125, 738, 834, 836, 851, 861, 868, 871, 878–9
annual budgets 313–14, 328, 780, 783, 797
Antarctic Treaty 440
anthropological approaches 924–5, 935
anti-corruption 727, 730, 745–6, 752
anti-dumping duties 350, 352
apartheid 241, 262–4, 273, 586, 604, 655, 976
appellate bodies 37, 254, 355, 357, 361–2, 432, 460, 888, 892, 895
Arab League 118, 249, 777, 824, 828, 833, 965, 1066
arbitral proceedings 51, 182, 883, 1044
arbitral tribunals 68, 185, 441, 658, 882, 884, 890, 899
arbitration 180–2, 185, 624, 628, 634, 646, 650, 652–3, 658–60, 662
international 180–1, 183, 652–3, 884, 886, 898
investor-state 183–5
arbitrators 180, 182, 652, 658, 884, 897–9
archives 109, 112, 936, 1051
Arctic Council 434, 443–4
armed attack 219, 631–2, 635–7, 639, 946
armed conflict 201, 251, 293–5, 299, 303, 305, 311, 324, 648, 655
armed forces 197, 306, 317–18, 606, 637, 648, 656, 765, 1039–40, 1115
arms control 238, 724, 766, 778
arms embargos 604, 607, 638, 1017
arrears 906–7, 976–7
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 12–13, 29, 172, 372, 504, 513, 824, 827, 829, 832
Asia 13, 15, 214, 328, 330, 333, 421–2, 428, 877, 879
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 412, 465, 699, 825, 828–9
assemblies of states parties 759, 778–81
assessed contributions 465, 904–6, 908–9, 913–14, 916, 918, 1023
asset freezes 603, 607, 609, 612, 614, 617, 981
assistance
democracy 510, 512, 515, 517, 529
development 221, 408, 419, 463, 469, 707, 834
humanitarian 295, 310, 335, 455, 839
association, freedom of 488, 513, 661
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, see ASEAN
asylum seekers 323, 329–31, 340, 342, 345
atrocity crimes 271, 283–6, 288–9, 293, 296–8, 301–2, 864, 868, 879
commission of 283, 300–301
(p. 1200) attribution
of conduct 1030–2
of responsibility 1029–33
atypical employment 474, 480
Australia 223, 228, 261, 338, 386, 769, 879, 991
authority
delegated 10, 157, 164, 772, 928, 1081
moral 329–30, 492, 751, 936
regulatory 172–3, 432, 659
autonomous actors 68, 814, 927
autonomous regulatory power 152–3, 157, 165–6, 169
autonomy 10, 12, 67–71, 321–2, 378, 388, 390, 399–400, 949, 951–2
degree of 68, 329, 814, 1121
Balkans 285–6, 318, 328, 337, 877
Ban Ki-moon 743, 827
banks, regional development 406, 412–13, 420–1, 431, 450, 700, 807, 939, 1184
bargaining power 394–5, 397–8, 403–4, 1162
Barnett, M. N. 12, 21, 71, 844, 848–9, 923, 927–9, 931, 933–4, 936
BCBS (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision) 73, 179, 365, 370, 372
Belgium 109–10
belligerents 196, 305, 312, 318, 320–1
Benvenisti, E. 80
Berlin Wall 478–9, 730, 736
best practices 130, 466, 615–16, 840, 856, 1007
bilateral agreements 13, 139, 234, 340, 443
bilateral investment treaties 440, 587, 592, 661, 952
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 416, 418, 422, 451, 466
binding decisions 145, 433, 567, 569, 652, 882, 884, 967, 1089
binding effect 819, 862, 894, 1018
binding obligations 428, 443–4, 470, 571, 576
biodiversity 82, 427–8, 436, 439–40, 667, 745, 862, 1186
biological weapons 233–5, 242, 244, 246
Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) 233–4, 239, 244
Blokker, N. M. 36, 572, 574–5, 577
Bosnia and Herzegovina 195, 199, 203, 216, 286, 295, 517, 638, 837, 1016–17
bottom, race to the 475–6, 480–2, 486
Bowler, S. 794–6
Brahimi Report 198–9, 201, 837, 868–9
Brazil 31, 121–2, 126, 201, 204, 417, 423, 551, 555, 1161
breach of an international obligation 1034–6
Bretton Woods 407, 409–11, 413, 419
Conference 405, 409–10
institutions 38, 57, 84, 349, 382, 406, 411, 479, 522, 718
and UN 407–15
BRICS 366, 406, 828, 861
Brundtland Commission 866–7, 871, 875, 877
Buchanan, A. 1109, 1147
budgetary decisions 907–8, 913, 1009
budgetary powers 57, 782–3, 786–7, 796, 800
budgets 288, 291, 315, 317, 465–6, 761–3, 774–5, 797, 900, 903–19
annual 313–14, 328, 780, 783, 797
peacekeeping 201, 904, 906, 908
regular 288, 338, 904–6, 917
Bulgaria 647
(p. 1201) bureaucracies 71, 198, 844–6, 848, 852, 856, 858, 1118, 1173, 1176
bureaucratic cultures 380–1, 923–4, 928–9, 931, 933, 939
bureaucratic powers 23, 840, 843–5, 847, 852–3, 856, 858
bureaucrats 14, 21–2, 24, 321, 848
business community 120, 731, 739–40
Cambodia 198, 200, 289–90, 294, 297, 517, 527, 602
ECCC (Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia) 283, 288–90, 294, 296–8
government 289–90, 294, 297
Canada 111, 223, 242, 259, 261, 297, 337, 434, 441, 877–9
Canberra Commission 866, 873, 877, 879
capacity
military 194, 837, 1118
operational 209, 731–2, 752, 990
capacity-building 464, 482, 510, 666, 668, 677, 700
capital 126, 158, 386, 394, 423, 474–5, 768, 807, 932
capitalism 126, 307, 478–9, 721–2, 724
global 114, 125, 127, 721
Cardoso Report 58, 737, 1181
Caribbean Community 657, 770, 1013–14
Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) 657, 1013
Cartagena Protocol 270, 439, 778
Castaneda, J. 122
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 1159–61
CEC (Commission for Environmental Cooperation) 441
Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine 3, 91
centralization 9, 63, 397, 404, 665, 695, 792, 939
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1159–61
CFSP (Common Foreign Security Policy) 613, 615, 618
Charnovitz, S. 485, 1130
Charter bodies 255, 257, 259, 261, 263, 265, 280, 882
chemical weapons 68, 233–5, 239, 296, 648, 780, 803, 820, 1089
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) 233–4, 239, 244, 248, 296, 820
chemicals 81, 428
Chicago Convention 572, 659, 818, 824
Chief Executives Board for Coordination 694, 1075
child labor 253, 307, 745
children 117, 201, 252, 257, 298, 308, 313, 315, 767, 772
churches 308, 495–7
CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) 513, 519–20, 1120
citizen associations 714, 719, 723–4
citizen participation 1128, 1140, 1143
citizenship 337, 345, 610, 1143
civil society 551–3, 712–29, 737, 740–3, 875–7, 1122–3, 1144, 1166, 1181, 1184
activities 91, 714–15, 720–1
associations 712, 715–21, 724–6, 728–9, 1180
engagement 713, 721–2, 737, 749
global 781, 1180
and global governance 713, 723–7
international 65, 93, 98, 112
interventions 713, 721, 727
involvement in global governance 715–22, 725, 727, 1181
and legitimacy in global governance 713, 726–8
participation 125, 716, 1128–9, 1179
relations 721–2, 728–9, 737
representatives 451, 545, 717, 741–2, 772, 1166, 1188
theories of civil society and global governance 720, 720–3
civil society organizations (CSOs) 50–1, 451, 668, 670, 716, 718, 737, 1127–8, 1184, 1186–7
civil wars 195–7, 200, 202, 206, 209, 296, 298, 310, 526, 528
civilian populations 202–3, 293–4, 607, 1034
civilian protection 199–202, 306, 335
civilians 193, 196, 199–202, 204, 305–6, 318, 320, 526, 528, 872
CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union) 10, 34–5, 44, 46, 73, 161, 166, 788–9, 1010–12, 1021–2
Clark, Ian 1139
Claude, I.L. 759, 761
climate change 68, 84, 420–1, 434–5, 437, 503, 719, 721, 867, 1142
cluster approach 335, 342–3
coalitions 81, 195, 258, 279, 633, 639, 702, 768–70, 799, 813
co-decision procedure 789–90
codes of conduct 487, 665, 735, 747, 1007, 1093
codification 52, 574–5, 682
coercion 94, 630, 726, 1039–40, 1110
coercive interventions 528, 532
coherence 39, 78, 122, 448–50, 467, 469–71, 493, 737, 742, 750
collective security 623, 626, 628–9, 631–3, 635–7, 641–2, 842, 869
mechanism 627, 635–6
commerce 107, 181, 227, 351, 547–8, 713, 734, 760, 1158
commission diplomacy 859, 863
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) 441
Commission on Status of Women 116
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) 120, 427–8
commitments, credible 16, 26, 68
commodities 317, 319, 486–7, 604, 606, 614, 948
common external tariffs 347, 363, 386, 705
Common Foreign Security Policy, see CFSP
common goals 696, 949, 952
common interests 7, 77, 126, 368, 623, 635, 637, 643, 952, 960
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) 889, 948, 1013
common markets 172, 386, 391, 396–7, 400, 719, 889, 945, 948, 1013
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 513, 519–20, 1120
(p. 1203) Commonwealth Secretariat 717, 845, 847
communication technologies 100, 420, 537, 687, 744
communications 97, 110, 139, 263–4, 266–7, 271, 535–55, 565, 842, 844
companies 182, 319, 541, 546, 549, 554, 719, 730–1, 744, 818
compensation 361, 658, 779–80, 883, 895, 1028–9, 1046, 1085, 1088, 1099
competition 17, 68, 70, 78, 340, 408, 414, 418, 911, 919
complaints 55, 72, 254, 264, 267, 477, 587–8, 659, 661, 1097
complex emergencies 317, 320, 468
comprehensive sanctions 604, 606, 616–17, 619, 621
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, see CTBT
compromises 258, 299, 357, 368, 454, 501, 679, 811, 1175, 1191
concessions, tariff 348–50
Conference of San Francisco 111
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, see CSCE
conferral of powers 997–9, 1001, 1003, 1005
confidence intervals 593–4, 596–7
confidentiality 182, 239, 674
conflict management 191–2, 195, 849
conflict prevention 194, 512, 534, 854
conflict resolution 192, 650, 837–8, 853, 856, 1086, 1090, 1121
Congo 95, 195, 202–3, 226, 324, 642, 715, 765, 832, 930
consensus 257–8, 353–4, 356–7, 359–61, 402, 445, 573–5, 682, 816–18, 915
international 340, 642, 766
consent 194, 197, 200, 300, 306, 576–8, 634, 637, 965, 968
consistency 75, 358, 528, 611, 898, 923, 1098
consolidation 158, 322, 868, 1113, 1187
constituent instruments 34, 149–50, 816, 943–61, 1055, 1069, 1071, 1074, 1076–9, 1083–5
constitutional development 953–60
content 945–7
parties 947–8
special characteristics of constitutions 948–53
constituent treaties 142, 572, 579, 646, 945, 958, 986, 988, 997, 1010
constitution for Europe 34, 797, 944
constitutional law 43, 45, 570, 1019
constitutional legitimacy 155, 157, 164–5, 169–70
constitutionalism 34–5, 37, 43–4, 58, 114, 153, 162, 168, 945
constitutionalization 34, 37, 153, 169, 186
constitutions 34–5, 147–8, 452–4, 459, 563, 824, 943–50, 952–61, 970, 1017–19; see also constituent instruments
special characteristics 948, 948–53
constitutive treaties 388, 426, 574, 945, 962–3, 988, 1016–18, 1021, 1023, 1036
constraints, financial 331, 855, 907
(p. 1204) constructivism 64, 138–9, 385, 390, 392, 397, 401, 403–4, 721, 1171
constructivist approaches 3, 11, 163, 722
constructivists 32, 64, 69, 138, 720–2
social 843–4, 848, 852
consultative status 120, 712, 979, 1132
consumers 178, 186, 394, 488–9, 547, 718, 734, 1168
Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS) 229–30
contestability 473, 476, 480, 485–6
debate 476, 478–81
Continent of International Law (COIL) 581, 584
contractual relationships 181, 399, 464, 1073
contributions
financial 316, 450–1, 906, 976
troop 199, 202, 204
voluntary 331, 338, 465, 904, 910–14, 918–19
Convention on Biological Diversity 82, 439, 667
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 81, 779–80
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, see LRTAP
convergence 157, 275, 466, 544, 552, 554, 576, 862, 1147
cooperation 5–7, 138–40, 187–8, 213–14, 331–2, 338–9, 364, 434–5, 581–2, 856–7
development 450, 465, 468
economic 120, 372, 385–6, 425, 433
functional 36, 625
intellectual 106–7, 109, 112, 763, 844
interinstitutional 367, 374, 376, 379–80, 382–3
inter-secretariat 857–8
problems 8, 63, 152, 166, 589, 591–2
technical 106, 140, 851
core functions 191–2, 336, 666, 686, 848
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 125, 717, 720, 740
corporations 564, 744, 748, 882, 885, 1126
corruption 186, 217, 225, 699, 724, 731, 907, 917, 1188, 1190
Côte d’Ivoire 195, 202, 649, 1112
Council of Europe 57, 271–2, 461, 777, 784, 887–8, 898, 1050, 1052, 1183–4
countercultures 925–6
countermeasures 1036–7
counter-narcotics 213–17
counter-piracy 227–30
counterterrorism 113, 211–31, 312, 559
transgovernmental networks built on hegemonic foundations 218–24
Counter-Terrorism Committee 219
Court of Justice of the European Union, see CJEU
credentials 767, 975
credibility 488–9, 619, 621, 628, 635, 639, 674, 870, 872, 877
credible commitments 16, 26, 68
creditors 175, 1037, 1046
criminal justice 219, 282–302, 1084
international 282, 284, 288, 298, 302
(p. 1205) international organizations and creation of international and hybrid criminal tribunals 284–92
structural and substantive law comparison of tribunals 292–301
criminal law, international 250, 289, 293, 301, 886, 896
criminal tribunals, international and hybrid 284–92
critical histories 114, 122–9
Croatia 110, 286, 970
CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) 285, 428, 950
CSD (Commission on Sustainable Development) 120, 427–8
CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) 234, 243, 245, 589
Cuba 265, 514, 529, 770, 880, 980
cultural resources 931–4
cultures 3, 13, 184, 776, 778, 920, 922, 924–6, 928–9, 931–9
bureaucratic 380–1, 923–4, 928–9, 931, 933, 939
organizational 321, 367, 376, 380–2, 920–39
currency unions 94, 391–2, 400
customary international law 293, 295–6, 575, 577, 995–6, 1008, 1011, 1017, 1020, 1053
customary law 39, 52, 55, 325, 440, 573–6, 630, 1053, 1058
customs 320, 391, 560, 573–4, 705, 886, 1050
customs unions (CUs) 347–8, 362–3, 386, 391, 397
cybersecurity 554–5
Dahl, Robert 165, 1154
Darfur 649, 709–10, 872
DARIO (Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations) 52, 945, 1007, 1027–8, 1030–1, 1035, 1037–8, 1040, 1045
data, raw 665–6, 673–4
data collection 371–2, 581, 673
DCIPs (deliberative citizens’ involvement projects) 1141–3, 1145
DDA (Doha Development Agenda) 355, 357
de St Pierre, Abbé 623–4
deadlock 202, 438, 1166
death penalty 258, 274, 285, 296–7, 887
decision-making procedures 402, 443, 445, 551, 565, 812, 817, 821, 1165, 1178
decisions on which organizations to join 16–20
decolonization process 84, 117, 127
defamation of religions 850
defections 28, 364, 482, 582, 591, 793
deficit, deliberative 217, 220
deficits, accountability 44, 1146, 1151, 1155, 1164–5
deformalization 133, 136, 140, 144, 149
delegated authority 10, 157, 164, 772, 928, 1081
delegated monitoring 583, 592, 595, 597, 599
delegated powers 18, 156, 170, 215, 817–18, 821, 1003–4
delegation 69–70, 161–4, 376–7, 379, 388–9, 396–7, 783–6, 1151–2, 1183, 1185–6
model 72, 1151–2
of powers 813, 998, 1004
supranational 155, 162–3, 167, 404
(p. 1206) delegations, national party 790–1, 793
deliberative citizens’ involvement projects, see DCIPs
deliberative deficit 217, 220
delisting 54, 221, 610
demand for international organizations 4–8
democracy 19, 56, 59, 167–8, 509–16, 525–8, 533–4, 727, 778, 1177–9
assistance 510, 512, 515, 517, 529
domestic 67, 129, 1189
liberal 330, 402–3, 532
norms 516, 525, 530, 534, 1151
participatory 1128, 1141, 1187
promotion 508–34, 778
impact of operational activities on international law 529–33
operational activities 516–29
roots 511–16
right to 509, 513–14, 530, 532–4
democratic accountability 46, 57, 727, 729, 1165, 1180
democratic deficit 74–5, 114, 129, 801, 1120, 1177, 1179, 1181, 1187
democratic governance 409, 508–11, 514, 517, 522–3, 525, 533–4, 1128, 1179, 1187
democratic institutions 516, 525
democratic legitimacy 402, 727, 1127
democratic norms 509, 516, 521, 527, 531
democratic peacebuilding 516, 525–6
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, see DPRK
democratic principles 513, 515, 521, 529, 1144, 1150
democratic reforms 8, 26
Democratic Republic of the Congo, see DRC
democratic states 18, 129, 769, 1151, 1177
democratic theory, normative 1171, 1178, 1189
democratization 26–7, 57, 124, 159, 169, 510–11, 514–16, 521, 524–6, 533
Denmark 110, 434, 586
Department of Peacekeeping Operations, see DPKO
dependence 156, 215, 339, 693, 960
derived responsibility 707–8
design, of monitoring provisions 583–4, 589, 591, 593, 595, 597, 599, 602
design of international organizations 8–15, 387, 602, 1172
Deutsche Kongress-Zentrale (DKZ) 109
developed countries 350, 411–12, 436, 480, 871, 1159, 1163
developing states 79, 81–2, 86, 225, 356, 482, 768
developing world 125, 127, 129, 406, 408, 413–14, 416–17, 419, 422, 1121–2
development 405–24
economic 397, 408, 449, 470, 481, 744–5, 769, 864, 867, 1158
international 117, 316, 417, 424, 1023, 1124
nontraditional actors 415–19
social 461, 716, 862
transitions 419–22
UN and Bretton Woods 407–15
development agencies 338, 466, 477, 522, 534, 1133–4
development agenda 124, 411, 480, 522–4, 911
development aid 15, 524, 771
development assistance 221, 408, 419, 463, 469, 707, 834
official 27, 449, 735, 867
(p. 1207) development banks 27, 432, 1057, 1184
regional 406, 412, 420–1, 431, 450, 700, 939, 1184
development cooperation 450, 465, 468
development organizations 346, 413, 423–4, 523, 531
developmental approach 510, 517, 522, 534
dictatorships 19, 66, 417, 622, 636
differentiation 96, 112, 387–90, 397, 402, 493, 749
diplomacy 96, 105, 208, 652–3, 840, 860–1
commission 859, 863
multilateral 647, 845, 850, 860–1
direct control 998–9
direct elections 782, 786–8, 800
disappearances, forced 274, 887
disarmament 197, 232–48, 299, 638, 763, 844, 876, 879
discretion 177, 376–9, 382, 399–400, 655, 907, 916, 927, 994, 1093
discrimination 184, 256, 261, 267, 274, 324, 350, 385–6, 1153
racial 253, 257, 261, 264, 266
displaced people 324, 328, 332–3, 338, 344–6
displaced persons 323, 327, 345
displacement
forced 324–5, 341
protracted 336, 338, 344
dispute resolution 10, 64, 181–2, 647, 884, 1010, 1012, 1016, 1095
dispute settlement 353, 355, 357–60, 432, 634, 644–62, 1061, 1063, 1065, 1067
activities 645, 651, 662
based on application of legal principles 651–62
not based on application of legal principles 646–51
procedures 626, 651, 661
system 78, 352, 363, 890
Dispute Settlement Body, see DSB
dispute settlement mechanisms 29, 37, 350–1, 441, 626, 662, 1061, 1066
Dispute Settlement Understanding, see DSU
dissemination of information 664–5, 675–6, 682–3, 1190
diversity, biological, see biodiversity
division of labor 203, 322, 373, 376, 382, 475, 695
DKZ (Deutsche Kongress-Zentrale) 109
DNS (domain name system) 540–1, 546, 548–9
Doha Development Agenda (DDA) 355, 357
domain name system, see DNS
domestic courts, see national courts
domestic jurisdiction 37, 249, 518, 608, 645, 837, 840, 888, 1113
dominance 123, 412–13, 479, 576, 722, 730, 877
donor governments 322, 522, 992, 1163, 1166
donor states 221, 331, 337–9
Downs, G.W. 80, 177
DPKO (Department of Peacekeeping Operations) 193, 197, 199, 201, 203–4, 206, 521, 869
DPRK (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 239, 241, 248
(p. 1208) Draft Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations, see DARIO
DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 202–3, 207–8, 216, 337, 617, 930, 1039
drug trafficking 216, 229
DSB (Dispute Settlement Body) 355–6, 360, 422, 658, 888
DSU (Dispute Settlement Understanding) 360–1, 657–8
duplication 82, 366–7, 694
durable solutions 327, 330, 336–7, 345
Early Warning Exercise, see EWE
Earth Summit 427, 436
East African Community 222, 1013
East Timor 121, 123, 195, 283, 808, 877, 1009
Eastern Europe 120, 144, 402, 431, 769, 827–8
EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 699, 825, 828–9, 967
ECCC (Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia) 283, 288–90, 294, 296–8
ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) 116, 428–9, 438, 440, 444
ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights) 44, 258, 275, 887–8, 1014–15, 1041, 1046, 1062–3, 1065, 1067
ECJ (European Court of Justice), see CJEU
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 392
Economic and Social Council, see ECOSOC
Economic Commission for Europe, see ECE
Economic Community of West African States, see ECOWAS
economic cooperation 120, 372, 385–6, 425, 433
economic crisis 400, 406, 408, 413, 415, 422
economic development 397, 408, 449, 470, 481, 744–5, 769, 864, 867, 1158
economic freedoms 386–7, 481
economic governance, global 407, 423, 682, 725
economic growth 27, 87, 176, 183, 407, 433, 484, 486, 744, 925
economic integration 362, 385–6, 390–2, 395, 400, 403–4, 747, 1124
economic integration organizations, regional 388, 967, 973, 1010
economic organizations, regional 29, 384–5, 387–90, 392, 397, 400, 403–4
economic relations and integration 279, 384–404, 606, 920
regional economic integration 385–90
economic rights 117, 332, 510
economic sanctions 603, 614, 833
economic theories 390–2
economic-rationalist model 181–3, 185
economics 21–2, 60, 308, 414, 417, 583–4, 586–8, 593, 595, 599
economy, global 84, 174, 378, 479, 816
ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) 51, 116, 262–4, 427–8, 693–5, 764–5, 808–9, 973, 979, 1132
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) 29, 195, 199, 206, 299, 528, 641, 1012, 1112, 1117
(p. 1209) education 60, 275, 325, 327, 501, 506, 744, 752, 776, 778
EEA (European Economic Area) 386, 389, 945, 1012
effective control 1003–4, 1031–3
effectiveness 59–60, 213, 617–19, 621, 679, 681, 695, 697, 870, 1149
and accountability 58–9
of international organizations 33–41, 470
and legitimacy 86, 617–19, 621
efficacy 4, 31–2, 192, 203, 205, 207–8, 366, 445, 464, 489
peace operations 205–8
Egypt 95, 100, 219, 243, 261, 523, 533, 1035
Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, see ENCD
election monitoring 30, 517–21, 529–31, 534, 914
elections
direct 782, 786–8, 800
fair 516, 521, 531–2, 930
national 519, 787, 792
presidential 520, 527
electoral assistance 197, 509, 517–18, 521–4, 531, 533–4
electoral processes 514, 517, 520–1, 524, 531
embedded liberalism 478, 735
emergencies 263, 276, 308–9, 315–16, 455, 468, 633, 760, 765, 767
complex 317, 320, 468
humanitarian 310, 333, 468, 637, 639
emerging economies 39, 86, 121, 406, 414, 469
emerging powers 85, 122, 126, 201, 415, 423
empirical evidence 97, 481–2, 723, 848, 851, 856
empirical research 926, 1158, 1169, 1190
empirical studies 3, 15, 20, 261, 938, 1171
of transparency and openness 1182–91
employers 57, 474, 477, 479–80, 577, 734, 810, 812, 824, 887
employment
atypical 474, 480
contracts 474, 888, 1077
relations 1080, 1084, 1091–2, 1096
relationships 1069–70, 1072, 1078, 1081–3, 1097
empowerment 36, 744, 782–3, 786, 799–800, 1153
legislative 788–9, 791, 793, 795
EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) 392
ENCD (Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament) 237
endogenous growth of private governance 180–6
enforcement 259–60, 279–80, 302, 460–1, 481–2, 527–8, 635–7, 665, 667, 1185
measures 529, 977, 1051, 1066
mechanisms 26, 54, 247, 636, 699
powers 152, 280, 568, 643
problems 63, 393, 395–6, 591–3
environment 120, 425–46, 583–4, 586–7, 595, 656–7, 700, 741–2, 745–6, 924
bilateral and regional agreements 440–2
cooperative programs of existing organizations 435–6
external 368, 684, 806, 920, 922, 929, 934, 1178
freestanding multilateral environmental regimes 436–40
institutional 328, 401, 925, 1144
international environmental institutional and regulatory toolbox 442–5
non-UN organizations 433–4
United Nations System 426–9
(p. 1210) environmental governance 120, 426, 429, 436, 438
global 24, 172, 427, 445, 1186
environmental impact assessments 428–9, 433, 443
environmental law 51, 442, 885
international 48, 428, 440
environmental policies 429, 848
environmental protection 87, 658–9, 700, 733, 752, 773, 839, 864, 871
EP (European Parliament) 161, 169–70, 777, 782–3, 786–801, 812, 815, 1002–3, 1011, 1014
epistemic communities 69, 95, 97, 184, 542, 548, 772, 933
equal representation 758, 1149–50
equality 254–5, 257, 259, 261, 510, 513, 761, 764, 905, 915
gender 129, 727, 745, 814, 827, 829
sovereign 618, 620, 758, 823, 1151
erga omnes obligations 627, 1043
Eritrea 330, 650, 652, 885, 890–1
ESM (European Stability Mechanism) 945
Ethiopia 204, 219, 237, 628, 646, 650, 652, 656, 885, 891
EUCST (European Union Civil Service Tribunal) 1092, 1094–5, 1098, 1100
Eurocentrism 97
EUROCONTROL 1064
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, see EBRD
European Central Bank 166, 382, 389, 421, 808, 1011, 1123
European Commission for the Control of the Danube 91
European Community (EC) 34, 316, 362, 591, 704–5, 789, 967, 1003, 1010, 1141; see also European Union
European Convention on Human Rights, see ECHR
European Council 23, 611–12, 615, 620, 811–12, 825, 944, 968, 1002, 1011
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 37, 55, 275–6, 884, 887–90, 897–9, 1014–15, 1032–3, 1041–2, 1066–7
European Court of Justice, see CJEU
European Economic Area, see EEA
European Investment Bank 807–8, 967
European legal integration 153–4, 161, 164, 170
European Parliament, see EP
European public law 157, 161, 164, 168
European Space Agency (ESA) 1041, 1066, 1102
European Stability Mechanism (ESM) 945
European states 160, 221–2, 224, 226, 330, 612, 758, 769, 1112, 1115
European Union (EU) 151–7, 384–90, 611–21, 704–7, 796–801, 808–15, 965–8, 1010–12, 1140–5, 1187–91
CFSP (Common Foreign Security Policy) 613, 615, 618
CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union) 10, 34–5, 44, 46, 73, 161, 166, 788–9, 1010–12, 1021–2
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 392
EP (European Parliament) 161, 169–70, 777, 782–3, 786–801, 812, 815, 1002–3, 1011, 1014
European Council 23, 611–12, 615, 620, 811–12, 825, 944, 968, 1002, 1011
governance 160–2, 166, 170, 1140–3, 1187
MEPs (Members of the European Parliament) 787, 790, 792, 794–6, 799, 1002
(p. 1211) participation in international organizations 704–7
sanctions 611–16
TFEU 613, 945, 947, 1011, 1077, 1098
Treaty on European Union 161, 613–14, 944–5, 947, 1010
European Union Civil Service Tribunal, see EUCST
European University Institute 149, 1066
Eurozone 372, 389, 591
crisis 85, 165–70
evidence, empirical 97, 481–2, 723, 848, 851, 856
EWE (Early Warning Exercise) 371, 373–6
executive boards and councils 802–21
executive directors 426–7, 431, 803, 805, 812, 829
executive heads 315, 822–38, 841
appointment 823–30
functions 830–4
independence 835–8
executive powers 818–21, 1050
expenditures 226, 903–4, 907, 915–16, 918, 1030
expert panels 199, 521, 609, 658
expertise 97, 244, 259, 267, 291–2, 329–30, 482, 488–9, 728, 899
technical 173, 179, 182, 377, 546, 692, 759, 803, 843–4, 856
experts, independent 256, 265–6, 280, 459, 503, 1093
exports 428, 433, 604, 906
expulsion 317, 768, 962–3, 979, 981–2, 984
external actors 591, 594, 596, 1030–1, 1121, 1123, 1125
external environment 368, 684, 806, 920, 922, 929, 934, 1178
externalities 25, 46, 173, 351, 393, 396, 400
extradition 139,