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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 1185) Index

(p. 1185) Index

IL = international law

Abdelkader of Algeria, Emir402–4
absolutism100, 237–8, 311, 991–5, 1116
academic discipline, IL as an19–20, 608, 648–9, 657, 666–7, 674
Addams, Jane211–12, 286–7
administrative law676, 985–9
Africa407–28 see also Africa North of the Sahara, Arab countries and Islamic law
Carthaginian empire410, 413, 1044
Charter of UN414
Christianity412, 419, 421–2
civilized and uncivilized924–5, 931, 938, 1065
colonialism/imperialism408–10, 413–26, 862, 865, 879–87
contributionists, rewriting of history by407, 408–22, 425–6
critical theory tradition407–8, 414, 418–27
customary IL413, 416–17, 419, 1046
dependency theory424
economic imperialism424–6
equality of states413–14, 416
Eurocentricism408–18, 1044–9
Geneva Conventions416–17
history of IL, rewriting408–18
human rights199, 416–17, 422, 426
identity408–9, 418
independence199, 203
international organizations420–1
land, appropriation of235, 1073
New International Economic Order424–5
occupation856–8
peace movements199, 203
racism408, 422, 751, 761, 803
regions in history of IL, identifying1061–2, 1065, 1067–8, 1073, 1075
self-determination408–9, 419, 423–4, 426–7
sovereignty411, 412–15, 422, 425–7, 1065
state practice1045–6
Third World Approaches to International Law425–6
treaties411–12, 415, 1045–6
United Nations413–14, 417, 419–22
universalism408, 410–11, 416, 418
Africa North of the Sahara, Arab countries and Islamic law385–406
‘al-aman’ insurance396, 397–8
alliance treaties386, 401
analogy, reasoning through (Qiyas)390
Christians386, 392–3, 396, 401–5
civilians394
colonialism/imperialism395–6
commerce treaties399–400
commitment or Al-Ahd, status of397
concession treaties400–1
conquest, conduct after391–8
consensus or unanimity (Al Ijmaa)390
‘dhimmi’, status of395, 396–7, 405
distinction, principle of394
Europe, relations with385–9, 392–3, 396, 400–5
fatwas (rulings on points of law)390, 392–3
freedom of navigation and travel399–400
(p. 1186)
immunity394, 402
international relations386–401
international trade386–7, 399–401
jihad, notion of392–3, 403–4
Al Jizya (tax), payment of393–4, 396–7
judges, judgments of the (Cadis)390
Koran, Hadith and Sunnah390, 392, 397, 405, 1083
law in war393–5
Maghribi ‘state entities’, legal status of the388–9
minorities and majorities102–3, 109–10
Muslim philosophers, contribution of391
Ottoman Empire386–9, 398, 401
peace
conduct in time of386, 391–8, 405
treaties (temporary peace)391, 402–4
piracy398–9
prisoners of war394, 405
procedures390
right to go to war392–3
self-defence392
al-SiyarSya (conduct in time of peace and war)386, 391–5, 398
sovereignty388, 392, 402, 404
strategic location of North Africa in international relations387–8
surrender clauses401–2
theoretical and doctrinal foundations of state practices389–91
treaties
‘dhimmi’, status of395, 397
Maghribi ‘state entities’, legal status of the388–9
peace treaties (temporary peace)391, 402–4
writing practices of the treaties386, 388, 398–402
universalism391–2
war and peace, conduct in time of386, 391–5, 398, 405
aggression56, 91, 139–40, 217, 273, 290, 690, 784
airspace244–7
Alexandrowicz, Charles Henry281, 744, 748, 963, 1049–50, 1065, 1068
aliens, minimum standards for treatment of330, 332–3
Alvarez, Alejandro558, 563–4, 567, 571, 674, 1038–9, 1066–7, 1074
American Civil War
Alabama arbitration61, 164–5, 281–2, 540–2, 672–3
belligerency, recognition of556–7
First World War, US participation in546
Lieber, Francis and Lieber Code1138–40
peace movements208, 281
secession34, 36–7
slavery539–40, 900
states539–40
American IL562–6, 568
American Revolution
arbitration and courts160–2
belligerency, recognition of556–7
Caribbean579, 599–600, 602
confederations172–3
declaration of independence34
diplomacy827
indigenous people795–6, 843
Jay Treaty160–2
natural rights33
peace movements204
peace treaties90
peoples and nations37
resistance, right of33
slavery589, 898, 900–2
sovereignty33, 37
third powers, exploitation by632
amity, rule of579, 582–3, 602
amnesties77, 89
Anand, Ram Prakash4, 520, 963, 968, 1042–4, 1049, 1068
Anghie, Antony115, 281, 414–15, 425, 752, 863, 936, 1052–3
annexation by force782–4, 869, 875, 882
Antarctic247, 858–9
anti-semitism314, 694, 1168–9
Aristotle274, 852, 919, 928, 949, 990, 1095–6
Armenian genocide157, 443–4
armistices73, 92–3, 140
Asser, Tobias MC148–50
asylum141–2, 558–9, 821, 981
Augustine of Hippo, Saint140, 274–5, 290, 301, 305, 619
Austin, John283, 668, 1134–5
Bedjaoui, Mohammed416, 424–5
Bentham, Jeremy160, 265–7, 526, 952–3, 1020, 1133
Berman, Nathaniel115–17, 969
Blackstone, William244, 526–8
Bluntschli, Johann Caspar464–5, 651, 669–70, 732, 846–7, 1038, 1139, 1152
Bodin, Jean32, 51, 104, 155, 365, 634, 637, 873
Bonaparte, Napoleon63, 163, 204, 262–3, 360, 371–4, 537, 601, 633, 649–50, 775, 828, 835–6, 901–2, 904, 922, 966, 1002, 1138
boundaries and borders225–33
changing character of boundaries and frontiers240–1
China452–5, 468–72, 476
colonialism/imperialism31, 35–6, 41–3, 68, 233, 235, 1076
communities226–8
early records of territory and boundary marking229–30
Grotius, Hugo1034–5
identification, means of227
International Court of Justice235
Japan479–81, 497
Lauterpacht, Hersch1034–5
minorities682
morality227–8
natural boundaries231, 240, 649
peace228–30, 240, 242
regions in history of IL, identifying1070–1, 1076
religion227–8
self-determination30, 40–7
sovereignty232, 240–1
state power30–1, 47
territories225–34
unanimity232–3
uti possidetis principle31, 35–6
war229–30, 240, 242
Western Europe649, 682
will of the people30
Bretton Woods691, 695–6
Brierly, James Leslie68, 178–9, 745, 968
Bull, Hedley934, 976, 1120, 1167
Burritt, Elihu205–7, 280, 535–40, 542
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van1110–13
customary IL1112–13
envoys, sanctity of1026, 1111
freedom of the sea243, 370, 378
immunities519, 827, 1026, 1111
just war1025
law of the sea648
life and work1110–12
methodologies1111–12
neutrality638
pacta sunt servanda1027
privateering124, 388
slavery897
state practice974
territorial sea373–4, 1111
treaties1112–13
uti possidetis1030
Calvo, Carlos59, 564, 567–8, 669, 674, 924, 930, 1038
Calvo clause59, 564
capitulation system18, 53, 154, 251, 300–1, 312, 401–2, 430–47, 783
Caribbean578–603
American Revolution579, 599–600, 602
(p. 1188) amity, rule of579, 582–3, 602
chartered trade companies, role of598–9
Christianity579–81, 583–4, 590
colonialism/imperialism148, 199, 204, 560–1, 578–602, 922–3
contraband, traders in593, 595–6
Haitian Revolution148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 600–1, 901, 922–3
historical development578–85
human rights584–5
independence578, 583–4, 599–602
indigenous people578–9, 583–6, 590
Netherlands578, 581–2, 587–8, 591, 593, 596–7, 599
papal bulls579, 580–3, 602
piracy and privateering579, 593–8
Portugal580, 585–7, 594, 596–7
repartimiento system585
revolutions148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 599–602
slavery and sugar production148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 586–93, 600–2
smugglers593, 595–6
terra nullius583–4
title claims579–85
treaties580, 582, 591–2
United Kingdom578, 581–2, 587–93, 599–600
wealth and influence from slavery588–90
world view579–85
Cassese, Antonio2–3, 975, 1007
Central American Court of Justice (CACJ)573–6
centre and periphery765–6, 770–3, 779–81, 785, 1056
cession/secession34, 36–7, 46–7, 82, 108, 238, 840
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor155, 251, 401, 621, 625–6, 640
Charter of the UN
Africa414
China721
collective security64–5
Dumbarton Oaks695
equality of states829
force, prohibition of272–3, 287, 291–2, 760, 1007
General Assembly (UN)697
human rights273, 330, 332, 336, 835
humanitarian intervention332
International Court of Justice697
just war273, 287, 291–2
Kelsen, Hans1170–1
peace movements199, 214
peace treaties91–2
regional organizations1066
Security Council (UN)697, 1170
self-defence760
signatories696–7
slavery131
sovereignty64–5, 190, 835
universality414
China451–74
Bianfa and Wanguo Gongfa470–2
borders452–5, 468–72, 476
Boxer Uprising701, 705, 711
building of a modern state467–72
Canton system and Opium War456–7
Cefeng/Chaogong454–6
central Empire, as476, 486–7
Charter of the UN721
Chinese world order475–7, 485, 491, 701, 702, 722
civilized and uncivilized459, 466, 468, 711, 713–14, 716, 1065
codification719–20
colonialism/imperialism441, 459, 468, 706, 711, 722
consular jurisdiction459, 466
demarcation of national borders468–9
dezhi and jiaohua (borders)452–5, 470–2
diplomacy461–5, 471–3, 477–9, 496, 709, 722
double standard in foreign relations467–8
dynasties452–7
equality of states457, 459, 706
Eurocentricism1047–8
Europe, encounters with3, 5, 456–73, 692–5, 701–23
(p. 1189) foreign relations451–64, 467–71, 703
frontier/neighbouring countries, relationship between dezhi/jiaohua and452–5, 468–70
Geneva Conventions715
Guojifa470–1
Hague Peace Conferences472, 711–17, 721
Institut de Droit International465–7
International Court of Justice473
international organizations702, 711–21
Jingshi Tongwenguan462–4, 471–2
knowledge of Wanguo Gongfa464–5
Korea454–6, 468, 476
League of Nations473, 708, 716–20
Manchuria455, 469, 709–11, 740
Martin's translation of Wanguo Gongfa451–2, 460–72, 486
mixed courts, establishment of466–7
Mongolia453–4, 476, 707
most-favoured nation status459
mutual trade455–7, 703
nationalism706
natural law460, 473
neutrality716
non-interference policy453–4
Opium War456–8, 701–5
Paris Peace Conference of 1919706, 716–17, 722
Permanent Court of Arbitration712
Permanent Court of International Justice708, 719
Qing dynasty451–9, 462–72, 476, 702, 703–6, 712–14, 722
rebellions and revolutions470–1, 683, 706–7, 714, 716
reciprocity, principle of467
recognition of space452–7
Red Cross712, 716
regions in history of IL, identifying1060, 1065
Security Council (UN)720–2
Sino-Japanese Treaty of 1915496, 706–7, 710–11, 716
Taiwan456, 468–9, 491
Tibet453–4, 469, 476
translation and teaching of IL457–67, 486
treaties7, 447, 451, 457, 459–62, 468–72, 702–16, 722
tribute system454, 468, 476–9, 482, 489
unequal treaties, conclusion of7, 447, 459, 702, 706, 722
United Nations720–2
universalism452–3, 460
vassal relationships454, 477, 490
Vattel, Emer de458, 704–5
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 19194, 7, 473, 706, 716–17
Wanguo Gongfa (Elements of International Law)19, 451–2, 458, 460–73, 486, 732
Christianity/Christians see also Papacy
Caribbean579–81, 583–4, 590
civilized and uncivilized281, 299, 755, 919–22, 928–30, 933–5
colonialism/imperialism579–84, 937, 1088–9
civilized and uncivilized281, 299, 755, 919–22, 929, 933, 937
indigenous people794, 929
missionaries307, 281, 307, 580, 755, 788, 798, 808, 929, 937
natural law621, 855–6
conquest849
Eurocentricism1041, 1043
Gentili, Alberico1094
history of IL histories946, 954
India506
indigenous people793–4, 929, 937
intervention295–315, 331
Islamic law331, 386, 392–3, 396, 401–5, 644–5
Japan477–8
missionaries307, 281, 307, 580, 755, 788, 798, 808, 929, 937
natural law104, 273, 297–9, 621, 951, 855–6, 946–51, 1015
North America533–40, 793–4
Ottoman Empire252, 257, 308–13, 331, 334, 386, 438, 644–5, 1135
(p. 1190) peace movements and projects202–5, 208–9, 217, 251–6, 161, 533–40
Russia767–70, 782
slavery280, 536, 539, 590, 893, 895–6, 922, 932, 937
Vitoria, Francisco de1086–7
Western Europe620–2, 625–6
Wheaton, Henry1134–5
Cicero, Marcus Tullius79, 120–1, 142, 274, 618–19, 848, 1016, 1018, 1022–3, 1025
civilization917–39
16th and 17th century919–20, 928, 933, 937
18th century917, 920–1, 933, 937
19th and early 20th century917, 921–38
20th century reflections928–38
Africa924–5, 931, 938, 1065
Berlin conference 1884–5 924–5, 930
books from 1984 on civilization and history of IL931–7
China459, 466, 468, 711, 713–14, 716, 1065
Christianity281, 299, 755, 919–22, 928–30, 933–5
clash of civilizations429, 750, 934
civilizing missions921–7
colonialism/imperialism281, 299, 755, 788, 798, 808, 875–6, 922, 929, 933–7
conquest924, 928–9, 936
customary IL926, 953
equality of people920, 928–9
history of IL histories955–6
human rights914, 934, 936, 938
humanitarian intervention331
India52, 745, 750–5
indigenous people747, 788, 792–3, 853, 855, 925, 929, 1052
International Court of Justice925, 930–1
judges, nomination and election of926–7
just war305, 754, 929
League of Nations925
morality919, 921
natural law929
Nazi Germany930, 932
North America788, 792–3
occupation853, 855, 934
Ottoman Empire433
Permanent Court of International Justice925–7, 938
post-war standard928–31, 934–8
recognition of new states922–3
regions in history of IL, identifying1062–5, 1067, 1070, 1075
Second World War928, 930, 932, 938
sovereignty934, 937–8
Spain919–22, 928–9
treaties922
United States922–3, 929
Vitoria, Francisco de747, 919–20, 929, 933–4
von Suttner, Bertha1145
war929, 938
Western Europe650–1, 659
Wheaton, Henry412, 930, 1134
Wolff, Christian920–1, 929, 1108
climate change750, 814
Cobden, Richard205–8, 830, 880, 932
codification
China719–20
customary IL61, 828–9, 836–8
diplomacy834–8
international humanitarian law776, 779
Latin America570–2
law of the sea360, 369–73, 375–7
League of Nations719–20
peace movements210
Permanent Court of Arbitration1154
treaties836–7
United Nations1180
colonialism/imperialism and domination862–89 see also Spanish colonialism
Africa and Arab countries395–6, 408–10, 413–26, 862, 865, 879–87
American Revolution33–8
annexation by force782–4, 869, 875, 882
arbitration and courts158, 164
assimilation109, 423, 882
(p. 1191) Berlin Conference of 1884–5846, 850, 856–7, 880–1, 886, 909, 911
boundaries and borders31, 35–6, 41–3, 68, 233, 235, 1076
capitulation system18, 53
Caribbean148, 199, 204, 560–1, 578–602, 922–3
China441, 459, 468, 706, 711, 722
Christianity306–8, 579–84, 937, 1088–9
civilized and uncivilized281, 299, 755, 919–22, 929, 933, 937
indigenous people794, 929
missionaries307, 281, 307, 580, 755, 788, 798, 808, 929, 937
natural law621, 855–6
civilized and uncivilized281, 299, 755, 788, 798, 808, 875–6, 922, 929, 933–7
coercion863–5, 869
Cold War45–7
consent880, 882, 884–5
culture863
diplomacy829, 886–7
discovery and conquest840, 843–4, 849–51, 860, 865–70, 876–7, 882
discrimination863, 867
dominium to imperium865, 873, 877–8, 882, 888
economic imperialism424–6
Eurocentricism1037, 1040, 1046, 1048
European states as spine of international society53–4
feudalism, decline of867, 887
formalities of colonial acquisition882–5
France56, 866, 870–1, 879, 887
freedom of the seas872–4
free trade886–7
French Revolution37–8, 56
Grotius, Hugo862–3, 872–3, 876–8
history of IL histories957–8, 963–5
human rights745, 751, 761, 801–2, 863, 909, 1036, 1051–2
indigenous people267, 351–2, 413, 415, 749, 787–810, 876, 929
institutions882–6
international organizations179–80
Islamic law395–6
Japan496–7, 728
juridification/legalization673
jurisdiction865–6, 869, 872–3, 876–8, 885–7
just war280–1, 288–9
Latin America553–6, 560–2, 565–7
law of the sea360, 365, 372
League of Nations1175
mandate system214, 218, 330, 335, 684
mercantile colonialism870–4, 881, 887
missionaries211, 281, 307, 580, 755, 757, 788, 798, 808, 933, 929, 937
monopolies870–1, 874, 880–1, 885
nationalism179–80, 208–9, 360, 420, 881–2
natural law281, 621, 842–4, 847–9, 853–6, 867, 933, 1029, 1064
neo-colonialism424, 426
Netherlands158, 870, 875, 877–8
North America34–6, 525, 527–33, 787–810, 875–6
occupation851–60, 876–8, 882
Ottoman Empire432–3, 445–6
Papacy865–8, 870, 872
piracy and privateering872, 874
plebiscites37
political economy879–87
Portugal865–6, 870–1
possession885
post-colonialism409, 419–22, 957–8
protectionism880
protectorates881, 885–6
public and private property872, 878–9, 888
rebellions and revolutions
American Revolution33–8
borders68
Caribbean148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 599–602, 922–3
French Revolution37–8, 56
Latin America555–6, 560–1
recognition of belligerency555–6
self-determination42
regions in history of IL, identifying1065, 1068–9, 1075–6
Roman law886–7, 873, 888
Russia58, 778, 782–6
(p. 1192) Schmitt, Carl866, 873, 957
self-determination41–2, 45, 57–8, 754, 863
settler colonialism874–9
slavery869, 874, 896–7, 908–12
sovereignty863–7, 873, 876–87
state practice30, 864
terra nullius876, 880–1
territory35, 214, 218, 235–6, 330, 335, 684, 885–7, 929, 934, 1125
trading companies340, 343, 345–6, 350–2, 871–2
United States562, 565
uti possidetis principle35–6, 46
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919 600
Vitoria, Francisco de306–8, 863, 867–51, 872, 876
war867–8, 872
Western Europe621–2, 626, 635
Wheaton, Henry1134
World Bank420
Columbus, Christopher579–80, 585–6, 602, 840–2, 852, 865–6, 868, 896
communism58, 219, 333–4, 686, 697, 784, 830, 834
confederations172–3, 175, 182, 254–5, 262–3, 266
confessionalism626, 637, 651
conquest847–51
Africa and Arab countries391–8
Christianity849
civilized and uncivilized924, 928–9, 936
colonialism/imperialism840, 849–51, 860, 865–70, 876–7, 882
cosmopolitanism850
discovery844
Grotius, Hugo848–9, 851, 929
Islamic law391–8
just war794, 847–9, 867
Latin America840
natural law847
occupation840–1
peace treaties89
prescription850–1
regions in history of IL, identifying1065
res nullius850
self-preservation849
sociability, laws of847–8
sovereignty1065
state practice841
title840
United States850–1
Vitoria, Francisco de847–9, 1088–9
Western Europe621–2
credit system, development of681
crimes against humanity122, 138–40, 142, 892–3, 913–14
critical theory tradition407–8, 414, 418–27
customary international law
Africa413, 416–17, 419, 1046
airspace246
arbitration and courts60, 152, 167
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van1112–13
canon law977
civilized and uncivilized926, 953
codification61, 828–9, 836–8
contiguous zones376
diplomacy815, 836–8
Eurocentricism1046–7
General Assembly (UN)980
Geneva Conventions328
Hague Conventions 1899/1907326, 926
history of IL histories944, 958
Huber, Max167
India504–7, 514, 749
Institut de Droit International61
law of the sea368, 371–2, 376, 647, 1049
Lieber Code1139–40
North America527–8
Oppenheim, Lassa978, 1153
peace treaties72, 80, 82–3, 85, 89, 109, 153
(p. 1193) Permanent Court of International Justice167
piracy128
reason1112–13
religion296–8
Roman law977
self-determination46–7
self-limitation of sovereign states, gradual60, 61
slavery130–1, 137–8, 143
sources of IL666, 668–70, 1019–20
state practice974–85, 995
Suárez, Francisco974, 977, 1090
treaties54, 72, 80, 82–3, 85, 89, 109, 153, 265, 278, 298, 708, 836–7
United Nations836, 980
war crimes139–41
Danube Commission173–4, 282
Dawes Plan687–8, 690
de las Casas, Bartolomé583, 792–3, 867, 896
democracy32, 39, 57–8, 186–94, 199, 264, 985–90, 1154
Desmichels, Louis A402–4
diplomacy813–39
aliens, minimum standard for protection of333–4
American Revolution827
arbitration and courts150–1, 155–60, 162–6, 830, 833
asylum, right of diplomatic558–9, 564
balance of power816, 820, 825, 829–31
civil society814–15
codification of IL834–8
colonialism/imperialism829, 886–7
Concert of Europe828–33
consular jurisdiction886–7
cosmopolitanism831–2
culture829–32
customary IL815, 836–8
disarmament830, 833
elitism817, 826, 830–2
embassies772, 818–20, 829, 837, 1025, 1092
empire or universal monarchy817–18
envoys, sanctity of615, 1025–6, 1031, 1111
equality of states822, 829
extraterritoriality821
France162–3, 817, 827–8, 1004
Geneva Conventions831
Gentili, Alberico1025, 1092
Grotius, Hugo814–15, 1026
Hague Peace Conferences831, 832–3
history of IL histories947
human rights813–14, 835
institutionalization814, 819, 820, 833
intelligence815, 819–21, 837
inter-governmental organizations814
International Court of Justice609
international organizations814, 818, 823
Italian city-states818–20
Japan477–82, 488, 497
Latin America556–9, 564
League of Nations192–3, 831, 833–6
legislative and executive branches816
Martens, Friedrich Fromhold von (Fyodor Fyodorovich)1148–50
merchant diplomacy815, 829–30
nation states813, 817–18
nationalism831–3
new diplomacy833–6
old and new order, incompatibility of833–4
Oppenheim, Lassa1154–5
peace movements and civil society214–15, 814–16, 820, 822–4, 830–1
perimeters813–14
political device, as814–15, 817, 824–8, 835–6
power politics813, 824–8, 835–6
premises, inviolability of diplomatic821–2, 837
préséance and prestige826
privileges and immunities815, 820–2, 827, 837–8
(p. 1194) professionalism826–7
ranks829
resident envoys and sedentary missions818–21
rise of modern diplomacy817–22
Russia772
secrecy817, 820–1, 827–8, 830, 835
self-determination823
sovereignty813, 822–3, 833, 835
state practice973–4, 976, 988, 991
summit diplomacy835–6
supranational order817–18, 830–1
technological progress835–6
termination of missions837–8
three concepts of international relations817–18
treaties818–19, 827–8, 833
unanimity principle833
universalism667, 822
Vattel, Emer de945, 1119
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919 833
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations815, 836–8
Wheaton, Henry1133
disarmament and weapons control
diplomacy830, 833
Hague Peace Agreements670
international humanitarian law321
just war288–9
peace movements198–9, 203, 206–7, 210, 215–19
United Nations203
United States692–3
Western Europe644, 664, 690, 692–3
discrimination
colonialism/imperialism863, 867
human rights333–6
indigenous people803–6
minorities and majorities96, 98, 101, 103, 334–5, 439
racism67, 408, 422, 694, 751, 761, 803
religion311–14
Western Europe658–9, 676
Dodge, David Low533–7, 540
Drago Doctrine59–60, 564, 567–9
Dubois, Pierre251–3
El Ouazzani, Abdelmalek6, 17, 35
Elias, Taslim Olawale4, 407–17, 422–3, 426–7, 963, 1044–8, 1061–2, 1068
enemies of all humanity (hostes humani generis)120–3, 130–43, 898
England see United Kingdom
envoys, sanctity of615, 1025–6, 1031, 1111
Estrada doctrine564, 568–9
Eurocentricism4–7, 1034–57
1950s and 1980s 1035, 1039–50
1980s and 2000s1035–6, 1050
Africa408–18, 1044–9
China1047–8
Christianity1041, 1043
civilized and uncivilized1037–8, 1040–1, 1047, 1049–50, 1052–3, 1055
classical IL, appropriation of1038
colonialism/imperialism1036–7, 1040, 1043–56
customary IL1046–7
equality of states1036–8, 1040, 1050
globalization1036–7, 1056
Grotius, Hugo1045, 1061
histories of IL in non-Western world4–7, 1037–9, 1043–55
India1047–9, 1053
intellectual history1036–9, 1055–6
Latin American IL1038–9
law of the sea360–1, 373, 378
League of Nations689
Nazi Germany1039
Oppenheim, Lassa1038, 1040–1, 1043
(p. 1195) Ottoman Empire447
periodization of history of IL1005
plural histories of IL1048–50
professionalism1037–40, 1048, 1050, 1055
progress, narrative of1035–6, 1051
recognition, doctrine of1040
regions in history of IL, identifying1061
Schmitt, Carl1041, 1177
Second World War1039–40
self-determination1040, 1047–8, 1050, 1054
state practice1037, 1045–6
treaties1045–6, 1048–9
TWAIL movement1042–3, 1047, 1050–3
United Nations3, 960, 1035, 1046–7
universal histories of IL1044–8
universalism1035–48, 1051, 1054–5
use of force1047, 1051, 1053
Western Europe655
Fisch, Jörg931–6, 964, 1055
forced or compulsory labour135, 137, 891, 910–13
formalism373–4, 378, 976
Foucault, Michel747, 874, 986–9, 996, 1075
France see also French Revolution
colonialism/imperialism56, 866, 870–1, 879, 887
diplomacy162–3, 817, 827–8, 1004
Haitian Revolution148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 600–2, 901, 922–3
indigenous people790
peace treaties80
pirates and privateers594–7
Francis I, King of France155, 251, 300–1, 401, 581, 625, 819, 821, 835, 866
freedom of the seas242–4, 362, 365–73, 378
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van243, 370, 378
colonialism/imperialism872–4
Gentili, Alberico365–6, 1026
Grotius, Hugo366–70, 378, 581–2, 648, 1026, 1028–9, 1049, 1070, 1072
colonialism/imperialism872–3
international arbitration and courts157
just war1100
religion442
territory242–4
trade and chartered companies339, 350
international arbitration and courts157
just war366, 1100
navigation172–3, 366–70, 399–400, 659
papal bulls1026
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1026, 1028–9, 1031
regions in history of IL, identifying1070
religion442
terra nullius1028–9
territory242–4
trade and chartered companies339, 350
French Revolution
colonialism/imperialism37–8, 56
Declaration of the Rights of Man56, 590
diplomacy162–3, 817, 827–8
legalism, return to162–3
minorities and majorities109
neutrality637–8
peace treaties81
plebiscites37–8
progress1–2
religion109, 313
slavery204, 589–90, 901
Vattel, Emer de649
war649
Western Europe632–3, 636–8, 649–50, 652, 969
functionalism182–4, 189, 194, 986
Gaius1016–18, 1019
Gandhi, Mahatma199, 203, 214, 218, 288–9, 292, 758
General Assembly (UN)
Charter of UN697
customary IL980
genocide140
(p. 1196) humanitarian intervention332
International Criminal Court914
resolutions140–1, 330, 761, 914
Soviet Union696
Uniting for Peace Resolution761
Universal Declaration of Human Rights330
Geneva Conventions139–40, 320–1, 324–9, 416–17, 514, 715, 831
genocide140–1, 157, 443–4, 694, 753–4, 800
Gentili, Alberico966, 1092–7
Admiralty Court154
ancient legal thought, reception of1013, 1019–26, 1022–6, 1031–2, 1094
Catholicism1094
colonialism/imperialism871–2
conquest848–9
diplomacy825
embassies1025, 1092
envoys819, 1025
freedom of the seas365–6, 1026
history of IL histories966, 1093–4
life and teaching276, 365, 1092–3
natural law297–8
peace treaties79
piracy388
public/private law871–2
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1013, 1020–1, 1022–6, 1032
religion301–8, 365, 1020–1
Roman law1092–3, 1095
geopolitics1069–75, 1076
globalization360–1, 666, 674, 985, 1036–7, 1056, 1076–7
Grewe, Wilhelm12, 21–3, 145, 151–2, 582, 598, 608, 629–30, 635, 885, 931–3, 962, 972, 984, 1004, 1054, 1063
Grotius, Hugo626, 960, 1028–34, 1098–101, 1155
absolutism993
ancient legal thought, reception of1013, 1019–32, 1100
arbitration and adjudication155, 157
Battle of the Books366–9
borders1034–5
civilized and uncivilized929
colonialism/imperialism862–3, 872–3, 876–8
conquest848–9, 851, 929
diplomacy814–15, 1026
discovery842–5, 847, 856
Dutch East Indies Company338–42, 346–52, 356, 366
Eurocentricism1045, 1061
father of IL, as503, 652, 1098
freedom of the seas366–70, 378, 581–2, 648, 1049, 1070, 1072
ancient legal thought, reception of1026, 1028–9
colonialism/imperialism872–3
international arbitration and courts157
just war1100
religion442
territory242–4
trade and chartered companies339, 350
history of IL histories954–6, 965–6
human rights1100
immunity821
India519
indigenous people793–4
individuals, status of317–18
international humanitarian law637–9
just war76–7, 88, 276–8, 290, 304, 306, 759, 965–6, 975, 993, 1024, 1100
law of the sea366–9, 378, 648
neutrality637
occupation794, 843, 854, 856
pacta sunt servanda1027
piracy and privateering121, 124
precursors793, 1081–2, 1084
propriety347–9, 356
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1013, 1021–9, 1032
reciprocity1134
(p. 1197) regional law1062
religion104, 107, 276–7, 296–8, 301–2, 306, 854, 1099
science952
al-Shaybānī, Muhammad1081–2, 1084
slavery897
sociability69, 854, 954
sovereignty350
state practice991, 994–5, 1063
terra nullius/res nullius855, 1028–9
territorial waters374
territory234
United States527
universal law1064
uti possidetis1029–30
Haitian Revolution148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 600–2, 901, 922–3
health and international organizations178, 179–80
Heemskerk, Jacob van338–9, 346
Heffter, Auguste Wilhelm332, 671, 732, 780–1, 844–5, 856, 953–4, 1139
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich52, 668, 943, 1009, 1127–31
civilized and uncivilized929
external state law, IL as1128–9
idea, the1128–9
nationalism830
particularism1127–8, 1129–30
sovereignty1128–9
spirit1128–9
universalism843, 1127–8, 1129–30
war1129
historiography of IL19–24
history of international law histories943–71 see also periodization of history of IL
19th century952–8
20th and 21st centuries958–70
Africa408–18
Christianity946, 954
civilized and uncivilized955–6
colonialism/imperialism957–8, 963–5
contribution of history of IL8–11
cosmopolitanism944, 954
customary IL944, 958
Eurocentricism4–7, 1037–9, 1043–55
events, concepts and people11–14
Gentili, Alberico966, 1093–4
historical law, law of nations as946–8
League of Nations957, 960–1
modes of writing history11–14
natural law946, 948–52, 966, 970
non-Western world1037–9, 1043–55
people and nations31–47
periodization962
plural histories1048–50
realism962–4
Roman law949, 951–2, 956
sovereignty957–9
succession of writings, history of IL as965–70
translations16–19
treaties949–54
types of IL956–7
universal histories of IL1044–8
will theory958–9
Hitler, Adolf43–5, 217, 693–4, 784, 835, 913, 1169, 1174–5, 1177
Hobbes, Thomas51, 55, 298–9, 814, 822, 854, 975, 986, 1020, 1022, 1029, 1103, 1115, 1117, 1173
Hobson, John179, 188, 423–4, 441
hot pursuit129–30, 374
Huber, Max1156–61
academic life and public functions1156–8, 1160
binding force of IL1159
collective interests1159
concept of IL1158–9
customary IL167
First World War1157
history of IL histories968
international integration1159
League of Nations1156–7
peace movements1157, 1159
peaceful settlements168, 1144, 1157
Permanent Court of International Justice1156–8
sociology of IL1156, 1157, 1159, 1160
state and state society1158
territorial sovereignty62, 167, 239
(p. 1198) human rights
1945, history before320, 321, 329–36
Africa199, 416–17, 422, 426
aliens, minimum standard for treatment of330, 332–3
Caribbean584–5
Charter of UN273, 330, 332, 336, 835
civilization914, 934, 936, 938
climate change750
colonialism/imperialism745, 751, 761, 801–2, 863, 909, 1036, 1051–2
comparative IL1059
Congress of Vienna650
crimes against humanity893
decreasing role of states in international community67–8
diplomacy813–14, 835
discrimination333–6
European Convention on Human Rights314, 330, 1181
Grotius, Hugo1100
humanitarian intervention329–32, 649
immunity67–8
indigenous people320, 585, 801–2, 804
individual, protection of the67–8, 319–20, 321, 329–36
Institut de Droit International330, 335–6
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights45–6, 58, 314
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights45–6, 58
International Labour Organization320, 330, 333–4
Lauterpacht, Hersch1181–2
League of Nations330, 684–5
mandated territories, protection of people of330, 335
minorities, protection of101–3, 108–9, 112, 330, 334–5
municipal law329, 333
nationality option, rights of329–30
natural law329, 507, 619, 621, 863
North America802, 804
nullen crimen, nulla poena sine lege121
peace movements and civil society200, 205, 329
peace treaties92–3, 101–2
religion and religious intervention312–14, 622, 747
Russia768, 784, 802
self-determination45, 58, 502, 684–5
slavery130, 138, 208, 330, 650, 893–4, 908, 914
sovereignty813–14, 835, 863, 1051
treaties92–3, 101–2, 311, 329–30
United Nations800, 835, 1182
Universal Declaration of Human Rights45, 330, 800, 894, 914, 928
Western Europe619, 649–50
immunities
Africa and Arab countries394, 402
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van519, 827, 1026, 1111
capitulations435, 437
envoys, sanctity of615, 1025–6, 1031, 1111
human rights67–8
international crimes67–8
international organizations192–3
Islamic law394
river commissions192–3
Vattel, Emer de827
war394
Western Europe615
India500–21
1945, sources of IL before506–7
advisory opinions507
ancient India, sources of IL in507–8
auto-limitation theory503–4
castes507, 511–12, 758–9
Christianity506, 754–5, 757
civilized and uncivilized52, 745, 750–5
colonialism/imperialism42, 46, 214, 288, 500–10, 515–20, 744–5, 749–57, 760–1, 883
concepts of IL508–9
cooperation among princely states510
cosmopolitan imperial governance, IL of755–7
criminal law510, 517
customary IL504–7, 514, 749
customs502, 504, 507, 511–12, 514, 517, 749
dharma507, 511, 747, 758–9, 1068
English law500–1, 504–5, 518–20
equality of states749
equity, justice and good conscience, doctrine of505
Eurocentricism749–50, 752, 1047–9, 1053
Europe, encounters with5, 42, 90, 500–9, 513–20, 744–63
executive516–19
freedom of the seas748
Grotius, Hugo519
human rights507, 511–13, 747, 749–51, 758, 761–2
independence500–6, 510–11, 514–18, 520, 757, 1048
International Court of Justice760
international humanitarian law759–60
international organizations513, 749, 760–1
judiciary505–7, 513, 516–19
just war754, 758–60
law-making through treaties510
morality507–8, 511, 746, 748, 754–5, 758
nationalism756
natural law504, 507, 511, 745, 758–60
peace movements213–14, 288
pluriverses of IL746–8
positive law507, 754, 758, 760
princely states501–10, 513, 520, 756–7
principles of IL503–4
private IL519–20, 745, 756
recognition and reciprocity509
regional IL502, 1060, 1068–9
self-determination502, 758, 761
sources of IL506–8, 757–61
sovereignty508–11, 516, 748–9, 754, 757–9
state practice501, 503, 507–8, 749, 760
terminology744–5
terra nullius506, 755
Tibet758
trade, commerce and economy515–16, 754–6
trading companies754–6
TWAIL (Third World and International Law) project752–3, 760, 762
United Nations760–1
Vattel, Emer de519
war and peace513–15, 1068
women512
indigenous people
American Civil War795–6, 843
Caribbean578–9, 583–6, 590
Christianity793–4, 929, 937
civilized and uncivilized747, 788, 792–3, 853, 855, 925, 929, 1052
colonialism/imperialism267, 351–2, 413, 415, 749, 787–810, 876, 929
discovery1065
discrimination803–6
equality583–4
genocide753–4
Grotius, Hugo793–4
human rights320, 585, 801–2, 804
North America5, 17–18, 36, 235–6, 787–810, 850–1
occupation853, 855
repartimiento system585
res nullius583
slavery and sugar production586, 590, 896
sugar production586
territory235–6, 789, 791, 795–9, 808, 937, 1028–9, 1032
title584–5, 876
trade companies354, 356
United Nations800, 804, 806–7, 809
Vattel, Emer de584, 794, 796–7
Vitoria, Francisco de583–4, 792–3, 1064
individual criminal responsibility67, 122, 290, 1140, 1170
(p. 1200) individuals in time of war and peace, protection of67–8, 317–37
innocent passage, right of373, 375–6
Institut de Droit International (IDI)61, 330, 335–6, 465–7, 846
intellectual property178, 186
international arbitration and courts145–69 see also International Court of Justice (ICJ); International Criminal Court (ICC); Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA); Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)
19th and 20th centuries (1815–1945)162–7
adjudication and arbitration as alternatives166–8
Alabama arbitration between US and Great Britain164–5, 281–2, 540–2, 672–3
American War of Independence160–2
Anglo-Dutch peace of 1674 158
colonialism/imperialism158, 164
congresses172, 206–7
continuity and change145–8, 155–9
coolie trade, action against163–4
creation of international adjudication162–7
customary IL60, 152, 167
decline of international arbitration159–62
diplomacy150–1, 155–60, 162–6, 830, 833
documentation164
Dutch commercial and colonial expansion158
early modern period and 18th century (1600–1815)155–9
East Indies trade between Spain and Dutch Republic, dispute over157–8
Ems, German-Dutch dispute over the sovereignty of the148–51
equality of states166
European union, proposal for a creation of a159–60
Hague Peace Conferences145, 147–8, 165–8
ideological basis for international adjudication159–62
institutionalization162–6
international cooperation145–7
Japan494–5
Jay arbitrations155, 160–3, 279, 536, 647, 673, 900
juridification/legalization672–3
just war279–82, 285–9
late middle ages and early modern period (15th and 16th centuries)151–5
Latin America562, 573
League of Nations166–7
Mare Liberum, Grotius, Hugo157
Martens, Friedrich Fromhold von (Fyodor Fyodorovich)1148–9
mixed commissions154, 156–7, 160–3, 167
North America and advocacy of international courts532–3, 536, 539–43, 547–51
peace movements159–60, 164, 206–7, 210, 213–16
perpetual peace, projects for253, 255, 257, 258
prize law158, 161, 165–6
rise of arbitration162–7
slave trade, action against the163–4
state practice146–7, 163
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919166–8
Western Europe625, 644, 688–9
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
borders and boundaries235
Charter of UN697
China473
civilized and uncivilized925, 930–1
definition of international law666
diplomacy609
diplomatic asylum558
India760
interpretation of IL167
Japan495
judges, selection of1046
Latin America575
Lauterpacht, Hersch1180
Martens Clause1148
non-state actors219
optional clause495, 1157
peace movements219
(p. 1201) Permanent Court of International Justice, replacement of167–8, 291
Security Council291
slavery914
sovereignty423
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights45–6, 58, 314
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights45–6, 58
International Criminal Court (ICC)
creation of ICC142, 914
crimes against humanity914
individual criminal responsibility122
non-state actors219
Security Council (UN)291
slavery136, 138, 914
Statute136, 138, 914
international humanitarian intervention96, 209, 310–12, 329–32, 439, 760, 776, 945, 1125
international humanitarian law (law of war)320–9
Africa and Arab countries386, 391–5, 398, 405
Brussels Conference of 1874 325–6
chivalry for combat, rules of321–2
civilians320, 326
codification776, 779
dualism and monism318–19
ethics321–2
Geneva Conventions139–40, 320–1, 324–9, 416–17, 514, 715, 831
Grotius, Hugo637–9
Hague Conventions 1899/1907320–1, 325–8
history of international humanitarian law320, 321–9
immunities394
individual criminal responsibility67, 122, 290, 1140, 1170
individuals, protection of317–37
Islamic law386, 391–5, 398, 405
just war88
Lieber, Francis and Lieber Code323–4, 326, 1137–40
Martens Clause326, 1148
military necessity320–3, 1140
peace treaties72, 79, 88
persons and places, protection of321–2
prisoners of war321–2, 326–8
rebus sic stantibus320–1
Red Cross327–8
religion322
Russia776, 779
self-defence760
sources of IL318–19
standing318
St Petersburg Declaration 1868 323, 325
treaties, rules on321, 324
vanquished, rights of the33
weapons, prohibition of321
Western Europe638–9
international human rights see human rights International Labour Organization (ILO)
communism333–4
establishment66
First World War177
forced or compulsory labour135
functionalism189
human rights320, 330, 333–4
indigenous people802, 804–5
League of Nations Covenant170–1, 187
Permanent Court of International Justice171
revolutions187
slavery911
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919334
International Monetary Fund (IMF)420, 696
international organizations170–97 see also international unions; particular organizations
Africa420–1
autonomy192–4, 664–5
business186–8
causes and motives177–82
China702, 711–21
civil society186–8
colonialism/imperialism179–80
confederations172–3, 175, 182
congresses171–2, 186
(p. 1202) democratic aspects186–97
diplomacy814, 818, 823
efficacy194
equality of states190–1
exhibitions186–7
First World War170–7
functionalism182–4, 189, 194
health178, 179–80
historical overview170–6
ideational factors178–80
immunity192–3
India513, 749, 760–1
indigenous people801–2, 804–5
industrial federations187
institutionalization665
intellectual property, protection of178, 186
inter-governmental organizations187–8
international trade177–8
inter-war period177
labour solidarity181–2
labour standards180–1
Latin America553
legitimacy193–4, 197
material factors177–8
nationalism and imperialism179–80
natural resources, regulation of178
non-governmental organisations187–90
non-state actors and non-state entities181–2, 186–8, 1171
North America542, 801–2, 804–5
peace treaties after First World War170
politics of technocracy195–7
power gain180–2
private/public sphere187–8
river commissions173–4, 183, 192–3, 664–5
Russia775
sovereignty193–4, 665
stakeholders, participation of189–90
state practice, cooperation in665
strategic factors180–2
technicality183–6, 193–7
territoriality182–3
unanimity190–1
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919170–1, 187, 189
Western Europe664–5
women181
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)175, 665
International Telegraph Union (ITU)171, 175–6, 179–80, 184, 187
international unions174–84
administrative unions174–6, 180, 192–7, 664–5
cosmopolitanism197
democracy192, 193–4
functionalism183–4, 194
immunity192–3
institutionalization175–6
International Radiotelegraph Union175
International Sugar Union178
International Telecommunication Union175, 665
International Telegraph Union171, 175–6, 179–80, 184, 187
offices/bureaux176, 179–80, 186, 192
political dimension183–4, 195
technicality183–4, 193–5
Universal Postal Union176, 179, 180, 182, 184, 197, 664, 669
Islam see also Africa North of the Sahara and Arab countries and Islamic law; Ottoman Empire
Christians/Christianity331, 386, 392–3, 396, 401–5, 644–5
India501, 505, 508, 511, 517
intervention295, 300–1, 304–5, 310, 311
peace treaties90
al-Shaybānī, Muhammad1081–5
Western Europe610, 615
Japan475–499
15th century–1853476–85
adjudication494–5
borders and boundaries479–91, 497
Christianity477–8, 731
civilized and uncivilized741
(p. 1203) colonialism/imperialism496–7, 725, 727, 735–6, 740–1
coolie trade163–4
delimitation issues488, 497
diplomacy477–82, 488, 497, 729, 734–8
enthusiasm about IL731–2, 736–7
equality475, 479, 493–7, 739, 741
Eurocentricism742
Europe, encounters with5–6, 14, 53, 90, 447, 476–80, 485–8, 492, 497–8, 724–43
fairness of IL494–5, 497
First World War716, 737–9
foreign trade477–80, 483, 486–9, 497
Four Gates, theory of the478–9
Great East Asian IL7, 741
Great Power, Japan as a493–4
Hague Convention 1907494
Hanto (territory) and Kegai no chi481, 491
Hokkaido and Okinawa488–90
Ikoku and Iiki (fringe or rim land), Ezo and Ryukyu as479–83
indigenous people724
institutions, participation in737–8
International Court of Justice495
international humanitarian law738–9
International Telecommunication Union738
inter-war period739–41
knowledge of IL732–5
Korea477, 479, 483–4, 487, 496, 727–8, 733, 740
League of Nations494–5, 739–41
Manchurian Incident740–1
maps of Japan483
Meiji government483, 485–97
militarism496–7, 740–1
modern European IL483–94, 497
modern state, formation of Japan as a485–93, 497–8
Netherlands728–9, 733, 737
neutrality736
new order in East Asia495–8
occupation491–2
opening of Japan485–8
peace movements199, 203, 214
Permanent Court of Arbitration495
Permanent Court of International Justice494–5, 740
pre-modern Japan476–85
pseudo-equality493–6
reception of modern European IL476, 485–7
Red Cross737–8
regions of correspondence and regions of trade480–1
Ryukyu kingdom479–93, 497, 727
rule by power and modern European IL487–8
science731
seclusion of Japan477–8, 728–37
Second World War140–1, 290, 741
Sinocentricism726–8
sovereignty480–4, 486–7, 491–2, 496, 726, 729, 731, 741
state territory of Japan488–92
Taiwan468–9, 491, 740
Takeshima/Ulleungdo/Dagelet, affair of (Takeshima Ikken)484
terra nullius and inherent territory491–2
territory of Japan479–93
Tokyo Military Tribunal Charter140–1, 290
traditional ideas on international relations and law725–9
treaties486–7, 492–3, 737
tribute system476–9, 726–7
United Nations720
United States729–30
Universal Postal Union728
universality494–5, 497
vassal countries476–7, 479, 488, 490
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919739
Jay, John161, 532
Jay Treaty155, 160–3, 279, 536, 647, 673, 900
Jellinek, Georg175, 178, 234, 958
Jouannet, Emmanuelle4, 966–7, 993
juridification/legalization655, 664, 671–3, 676–7
Justinian74, 102–3, 361–2, 378, 1022, 1031
(p. 1204) just war doctrine273–92, 635–7
arbitration and courts279–82, 285–9
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van1025
Charter of UN273, 287, 291–2
Christian thought273, 274–81, 288, 302–3, 619–20, 955, 1023
civilized and uncivilized305, 754, 929
classical Greek and Roman philosophy273
colonialism/imperialism280–1, 288–9
congresses and conferences277–8, 280, 282
conquest794, 847–9, 867
decline of just war doctrine277–89
equality of states277–8
freedom of the seas366, 1100
Gentili, Alberico76–7, 276–7, 308, 1023–4, 1092, 1095–6
Grotius, Hugo76–7, 88, 276–8, 290, 304, 306, 759, 965–6, 975, 993, 1024, 1100
guilt, attribution of87–9, 90, 91
humanitarian intervention96
India754, 758–60
indigenous people794
individual accountability290
international humanitarian law88
Islam760
just peace87, 91, 675
last resort, war as a284–5
League of Nations287–8, 290–1
minorities and majorities96, 104
morality278, 283
national liberation movements289
natural law87–8, 273, 278, 281, 619, 847
neutrality637
new just war doctrine289–91
North America794
Nuremberg Military Tribunal289–90
peace movements273–88
peace treaties76, 87–9, 90–2, 276–8, 282
Permanent Court of Arbitration282
Permanent Court of International Justice287–8, 291
Pufendorf, Samuel1025
Quakers280
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1023–5, 1031
religion and religious intervention301–6
reparations88–9
reprisals284, 290
rise of doctrine273–7
Roman law1015, 1023–5, 1031, 1092
Second World War91, 289
secularization304
Security Council (UN)290–1
self-defence/self-help76, 284, 287, 291, 1023
slavery280, 895–6
sovereignty277–8, 281
state practice973, 975
subjectivism/objectivism276–8
Tokyo Military Tribunal Charter290
total war and new just war doctrine289–91
trading companies754
universal empire1024–5
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919287–8
Vitoria, Francisco de275
Western Europe619, 635–7
Wolff, Christian87–8, 1025
women286
Kaltenborn, Carl von665, 953–4, 978
Kant, Immanuel1122–6
civilized and uncivilized921
coercion1124–5
cosmopolitan law201–2, 270, 944, 1122, 1124–5
current research debates1124–5
history of IL histories965–6
hospitality, right to1125
humanitarian intervention1125
importance1123–4
land1072
league of nations, advocacy of1122–3
life and works1122–3
morality251
rebels55, 56
self-determination1124–5
(p. 1205) terminology656
United Nations1123–4
utopia251, 658
war1122, 1124
Kautilya513–14, 759–60, 1068
Kellogg–Briand Pact (Pact of Paris)91–2, 140, 199, 288, 291, 692, 834
Kelsen, Hans319, 1167–72
anti-semitism1168–9
Charter of UN1170–1
constitutionalization1168–9, 1171–2
history of IL histories959, 968
individual criminal responsibility1170
just war289–92
Lauterpacht, Hersch1168, 1179, 1180–1
League of Nations1170
legal personality of non-state actors1171
life and work1167–72
minorities117
Nazi Germany1169–70
Oppenheim's IL1182
pure theory of law1167–9
Schmitt, Carl1169
sovereignty1169, 1171
Klüber, Johann Ludwig651, 673, 780, 844–5, 856, 953–4, 1133
Koo, Wellington706–7, 710, 717–18, 721
Korea
China454–6, 468, 476
Japan477, 479, 483–4, 487, 496
Koskenniemi, Martii22–3, 115–16, 935–6, 978, 986, 998, 1002, 1055, 1180–1
Ladd, William204, 206, 267, 279–80, 535–6, 538–40
land see territory
Lansing, Robert42, 58, 545, 550–1, 708
Latin America553–77
American IL562–6, 568
arbitration562, 573
Bustamente Code570–2
Calvo clause59, 564, 567–8
Central American Court of Justice573–6
civilized and uncivilized1067
codification570–2
colonialism/imperialism553–6, 560–2, 565–7
conferences, American and Pan American560–2, 565, 569–71, 683
Congress of Panama of 1826 553, 560–1, 570
conquest840
customs572
diplomatic asylum, right of558–9, 564
diplomatic intervention566–8
Drago Doctrine59–60, 564, 567–9
Estrada doctrine564, 568–9
Eurocentricism1038–9
First World War571
foreign pecuniary claims566–8
independence565–7
International Court of Justice575
international organizations553
Latin American IL1038–9, 1066–7
League of Nations560
legal personality of internal rebels553, 555
Monroe Doctrine566
non-intervention principle559, 564, 566–70
plebiscites37
private IL, codification of570–2
rebellions and revolutions37, 553, 555–7, 560–1
recognition of belligerency553, 554–7
recognition of internal rebels553, 554–7
regions in history of IL, identifying1066–7
Russia768–72
slavery561
sovereignty566, 572
territoriality561
Tobar doctrine568–9
treaties558–9, 561–2, 566, 573–6
United States555–66, 569–70, 573–6
universalism565–6
uti possidetis, principle of35–6, 37, 561
Western Europe683–4
Lauterpacht, Hersch1179–83
annexation442
arbitration and international courts290
borders1034–5
(p. 1206) common law1181–2
European Convention on Human Rights1181
history of IL histories959, 968
human rights1181–2
International Court of Justice1180
International Law Commission1180, 1182
Kelsen, Hans1168, 1179, 1180–1
life and works1179–83
Nuremberg Military Tribunal1180, 1182
Oppenheim's International Law1154, 1181–2
Roman private law770
rule of law1180–1
United Nations1180, 1182
war1176
law of the sea359–78 see also freedom of the seas; territorial sea
Battle of the Books366–9, 377
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van648
cannon-shot or maritime league doctrine369–70, 372, 374–5
chronology, ideas and trends360–73
classical antiquity360, 361–3, 366–7
codification360, 369–73, 375–7
colonialism/imperialism360, 365, 372
conflict and codification369–73
contiguous zones376–7
continental shelf377
customary IL368, 371–2, 376, 647, 1049
doctrinal developments373–7
Eurocentricism360–1, 373, 378
exclusive economic zones377
fisheries jurisdiction377
foreign warships, passage of375
formalism373–4, 378
freedom of navigation172–3, 366–70, 399–400, 659
free trade370–2
Geneva Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone 1958377
globalization360–1
Grotius, Hugo, Selden, John and contemporaries366–9, 378, 648
Hague Codification Conference 1930372–3, 375–7
history of the law of the sea359–78
innocent passage, right of373, 375–6
jurisdiction363, 373, 375, 377
Law of the Sea Convention130–1, 376–8
mercantilism and empire369–73
Middle Ages and Renaissance360, 363–5
monopolies366–7
national security371–2, 378
natural law363, 366, 368
natural resources370–1, 377
naval warfare370–2
necessity365, 374, 378
occupation368–9
piracy127–8, 363, 370
prize tribunals371–2
private law and public law361–2, 368
res nullius362
Roman law361–8
seabed377
slavery130–1
smuggling375–6
sovereignty363–6, 373–5
state practice362–8, 374–7
League of Nations532–3, 682–6
arbitration and courts166–7
China473, 708, 716–20
civilized and uncivilized925
codification719–20
collective bodies to manage state interests, states’ attempts to set up63
colonialism/imperialism1175
cosmopolitan ethics201
democracy188–9
diplomacy831, 833–6
dissolution696–7
establishment680
Eurocentricism689
First World War64, 177
Germany688–9, 718–19
good faith1027–8, 1032
history of IL histories957, 960–1
Huber, Max1156–7
human rights330, 684–5
indigenous people799–800
intergovernmental organizations66
just war287–8, 290–1
Kant, Immanuel1122–3
Kelsen, Hans1170
Latin America560
law of the sea372
mandate system684
minorities and majorities97, 101–2, 111–15, 335
non-governmental organisations189–90
North America550–1, 799–800
Oppenheim, Lassa188, 1154
organs684–5, 717–18
peace movements201, 203, 213–19
peace treaties78
Permanent Court of International Justice167, 288, 685, 925
permanent members717–18
perpetual peace, projects for267–70
piracy127
plebiscites115
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1027–8, 1032
regions in history of IL, identifying1065–6, 1074–5
religion and religious intervention314
Russia783–4
Schmitt, Carl1175–6
self-determination684–5, 1074–5
slavery134–7, 911–12
super-State, as185
technicality184–6
terrorism141
trafficking189
unanimity190–1
United Nations134, 168, 217–18, 291, 695
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 191978, 166–7, 177, 189, 287–8, 500–1, 550–1, 685–6, 1175
Western Europe680, 682–90, 693, 695–7
Wheaton, Henry266
women181
Lebow, Richard Ned989–91, 993–6
legalization/juridification655, 664, 671–3, 676–7
Leibniz, Gottfried-Wilhelm251, 257, 259–62, 648, 827, 1102
Lenin, Vladimir I40–1, 57, 423–4, 441
Lieber Code323–4, 326, 1139–40
Lieber, Francis1137–41 see also Lieber Code
Locke, John527, 584, 853, 856, 868, 877, 897, 956, 959, 1072, 1102
Lorimer, James170, 412, 416, 433, 493–4, 955–6
Lotman, Yuri Mikhailovich765, 769, 771, 777–81
Louis XIV, King of France237–8, 258–62, 630–1, 636, 647, 826, 991–2, 994
Machiavelli, Niccolò232, 275, 637, 818, 848, 947–8, 993
mandate system214, 218, 330, 335, 684
Marshall, John796–7, 844, 851, 891, 902–4
Martens, Friedrich Fromhold von (Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens)649, 1147–51
administrative law676
appraisal1149–50
arbitration1148–9
centre-periphery relations769–70
commissions1148
coolie trade164
diplomacy1148–50
Eurocentricism1038
Hague Conventions of 19091148–9
life and work1147–9
Martens clause139, 326, 776, 926, 1148
morality673
Permanent Court of International Justice1148
state practice665
treaties669, 1147–8
Martens, Georg Friedrich von159–60, 648–9,844–5, 855, 950–4
Martin, William451–2, 460–72, 486, 488, 705, 732, 750
Marx, Karl782, 830, 875, 1009 see also Marxism
McNair, Arnold1154–5, 1179–82
(p. 1208) mediation and good services641–2, 823–4
minorities95–119
17th and 18th centuries, treaties in108–9
Augsburg, Peace of105–6
Byzantine empire102–3, 104
cession108
discrimination96, 98, 101, 103, 334–5, 439
failure of a global regime113–14
human rights101–3, 108–9, 112, 330, 334–5
independence110–11
international legal personality, inter-war debate on116–18
Islamic world and Ottoman Empire102–3, 109–10
Jews103
just war96, 104
League of Nations97, 101–2, 111–15, 335
myth of 164899–101, 107–8
national minorities96, 101–2, 109–11, 682
nationalism96, 101–2, 109–11, 116–17, 313–14
nation states109–11
natural law104
other, treatment of the95–7, 118
Paris 1919, after109–18
Permanent Court of International Justice97–8, 101–2, 112–13, 117, 335
plebiscites115
pre-Westphalian protection102–5
progress, narrative of99, 101–2
religious minorities96, 101–9, 117, 294, 303, 308–15, 334
resistance, right of103–4
self-determination102, 113–14
sovereignty100, 102, 105–8, 111, 113–18
terminology and scope97–9
traditional position in legal history99–102
treaties334–5
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 191996–7, 111–12, 114–17
mixed commissions154, 156–7, 160–3, 167, 904
Monroe Doctrine35, 59–60, 268, 564–6, 694, 761, 845, 1065–7, 1073–4, 1177
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, Baron de55, 527, 830, 950, 1002–3
nationalism830–3
China706
colonialism/imperialism179–80, 208–9, 360, 420, 881–2
diplomacy831–3
India756
international organizations179–80
Ottoman Empire432, 441–3
peace movements211, 1145
regions in history of IL, identifying1039, 1070
religion and religious intervention313–14
state practice978, 986, 995
Western Europe655
nationality57, 268–9, 329–30
national liberation movements and rebels55, 67–8, 206–8, 212, 289, 553, 555–7 see also American Revolution; French Revolution
natural law
China460, 473
Christianity104, 273, 297–9, 621, 627, 951, 855–6, 946–51, 1015
civilized and uncivilized929
colonialism/imperialism281, 842–4, 847–9, 853–6, 867, 933, 1029, 1064
conquest847
discovery842–3
enemies of all humanity121, 143
Grotius, Hugo296–7, 946, 948–9, 975, 996, 1064, 1094, 1098–9, 1102–3
history of IL histories944, 946–52, 966, 970
humanitarian intervention331–2
(p. 1209) human rights329, 507, 619, 621, 863
India504, 507, 511, 745, 758–60
just war87–8, 273, 278, 281, 619, 847
law of the sea363, 366, 368
minorities and majorities104
occupation844, 851–6
Oppenheim, Lassa976
perfectibility1107–8
piracy121, 143
positivism281, 283, 298–9, 329, 460, 473, 504, 623, 844, 887, 951, 974
Pufendorf, Samuel772, 948–50, 1102–4
regions in history of IL, identifying1049–50, 1064
Roman law949, 951–2, 1102
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques1115
Russia772
secular conception299, 758, 1022, 1099
self interest949
slavery891–2, 900–3
sociability, law of848, 949–50
state practice504, 974–6, 982–3, 986
Suárez, Francisco297, 1021–2, 1089–90, 1099
treaties949–52
universalism281, 504, 849, 946, 1064
Vattel, Emer de667, 671, 745, 950, 1022
Vitoria, Francisco de297–8, 622, 843, 887, 1064, 1087–8
Western Europe617, 619–23
Wheaton, Henry976
Wolff, Christian671, 1022, 1107–8
natural resources178, 370–1, 377, 754, 793, 805
Netherlands
Caribbean578, 581–2, 587–8, 591, 593, 596–7, 599
colonialism/imperialism870, 875, 877–8
East Indies Company338–57, 366, 581–2, 635, 1063–4, 581–2
indigenous people790
North America790
peace treaties80
privateers596–7
propriety, principle of346–8
slavery588, 591, 593
trade expansion346–8, 356
West Indies Company598–9
neutrality637–8, 649–50, 716, 775
New International Economic Order (NIEO)424–5
new world economic order696–5
Nippold, Otfried146–8, 164–5, 194
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)187–90, 814 see also peace movements and civil society
non-state actors and non-state entities9, 65–6, 68, 98, 181–2, 186–8, 202, 209, 814, 1171 see also particular entities
North America525–52
activism802–5
Alabama arbitral tribunal, judgment of the540–2
alliances and partnerships789–92, 795–9
American Civil War539–41, 546
Anglo-American peace movements536–9
appeals by indigenous people to IL799–800
arbitration and adjudication540–3, 547
assimilation802, 805
Canada796–808
Christianity533–40
colonialism/imperialism34–6, 525, 527–33, 787–810, 875–6
common law526–8
customary IL527–8
First World War544–50
incorporation doctrine527–8
independence525, 527–33
indigenous people5, 17–18, 36, 235–6, 787–810, 850–1
individuals, protection of526, 528
international courts and organization, advocacy of532–3, 536, 539–43, 547–51
law of nations526–33
League of Nations532–3, 535, 546–51
peace movements533–43, 551
Permanent Court of Arbitration543–4
Permanent Court of International Justice550
separation of powers536
sovereignty527, 529–32, 548
states
American Civil War539–40
sovereign rights529–30
treaties531–2, 536, 544
utopia533–51
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919549–51
nullen crimen, nulla poena sine lege121
Nuremberg Military Tribunal67, 121, 137–41, 289–90, 894, 913–14
Nussbaum, Arthur21, 100–1, 153, 277, 282, 960, 965, 972, 984, 1020, 1065, 1149
Nys, Ernest943, 955–6, 1038
occupation851–60
Africa856–8
agriculturalist argument853–4
civil society854
civilized and uncivilized934
colonialism/imperialism851–60, 876–8, 882
conquest and discovery840–7, 856
Grotius, Hugo794, 843, 854, 856
indigenous people793–4
Japan491–2
law of the sea368–9
natural law844, 851–6
North America793–4
protectorates858
Roman law852, 934
savages, indigenous people as853, 855
sociability, principle of852, 854
Spain852
terra nullius238–9, 852, 855–60
territorial sovereignty857–9
trade, chartered companies, and mercantile associations341, 351–2
treaties857–8
O’Connell, Daniel Patrick363, 369, 373–4
Oppenheim, Lassa1152–5
administrative unions183
constitutionalization of IL1153
customary IL978, 1153
democracy1154
diplomacy1154–5
discovery847
Eurocentricism1038, 1040–1, 1043
history of IL histories968
individuals, protection of318
International Law1153–5, 1181–2
League of Nations188, 1154
legal rule, definition of508
life1152
morality1153–4
natural law976
peace283–4
reprisals290
state practice982
treaties1153
Ottoman Empire429–48
Armenian genocide157, 443–4
capitulations, brief history of18, 56, 430–47
Christians252, 257, 308–13, 331, 334, 386, 438, 644–5, 1135
civilized and uncivilized429, 433
clash of civilizations429
colonialism/imperialism432–3, 445–6
Eurocentricism447
Europe, relationship with430–46
First World War444
humanitarian intervention331, 439
Islamic law386–8, 398, 401, 429–31
minorities and majorities102–3, 109–10
nationalism432, 441–3
peace treaties90, 644–5
Permanent Court of International Justice443
perpetual peace, projects for252, 255–7, 260, 269–70
religion and religious intervention300–1, 310–13
Russia776
sovereignty431–2, 443
Tanzimat reforms432–3
treaties432–3, 437–47
Turkey429–47
Western Europe631, 643, 644–5, 658
Wheaton, Henry1135
outer space and moon247
pacta sunt servanda75, 83, 771, 993, 1015, 1027–8, 1032
Papacy
colonialism/imperialism865–8, 870, 872
discovery841–3, 847
freedom of the seas1026
papal bulls579, 580–3, 602, 841–3, 847, 1026
perpetual peace, projects for253
Parry, Clive69, 973–5, 980–1, 983, 994
particularism1038–9, 1127–30
peace see also peace movements and civil society; peace treaties
Africa and Arab countries386, 391–8, 405, 422
arbitration253, 255, 257, 258
Bentham265–7, 952–3
boundaries and borders228–30, 240, 242
Castel de Saint Pierre, Utopian plan of258–61
Christianity251–6, 261
colonialism/imperialism267
conclusion of peace680–4
confederations254–5, 262–3, 266
cosmopolis concept251, 264, 267
democracy264
diplomacy816, 820, 822, 830–1
First World War, Utopia after267–71
freedom of commerce, promotion of256–7
general peace, quest for a256–7
Grotius, Hugo79, 88, 301–2, 307, 1099–1100
India513–15
individuals, protection of317–37
Islamic law386, 391–8, 405
just peace87, 91, 675
Kant, Immanuel219, 262–5, 278, 1123, 1125, 1127, 1129–30
League of Nations267–70
morals257, 266
nationality principle268–9
New Cyneas256–7
Oppenheim, Lassa283–4
Ottoman Empire252, 255–7, 260, 269–70
perpetual peace, projects for84–5, 159, 201, 219, 250–71, 772, 1125, 1129
Plan for a Confederation of Christian Principalities254–5
Quakers and quest for a godly life261–2, 267
religion251, 253, 255–7, 263
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques260, 952–4, 1116
Security Council (UN)273, 290–1
al-Shaybānī, Muhammad1081, 1084
sovereignty257, 261
truces85
utopia250–71
Vattel, Emer de79, 85, 109
Western Europe634, 639–47
Wolff, Christian79, 85
peace movements and civil society198–221
19th century202–19
20th century210–19
Africa and independence199, 203
American Civil War208, 281
American Revolution204
arbitration and courts159–60, 164, 206–7, 210, 213–16
Charter of the UN91–2
Christianity202–5, 208–9, 217
codification210
colonialism/imperialism199–200, 202–3, 207, 210–14, 218–19, 280–1
composition202–3, 212–13
congresses206–7, 280
development of international organization210, 213–18
diplomacy214–15, 814–15, 830–1
disarmament and arms control198–9, 203, 206–7, 210, 215–19
economic policies207, 218
England/Great Britain199, 202–12
equality of states198, 200, 219
ethics198–219
First World War211, 213, 215, 218
foundations203–7
free trade205–8, 210–12, 216
Huber, Max1157, 1159
human rights200, 205, 329
humanitarianism198, 200, 202–3, 209–10, 212–13, 218
India213–14, 288
institutionalization203, 210, 216
International Court of Justice219
international organizations186–8
Japan199, 203, 214
just war273–88
League of Nations201, 203, 213–19
mandate system214, 218
national liberation or revolutionary movements206–8, 212
nationalism211, 1145
North America533–43, 551
occupation854
perfectibility1107–8
Permanent Court of Arbitration210, 213, 282, 543
Permanent Court of International Justice210, 219, 287
progress201, 204, 209–12
self-determination207, 214–15, 218–19
slavery abolitionists203, 208, 218–19
social and economic justice movements205, 208
treaties199–200
United Nations91–2, 198–9, 213–14, 217–19
United States199, 202–11
universalism199–200, 210, 216
von Suttner, Bertha1142, 1143–5
Western Europe664
Wolff, Christian1107–8
women203, 211–12, 214, 217
peace treaties71–94, 100–1 see also Versailles Peace Conference and Versailles/Paris peace treaties of 1919
1500 to 1920, peacemaking from76–80, 91–3
Africa North of the Sahara and Arab countries391, 402–4
American Revolution90
amnesty clauses89
ancient Greek treaties73–4
armistices, distinguished from73
canon law74–6, 79, 83, 88
categories of clauses73, 77–8, 89
cession82
Charter of UN91–2
classical and medieval treaties72–6, 78–9, 88, 93
colonialism/imperialism90
compacts85
conquest89
customary IL72, 80, 82–3, 85, 89, 109, 153
damages and costs of war87–9, 91
declarations of war77, 88
European peace treaty practice, expansion of90
First World War71–2, 78, 91, 170
formal war, concept of76
formation of IL71–94
forms, ratification and safeguards83–4
French Revolution81
general peace85–7
guarantees83–4, 87
guilt, attribution of87–9, 90, 91
human rights92–3, 101–2
inclusion, consequences of85–6
international organizations170
Islamic world90
just war theory76, 87–9, 90–2
laws of war (ius in bello)72, 79, 88
laws of war and peace (ius bello ac pacis)72
League of Nations78
legal war, concept of76–7
monopolization of war76, 80–1
oaths74, 75–6, 83
opinio juris80
oral agreements72
Ottoman Empire90, 644–5
pacta sunt servanda83
parties81–3
peace-making (ius post bellum)72, 78, 80, 92–3
perpetual peace84–5
ratification82–3
sources of peace treaties80
transformation of peace treaty practice and law91–3
(p. 1213) truces85
universal peace85–6
use of force law (ius ad bellum)72, 75, 88
vanquished, rights of the33
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 191971–2, 78, 91
Western Europe629–31, 639–45, 649, 652
people and nations27–48
16th– 18th centuries31–3
American Revolution33–4, 37–8
borders30–1, 35–6, 47
Cold War and developing countries45–7
colonialism/imperialism34–8, 45–7
First World War40–3
history of IL31–47
inter-war period42–4
peoples’ laws and states’ law27–8
plebiscites in the 19th century37–40, 43, 47
resistance, right to32–3
secession34, 36–7, 46–7
Second World War44–5
state power30–3, 38, 47
terminology of people and nations27–30
uti possidetis principle35–6, 37, 46
vanquished, rights of the33
will of the people28, 30, 38, 43–4, 47
perfectibility, notion of1107–8, 1120
periodization of history of IL997–1011
core of conventional periodizations1001–2
denomination of periods1009–10
first period1004–5
historiography of IL997–1010
history of IL histories962
interests and values999–1001
last period1005–7
units, periods as1002–4
weak and strong denominations1009–10
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
codification1154
Hague Peace Conferences213, 543–4, 712, 1148
Japan495
peace movements210, 213, 282, 543
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919165
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)
advisory opinions167
Central American Court of Justice573, 575
China708, 719
civilized and uncivilized925–7, 938
customary international law167
Danube Commission174
Huber, Max1156–8
International Court of Justice167–8, 291
International Labour Organization171
interpretation of IL167
Japan494–5, 740
jurisdiction167, 685
just war287–8, 291
League of Nations167, 288, 685, 925
Martens, Friedrich Fromhold von (Fyodor Fyodorovich)1148
minorities and majorities97–8, 101–2, 112–13, 117, 335
non-state actors219
North America550
Ottoman Empire443
peace movements210, 219, 287
Statute167, 171, 288, 685, 925–7
unanimity190
United Nations291
Versailles Peace Conference and treaties of 1919165–6, 550
war64
Peter the Great771, 772–4, 776, 780–1, 991
Pinto, Isaac de356–8
piracy and privateering120–30, 143, 388
1945, anti-piracy regime around127–30
absolute prohibition123–7
aerial piracy122–3
Africa and Arab countries398–9
Alabama arbitration164–5
Caribbean579, 593–8
colonialism/imperialism872, 874
cooperation and conflict between states and private vessels124–5
customary IL128
decline in piracy and privateering597–8
(p. 1214) Declaration 1856125–6, 129
definition120–1, 128–9
enemies of all humanity (hostes humani generis), as120–3, 142–3, 898
England/Britain596–7
France594–7
hostages at sea, taking123
hot pursuit129–30
Islamic law398–9
jurisdiction121–3, 129–30, 143
law of the sea127–8, 363, 370
League of Nations127
mercenaries594
natural law121, 143
Netherlands588, 591, 593
nullen crimen, nulla poena sine lege121
political exemption124
punishment and prosecution121–3
reprisals, law of special594
sea and seaward limits, dominion over242
slavery122–3, 132, 143, 596, 891, 898, 903–4, 906–7
Spain124–5, 594–7
treaties123, 125–7
universal jurisdiction122–3, 129–30, 143
Western Europe662–3
plebiscites37–40, 43, 47, 115
positivistic universalization of IL666–70
prescription238–9
prisoners of war321–2, 326–8, 639
Africa and Arab countries394, 405
forced or compulsory labour137
Geneva Conventions321, 327
Islamic law394, 405
military necessity321
Red Cross327–8
slavery137, 892–3, 895–6, 913
private international law361–2, 519–20, 570–2, 892, 899–901
prize law158, 161, 165–8, 371–2
progress
colonialism/imperialism211
diplomacy835–6
Eurocentricism1035–6, 1051
French Revolution1–2
historiography19–20, 23, 47, 101
minorities and majorities99, 101–2
peace movements and civil society201, 204, 209–12
periodization of history of IL998, 1007–9
technological progress177–8, 679, 835–6
von Suttner, Bertha1145
propriety, principle of346–8, 352, 356
protectorates858, 881, 885–6
Pufendorf, Samuel527, 1102–5, 1117
ancient legal thought, reception of1013, 1020, 1022, 1025, 1027, 1029–30
conquest849–50
discovery843, 845
freedom of the sea245
God1103
history of IL histories965–6
hospitality, right of universal264
just war1025
mediator641–2
natural law772, 948–50, 1102–4
occupation854–5
pacta sunt servanda1027
peace84–5
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1013, 1022, 1029–30
Russia771–3
sociability, duty of1103–4, 1107
sovereignty1104
State, personhood of the1104–5
terra nullius1029, 1030
uti possidetis principle1030
war1104
Al-Quadûri, A Al Hassan393–5
Quakers261–2, 267
racism67, 408, 422, 694, 751, 761, 803
rebellions and revolutions55, 206–8, 212, 289 see also American Revolution; French Revolution
borders68
Caribbean148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 599–602, 922–3
colonialism/imperialism
borders68
Caribbean148, 199, 204, 560–1, 579, 590, 599–602, 922–3
Latin America553, 555–6, 560–1
recognition of belligerency553, 555–6
self-determination42
Latin America37, 553, 555–7, 560–1
recognition of belligerency553, 554–7
Russia40, 58, 187, 548, 781–6, 1000
self-determination42
rebus sic stantibus75, 79, 320–1, 444, 706–7
reception of ancient legal thought in early modern IL1012–33
Bynkershoek, Cornelius van1013, 1025–7
envoys, sanctity of1025–6, 1031
freedom of the high seas1026, 1028–9, 1031
Gaius and the Digest1016–18
Gentili, Alberico1013, 1019–26, 1022–6, 1031–2, 1094
Grotius, Hugo1013, 1019–32, 1100
just war1023–5, 1031
law of nations1014–26, 1031
medieval transformation of law of nations1018
pacta sunt servanda1027–8, 1032
Pufendorf, Samuel1013, 1020, 1022, 1025, 1027, 1029–30
Roman private law analogies1027–30, 1031–2
terra nullius1028–9, 1030, 1032
uti possidetis doctrine1029–30, 1032
Vattel, Emer de771
Wolff, Christian1013, 1022, 1026, 1028–9
reciprocity, principle of291, 467, 509, 659, 837, 864, 906, 1134
recognition of belligerency553, 554–7
Red Cross, International Committee of the327–8, 664, 712, 716, 1156, 1158
Redslob, Robert100, 116, 969, 1070
regions in history of IL, identifying1058–78
Africa1061–2, 1065, 1067–8,