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date: 28 February 2020

(p. 821) Index

(p. 821) Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f ’, respectively, following the page number.

A
Afghanistan675, 699–700
Constitution680
crimes against humanity167, 692–4
criminal law696–7
dispute resolution681–2, 685–6
drugs680–1
ethnic diversity676
failure of international law
crimes by armed forces691–2
post-invasion Afghanistan687–8
reconstruction688
transitional justice688–91
US invasion686–7
gender equality696
human rights679, 680–1
International Criminal Court167, 692–4
international economic law681–2
Islamic law683–4
justice reform694–7
local resistance697–9
legal pluralism682
marriage696
Pakistan border594–5
poverty676
ratification of treaties679
Soviet invasion679–80
state-building694–7
Taliban insurgency676–7
trade681–2
war crimes167, 692–4
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) (1995)
Bangladesh611–12
China249
HIV/AIDS medications382–3
India574
Indonesia392, 397–8
Singapore449–50
Thailand382–3
air pollution171, 191–3
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution180, 191–2, 402
China311
Indonesia402
North-East Asia Clean Air Partnership192–3
North-East Asian Sub-regional Programme for Environmental Cooperation185–6, 192
Pakistan601
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme187
Singapore456–7
South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme
transboundary pollution agreements176, 177–8, 191
ambivalence regarding international law1617, 25, 34–6, 69
China
unequal treaties20–2, 24
colonialism17–20, 24, 33
international treaties28
(p. 822) Japan
post-WWII treatment22–4
positive cooperation24–5
reasons
colonialism17–20, 24, 33
current regime is sufficient34
diversity and lack of cohesion33–4
level of authoritarianism31–3
power disparities34
respect for rule of law31–3
Arab Charter on Human Rights (1994)131
Arab Court of Human Rights131
archipelagic states197–8
baselines211, 214–15
Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea (1958)206
Indonesia214–15, 387, 390, 392–3, 404
Malaysia/Indonesia bilateral treaty216
Maldives216
Philippines214–15, 421
piracy229
sea lanes215
South Pacific Island states741, 744
territorial seas212, 214
Timor-Leste216
UNCLOS negotiations207
Area, the219–20
armed robbery against ships229–31
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA)148–9, 578
Asia and the Pacific defined8–9, 8t
inclusion of Australia and New Zealand10
Asia Cooperation Dialogue26
Asian Development Bank (ADB)9, 257–8
Australia and New Zealand10–11
Bangladesh613, 616
China306, 308
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)34–5, 252–3, 255–6, 258
Australia and New Zealand10–11
Bangladesh613
China308–9, 318–19
United States308–9
Asian values argument25, 35, 86, 124–5, 132, 133–4, 139
Australia776
Malaysia165
Singapore452, 453–4
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)9–10, 39, 64–5, 121–2, 174, 258–9
Australia and New Zealand10–11
criticisms65–6
Malaysia463
Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions130
Asia-Pacific regional organizations (APROs)38, 40f
evolution42–4
interaction with international law40–2
perception of38–9
politico-diplomatic roles67
purpose67
Asia Society Policy Institute119–20
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)39
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (2002)180, 191–2, 402
ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Agreement (2005)181
ASEAN Charter49
ASEAN Community50
ASEAN Free Trade Area (1992)260–1
Agreement on the Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme48
(p. 823) Singapore438
Thailand369, 383
ASEAN Inter-Governmental Human Rights Commission (AICHR)128–9
Indonesia402
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)26, 96, 114
ASEAN 2025 Forging Ahead Together51
Australia and New Zealand10–11
Bangladesh616–17
biodiversity181
budget27
Cambodia507–8
climate change181, 190
commitment to regional integration55–6
decision-making50
dispute settlement49, 50, 286–7
economic development259
enforcement49–50
enlargement114
environmental cooperation
enforcement182
regional treaties180–2
establishment44, 128, 179–80
evolution26–7
external relations48–9
free trade agreements
ASEAN +3261–3
ASEAN Free Trade Area260–1
ASEAN-China FTA260–1
human rights49, 128–9
Indonesia387, 395, 402–5
Timor-Leste’s membership403–4
institutionalization49–50
international criminal law147
international humanitarian law147
Malaysia463
membership44, 48
migrant workers, protection of the rights of129
monitoring procedures49
peacekeeping function47, 104, 378
principles for peaceful coexistence24–5
regional crises48
regional stability47–8, 104
Secretary General50
security forum, as a47, 104
Singapore435, 437–8, 440–1, 456
Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon Free Zone Treaty (1995)180
sustainability181–2
Thailand368–9
free trade area383
peace and security378
Timor-Leste’s403–4
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation47
Vietnam487, 495
women and children, protection of the rights of129
attitudes towards international law25–31
ambivalence1617, 25, 34–6, 69
China20–2, 24
colonialism17–20, 24, 33
current regime is sufficient34
diversity and lack of cohesion33–4
international treaties28
Japan22–4
level of authoritarianism31–3
positive cooperation24–5
power disparities34
reasons17–20, 31–4
respect for rule of law31–3
China305
“unequal treaties”, impact of20–2, 24
impact of colonialism on19–20
Tokyo Trial, impact of23–4
Australia794–5
Australian-controlled territories770–1
chemical weapons779
China-Australia Free Trade Agreement280
colonization768–9
engagement in international institutions10–11, 772
environmental protection
fisheries management781–2
foreign aid10
human rights
domestic implementation774–5
international engagement775–6
treaty participation773–4
immigration10
incorporating treaty law787–8
external affairs power788–9
federalism789–90
(p. 824) methods of implementation790–1
Indigenous Australia767–8
International Court of Justice770, 773, 785–6
international criminal law777
international dispute settlement785
International Court of Justice785–6
international environmental law
Antarctica783
climate change782
Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment782
protection of the ozone layer782
international humanitarian law776–7
interpretation
common law793
constitutional interpretation792–3
customary international law794
legitimate expectations793–4
statutes implementing treaties791–2
statutory consistency792
legal system766–7
nuclear disarmament778–9
participation771–2
population10
security and defence11, 779–80
trade10, 783–4
free trade agreements785
treaty-making787
UN Charter770
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)780–2
use of force779–80
B
Bandung Conference (1955)24–5, 82–3, 90–1, 104, 144
anti-colonialism solidarity83–4
economic cooperation83
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence24–5, 29, 83, 291, 317–18
India572
Indonesia386–7, 389, 393–4, 404
Myanmar529
peaceful coexistence83
Sri Lanka656
Bangkok Declaration (1967)26, 133–4, 137
Bangladesh
Bangladesh—India case621
baselines622
continental shelf622
exclusive economic zones622
jurisdiction621
land boundary terminus621
territorial sea622
Bangladesh—Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 619–21
continental shelf620
disproportionality test621
exclusive economic zones620
territorial sea620
baselines211, 622
biodiversity611
Constitution605–6
crimes against humanity150
customary international law614–15
domestic implementation of treaties
consistent interpretation principle610
implementing legislation613–14
incorporation principle609–10
double taxation612
environmental law611
foreign policy616
foreign relations616–17
genocide150
human rights611–12
India-Pakistan war112–13
international dispute settlement618–19
Bangladesh/India621–2
Bangladesh/Myanmar619–21
investment arbitration612, 623
Chevron case625–6
Niko cases626–8
Saipem case624–5
Scimitar case623–4
labour rights611
origins112
participation in international organizations610–12, 616–17
declarations613
(p. 825) lack of612
reservations613
peacekeeping missions617–18
refugees612
trade611–12
treaty-making
Constitutional provisions606
judicial decisions608–9
practice607–8
Rules of Business607
UN involvement112–13
war crimes150
Bangladesh–Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 619–21
continental shelf620
disproportionality test621
exclusive economic zones620
territorial sea620
Baghdad Pact (1955)103–4, 105
baselines206, 210
archipelagic baselines211, 214–16
Bangladesh211, 622
Philippines420–1
straight baselines210–11
Thailand380
UNCLOS exceptions210–11
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)26, 27
Bangladesh612, 617
Belt and Road initiative59, 87, 121, 174, 185, 238, 256, 299–300, 654
bilateral investment treaties (BITs)27–8, 269, 277–80
Australia786
Bangladesh612, 613, 625
Cambodia502, 519–20, 521
Nepal652–4
Pakistan598
Singapore502
Sri Lanka663–6, 669
Vietnam489–91, 490t, 493
biodiversity193–7
ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Agreement181
balancing human rights and biodiversity concerns201–2, 236
Bangladesh611
Central Asian sub-region179
mega-diverse states193
Northeast Asian sub-region186–7
Pakistan591
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme187, 234
South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme177
South Asian sub-region177
South Pacific Island states733, 744–5
Southeast Asian sub-region181
biological weapons, see chemical and biological weapons
Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission (BEEC)54
Bretton Woods conference19–20, 241, 242, 255–6, 265, 613, 814
BRICS Development Bank, see New Development Bank
Burma, see Myanmar
C
Cambodia497–8, 523–4
Association of South East Asian Nations507–8
extradition framework508–9
extraordinary chambers in the courts of Cambodia
judicial divergences512–14
jurisdiction509, 511–12
“most responsible” defined512
practice510–11
role509
“senior leader” defined512
structure510
historical background498–501
human rights500, 505–7
investor-state disputes518–21
legal norms505f
Paris Peace Agreements499–500
(p. 826) South China Sea dispute521–3
Special Rapporteur to Cambodia507
Thailand/Cambodia territorial disputes369–71, 378–9, 514–18
treaties
conflict of law504–9
human rights treaties505–7
ratification/accession of treaties502–4
treaty-making501–2
UN Charter507
UN Human Rights Committee506–7
UN membership498
UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)499–500
Vietnamese invasion of440–1
Central Asian states701–2
Commonwealth of Independent States52, 288, 706
CIS Economic Court707–10
regional economic integration711–13
dispute settlement288
domestic incorporation of international law713–16
direct applicability of treaties717
hierarchical status of treaties717–18
environmental challenges178
water scarcity178
foreign policy704
human rights treaties726–8
independence702–3
National Preventive Mechanisms727
participation705, 729–30
Regional Environment Programme for Central Asia178–9
Soviet occupancy702
state-succession issues703–4
Subregional Sustainable Development Strategy for Central Asia179
treaty practice718–19
compliance723–6
human rights treaties726–8
nuclear weapons721–3
treaty-making719–21
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)718
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) (1959)103–4, 113–14
Ceylon, see Sri Lanka
chemical and biological weapons119
Australia779
Biological Weapons Convention (1972)590
Chemical Weapons Convention (1993)589–90
China306
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons589–90
Pakistan577, 589–90
export controls587–8
Thailand377
child welfare
Afghanistan696–7
Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions130
Association of South East Asian Nations129
Australia773, 793–4
Bangladesh611
Cambodia500, 503, 507–8
Indonesia396
Malaysia473–6
Myanmar535–6, 544
New Zealand817
Pakistan579, 590–1
Philippines428–9
Singapore447, 451
(p. 827) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation60, 130
South Pacific Island states736, 751–2, 753, 763
Sri Lanka663
China
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank308–9, 318–19
attitudes towards international law305
Belt and Road initiative59, 87, 121, 174, 185, 238, 256, 299–300, 654
China-Australia Free Trade Agreement280
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor597
Chinese Red Cross155
“Chinese world order”21
colonial era18, 99–100
crimes against humanity160
decolonization81–2
early pacifism97
economic reform239–40, 300–3, 307–8
accession to global economic institutions246
China-led economic institutions252–3
emergence as a global power69
engagement with international law78–9
early texts97–8
Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence24–5, 29, 83, 291, 317–18
foreign imperialism, impact of304–5
foreign policy300, 302–3, 305
global leadership310–11
self-perception311–12
Great Power status301
threat, China as a301–3
human rights315
UN human rights forums315–16
tensions with the West215
humanitarianism154–5
India, relationship with107–8
Sino-Indian war109–10
Tibet108–9
international dispute settlement
South China Sea disputes30, 35–6, 117–19, 313–14, 443
international institutions, participation in306–7, 312, 316–17
Japan and99, 100–1
opium wars21, 99–100
People’s Republic of China21, 246
selective adaptation316–17
South China Sea disputes30, 35–6, 117–19, 313–14, 443
Taiwan21–2
theories of war97–8
trade20–1, 299
Treaty of Nanking21
Treaty of Tientsin21
“unequal treaties”20–1, 24
war crimes157–8
World Trade Organization246–8
case law248–50
World War II100
cooperation with India100–1
China-Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA)280
“civilising missions”18–19, 68–9, 238–40
Europeanization322–3, 328
New Zealand797–8, 809
standards of civilization73, 77–81
climate change
Association of South East Asian Nations181–2, 190
Australia782
Bangladesh611
Central Asian states721
challenges189–90
China300, 303
UN Climate Change Conference (2008)306
coral reefs234
human rights, balancing189
India574
Indonesia396–7
land degradation195
Paris Agreement170–1
rising sea-levels189–90
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme175–6, 177–8, 187, 190
Singapore438
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation177
South Pacific Island states733, 735–6, 741–2
Sri Lanka667
Thailand384–5
colonialism68–9
“civilising missions”18–19, 68–9, 238–40
standards of civilization73, 77–81
economics and237–8
equality72–3
European colonialization72
capitulations76–7
corporations, role of74–6
Dutch East India Company74
equal relations72
expansion73–4
sovereignty76–7
trade72
treaties74–6
Europeanisation322–3, 328
India99–100
early colonialization553–6
first war of independence556
inter-war years557–9
non-interference policy556–7
Islamic law73
historic origins70–1
international law17–18
impact of colonialism on attitudes towards19–20
legitimising colonialism24
New Zealand797–8, 809
Tokyo Trial22–3, 24
commercial whaling199, 228–9, 783, 786, 807, 813
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS)
Asian participation209, 219
Pakistan592–3
common heritage of mankind206–7, 648, 657
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)52, 288, 706
CIS Economic Court707–10
regional economic integration711–13
Confucianism35, 69, 97, 293, 311, 316, 342, 344
contiguous zones217
Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (1958)211–12
continental shelf
Australia781, 789–90
Bangladesh619
Bangladesh/India case621, 622
Bangladesh/Myanmar case620–1
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf209, 219, 592–3
Convention on the Continental Shelf (1958)218–19
maritime boundaries221–3
maritime claims220–1
New Zealand804–5
Pakistan592–3
Philippines420
pre-UNCLOS218–19
Sea of Japan358–9
Sri Lanka658, 668
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) (1985)
Afghanistan679, 693
Bangladesh611
Central Asian states727, 728
Indonesia396
Nepal638
Pakistan590–1
Philippines429
Singapore447
Sri Lanka670
Thailand375–6
Vietnam480–1, 493–4
(p. 829) Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region 1986 (Noumea Convention)187, 190
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)177, 180, 196, 372, 591, 611
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (1973)197, 396–7, 447–8
Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) (1983)196
Convention on the Continental Shelf (1958)218–19
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (1979)
Afghanistan680
Bangladesh611, 613
Central Asian states728
Indonesia396, 404
Malaysia473–4
Nepal637
Pakistan590
Philippines429
Singapore450–1, 453, 454–5
South Pacific Island states736, 750–1, 754, 763
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (1965)
Afghanistan679
Cambodia503
Indonesia395
Japan332–3
Pakistan590
Convention on the Law of the Sea, see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) (1948)158
Australia777, 794
Bangladesh612, 613
Philippines428
Singapore453–4
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (Ottawa Treaty) (1997)377
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BWC) (1972)377
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) (1992)377
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1989)396
Afghanistan697
Australia793
Bangladesh611, 613, 614
Indonesia396
Malaysia473
Myanmar535
New Zealand817
Pakistan590
Philippines428–9
Singapore447, 450–1, 453, 454
South Pacific Island states736, 751–2, 753, 758, 763
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2006)28, 126–7, 130
Afghanistan680
Central Asian states728
India569–70
Indonesia396
Singapore450–1, 454
Thailand376
Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (1958)211–12
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) (1971)196
Pakistan591
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Refugee Convention) (1951)
Afghanistan680
Australia790
Indonesia390–1
Thailand367–8
(p. 830) Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission (CEEC)54
Court of the Eurasian Economic Union54–5
crimes against humanity159–60
Afghanistan679, 689–90, 692, 699
Cambodia509–11, 523
concerns regarding definition163–4
International Criminal Court163–4, 167–8, 692–3, 699
Japan330, 338
Myanmar527
Non-Aligned Movement145
Pakistan602
Philippines428
Singapore439
state responsibility150–1 see also international criminal law
criminal law, see international criminal law
customary international law
Australia767, 794
Bangladesh606, 614–16, 628
Cambodia509, 520–1
historic waters210
India560–1, 570–2
Malaysia469–72, 476
Nepal
transit rights646, 647, 649
New Zealand808–9, 818–19
Pakistan583, 595, 602
Philippines406, 411–12, 423, 428
Singapore444–7
South Korea345–6, 349, 357
South Pacific Island states749, 754–5, 764–5
Sri Lanka665, 667
Thailand374–5
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea compared206, 210
Vietnam493
D
Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Declaration) (1972)782
Declaration on the Promotion of World Peace and Co-operation24
decolonization7, 19, 69, 81, 105, 308
Australia770–1
Bandung Conference82–3
anti-colonialism solidarity83–4
economic cooperation83
peaceful coexistence83
China81–2
divisions and diversity within Asia82–3
Dumbarton Oaks Conference81
economic development85–7
India82
impact on law of decolonization572, 575
New International Economic Order84–5
New Zealand801
Non-Aligned Movement83
Philippines81
San Francisco Conference81
South Pacific Islands states747
Sri Lanka656
support for international law84–5
Third World Movement82–4
Vietnam war110–12
waning support for international law85–6
dharma71
disenfranchisement19–20
dispute resolution see international dispute settlement
double taxation
Bangladesh611, 612, 613
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation60
South Korea348
drug trafficking
Afghanistan679, 680–1, 695
(p. 831) Singapore446–7
Thailand377
Dumbarton Oaks Conference (1943)81
E
East Asia Summit (EAS)95, 121–2
Australia and New Zealand10–11
free trade agreements262–3
East Asian Free Trade Area261–2
East Timor, see Timor-Leste
economic development69, 122–3
Asian pre-occupation with88–90
Central Asian states52–3, 701–2
China239–40, 300–3, 307–8
accession to global economic institutions246
China-led economic institutions252–3
emergence as a global power69
Chinese leadership87–8, 252–3
decolonization85–7
East Asia Summit for economic development95, 121–2
Australia and New Zealand10–11
free trade agreements262–3
human rights and136–9
impact on international economic order253–6
Melanesian Spearhead Group63–4
Nepal643–4, 652–3, 655
Pacific Islands Forum61–2
Pakistan598
regional economic institutions256–7
Asian Development Bank257–8
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation258–9
Association of Southeast Asian Nations259
South Korea357
Sri Lanka661
Vietnam494–5
economic law, see international economic law
enforcement
Association of South East Asian Nations49–50
Bangladesh612, 613, 625
India571
intellectual property rights
Indonesia397–8
international economic law240
international environmental law173, 201–2, 226, 571
international human rights
Sri Lanka669–70
South Pacific Island states748
international law of the sea781
investment arbitration awards612, 613, 625, 710
Vietnam492–4, 496
engagement with international law
China78–9
early texts97–8
India80
Arthashastra97
early texts96–7
just war96–7
Mahabharata96–7
proper and improper use of force97
Ramayana97
statecraft97
Indonesia389
Indonesia’s use of international law390–1
third country use to pressurize Indonesia391
international human rights124–5, 140–1
Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions130
Association of South East Asian Nations128–9
cross-regional bodies131
global institutions, with125–7
regional institutions, with127–31
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation130
Japan78–80, 321–3
academia338–40
international economic law239
(p. 832) Philippines430–2
direct effect doctrine409–10
dualism409–21
Supreme Court under US406–9
regional engagement
fragmentation of25–7
South Korea350–1
Thailand79, 363–4, 385
Association of South East Asian Nations368–9
humanitarianism367–8
laws of war366–7
territorial dispute settlement369–71
environmental impact assessments174, 184, 667
environmental law, see international environmental law
environmental rights200–2
EurAsEC 2000, see Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC)54, 712
Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC)
Central Asia288, 705
customs union53
dispute settlement powers53
dissolution53
incorporation as legal body53
transition to EAEU53, 55
Treaty on the Establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community52–3 see also Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)39
Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission54
Central Asia288, 705, 712–13, 729
commitment to regional integration55–6
competences54
Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission54
Court of the EAEU54–5
customs union53, 55
decision making54
establishment51, 52–3
Eurasian Economic Commission54
Eurasian Intergovernmental Council54
free movement53–4
institutionalization51–4
membership51
regulatory governance54
supranationalism54
Supreme Eurasian Economic Council54
Eurasian Intergovernmental Council (EIC)54
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)103
exclusive economic zones (EEZ)117
Bangladesh618
Bangladesh/Myanmar case620
Bangladesh/India case622
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf209
freedom of navigation operations121
historic rights, conflict with218
illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing226–7
laying of cables218
maritime boundaries221–3
maritime claims220–1
military activities and exercises217–18
New Zealand805
Pakistan592–3
Pakistan592–3
Sea of Japan dispute358–9
South Pacific Island states742–4, 754
Sri Lanka658, 668
Thailand374, 380
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)217–18, 658
Yellow Sea dispute358
F
fishing and fisheries management
Australia781–82
Bangladesh609
commercial whaling199, 228–9, 783, 786, 807, 813
disputes188, 225, 331, 443, 593
illegal and unregulated fishing198, 226–7, 393, 471
Indonesia393
Malaysia471
Malaysia/Singapore dispute443
(p. 833) maritime boundaries221–2
New Zealand804–6
Pacific Island states/US dispute188
Pakistan/India dispute593
regional cooperation227–8, 233
regulation227–8
South Korea357, 358
South Pacific Island states740, 742–5, 754
Thailand375
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (1954)24–5, 29, 83, 291, 317–18
forced labour
Bangladesh611
Japan’s annexation of Korea352, 354–5
Myanmar/Burma525–7, 532, 535, 547–8
democratic transition543–4
Doe v Unocal542–3
ethnic minorities533–4
ILO Commission of Inquiry536–9
ILO monitoring539–42
Protocol to ILO Convention No 29 545–7
Singapore451
South Pacific Island states747
foreign aid
Afghanistan676, 678, 694–5
Australia10, 775
China307, 310
South Pacific Island states759
forest conservation171, 177, 180, 191–2, 194–5
Forum of Small States (FOSS)438–9
France
Indo-China110–11
nuclear testing188, 778, 786
Rainbow Warrior case808
Vietnam110–11, 484–5
free trade agreements174, 259–60, 265–6
ASEAN +3261–3
ASEAN Free Trade Area260–1
ASEAN-China FTA260–1
Australia10, 785
China-Australia Free Trade Agreement280
East Asia Summit (EAS)262–3
East Asian Free Trade Area261–2
MSG Trade Agreement63–4
Pacific Islands Forum62
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership263–4
regionalism models261–2
Trans-Pacific Partnership263
G
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Australia10, 783–4
Bangladesh611–12
China246, 249
India239, 243–5, 553, 558, 575
Japan241–2
Nepal651
New Zealand807–8, 810, 817
Singapore437, 440, 444
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)239
Bangladesh611–12
China249
Geneva Conference on Indo-China (1954)111
Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977
violations
prisoner of war status157–8
war crimes157–8
Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea (1958)206, 781
genocide
Australia777, 794
Bangladesh150, 613
Myanmar158
Philippines158, 428
Singapore453–4 see also international criminal law
Grotius, Hugo74–6, 90, 555
Gulf Cooperation Council26, 785
H
Hague Conferences
Asian participation19–20, 79, 154–5
(p. 834) heritage sites196, 374, 378–9, 515–16, 758, 782, 790
historic waters210, 488
Hong Kong21, 65
human rights124–5, 140–1
Asian international engagement
Asia-Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions130
Association of South East Asian Nations128–9
cross-regional bodies131
global institutions, with125–7
regional institutions, with127–31
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation130
Association of South East Asian Nations49, 128–9
Australia
domestic implementation774–5
international engagement775–6
treaty participation773–4
Cambodia500
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights506
Special Rapporteur to Cambodia507
treaties505–7
UN Human Rights Committee506–7
China315
tensions with the West215
UN human rights forums315–16
domestic approaches131–2
conciliation v confrontation135–6
cultural values133–4, 139
diversity of approach132–3
economic development and human rights136–9
National Human Rights Institutions132
sovereignty134–5
environmental concerns, impact of200–2
environmental rights202
fragmentation of approach to131–2
India
gender equality567–9
rights of persons with disabilities569–70
rights of transgender people569
Japan332–3
Malaysia
Abd Malek bin Hussin v Borhan bin Hj Daud & Ors475–6
Bangalore Principles475–6
creeping monism474–5
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women474
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights473
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights473
Mabo v Queensland [No 2]475
Universal Declaration on Human Rights473–4
Pakistan590–1
Philippines411–12, 423–4, 425, 428–9
Singapore
Asian values452, 453–4
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women450–1, 453, 454
Rights of the Child450–1, 453, 454
Universal Declaration on Human Rights452–3
welfare approach454–6
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation130
Thailand380–1
UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment200–1
Vietnam492
Human Rights Council, see United Nations Human Rights Council
human trafficking34, 48, 144
Afghanistan696
Australia773
Japan337
maritime security231
Myanmar534, 544, 545
New Zealand809
prevention of
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation130
Thailand364, 383
Vietnam487
humanitarianism in Asia
cultural acceptance155–6
(p. 835) Chinese humanitarian history154–5
cultural/religious humanitarianism153–4
nuclear impact past and present154
samurai warrior code155
war, impact of154 see also international humanitarian law
I
illegal immigration
maritime security231
India
Bretton Woods conference242
China, relationship with101–2, 107–8
Sino-Indian war109–10
Tibet108–9
colonialization99–100
early colonialization553–6
first war of independence556
inter-war years557–9
non-interference policy556–7
customary international law570–2
decolonization82
impact on law of decolonization572
dharma71
economic development239
economic sovereignty575
emergence as a global power69
engagement with international law80, 551–3
Arthashastra97
early texts96–7
just war96–7
Mahabharata96–7
proper and improper use of force97
Ramayana97
statecraft97
Supreme Court of India565–72
freedom of navigation operations121
GATT membership239, 243–4, 558, 575
human rights law
gender equality567–9
rights of persons with disabilities569–70
rights of transgender people569
impact on international economic law243–6
independence559
Constitution559–61
directive principles560–1
executive563
government561–2
promotion of peace and security560
treaty-making and implementation563–5
India-Pakistan war112–13
international dispute settlement573–4
international economic law239, 242–6
International Monetary Fund245, 575
Kashmir crisis104–5
origins105–6
Simla Agreements105
United Nations’ failure105
League of Nations558–9, 575
security and defence560
China-India107–10
Supreme Court of India565–6
cession of territory567
customary international law570–2
international conventions566
international human rights law567–70
Third World Approach to International law552–3
treaty-making and implementation563–5
UN Charter102–3, 558, 572
UN Security Council558
use of force572–3
World War II100
cooperation with China100–1
Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)95–6, 114
(p. 836) Indonesia
Association of South East Asian Nations387, 395, 405
advantages for Indonesia403
education404
human rights402–3
Timor-Leste’s membership403–4
trade relations403
Bandung Conference393–4
climate change396
conflict of laws394–5, 398–400
judicial interpretation400–2, 404–5
Constitution386–7
crimes against humanity160
East Timor conflict389, 391–2
engagement with international law389
Indonesia’s use of international law390–1
third country use to pressurize Indonesia391
environmental law396–7
establishment as a state386
human rights395–6, 404
intellectual property rights392, 397–8
internal conflicts389
legal system
civil law influence388–9
engagement with international law389
origins388
Malaysia/Indonesia bilateral treaty216
ratification of international instruments395–8
refugees390–1
trade392, 397
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea387, 390
archipelagic states, recognition of392–3
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)115
Australia778
Central Asian states722–3
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (1980)589
North Korea115–16
Pakistan578, 586–7, 589
passage of ships213
Vietnam486–7
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)17, 28, 32
Asian participation269, 277, 278f
Bangladesh612
Chevron case625–6
Niko cases626–8
Saipem case624–5
Scimitar case623–4
Cambodia520–1, 523
Pakistan598
Sri Lanka663–4, 669
AAPL v Government of Sri Lanka664–5
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Singapore437
International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament (ICNND)778–9
International Court of Justice (ICJ)17, 270, 797
Asian participation29–30, 268
compulsory jurisdiction270–2
contentious cases272–3
increasing participation274
sub-regional diversity273–4
Australia223, 770, 773
Central Asian states268, 707
“civilized nations”322
commercial whaling199
environmental impact assessments184
India573–4
International Labour Organization526, 538, 541, 547
interpretation of international law494
Malaysia442–3, 464
maritime disputes223, 226, 619, 651
Myanmar526, 538, 541, 547
New Zealand806–7
nuclear weapons335
Pakistan578, 601–2
res judicata517
Singapore442–3, 444
South Pacific Island states749
territorial disputes
Singapore/Malaysia442–3
Thailand/Cambodia369–71, 378–9, 514–18
Vietnam494
(p. 837) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)17
Afghanistan695
Asian participation28, 32–3, 125–6, 135
Australia774, 790–1
Bangladesh611, 612, 613
Cambodia506
Central Asian states724, 726, 728
India569–70
Indonesia395, 397, 401, 404
Nepal637, 638, 670, 674
Pakistan581–2, 590
Philippines422–3, 425, 429
direct effect426–7
South Pacific Island states736, 754
Thailand375
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)17
Asian participation28, 32–3, 125–6, 135
Australia774–5, 790–1
Indonesia395, 397, 401
Nepal637
International Criminal Court (ICC)17, 142
Afghanistan167, 692–4
Africa’s experience164
Asian participation86, 161–2, 280–1
Australia777
Bangladesh612
crimes against humanity159–60, 167
definition of crimes against humanity
concerns regarding definition163–4
Myanmar168
New Zealand802
Non-Aligned Movement145
North Korea166–7
Philippines423
comfort women168–9, 418–20
rendition168
Rome Statute162
ratification/accession165–6
South Pacific Island states738
Sri Lanka672–3
Thailand381
international criminal law166–9
accountability processes149–50
aggression160–1
Association of South East Asian Nations147
Australia777
individual responsibility149–50, 156–7
Non-Aligned Movement145–6
responsibility to protect doctrine25, 151–3
sovereignty143
war crimes157–8 see also responsibility
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)150
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)150–1
international dispute settlement267–8, 293–4
Association of South East Asian Nations49, 50, 286–7
Asian participation29–30, 268–9
hesitation269–70
Central Asian states288
China
South China Sea disputes30, 35–6, 117–19, 313–14, 443
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea313
World Trade Organization314
Eurasian Economic Community53
India573–4
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, see International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
International Court of Justice, see International Court of Justice
International Criminal Court, see International Criminal Court
investor-state dispute settlement277–80
maritime disputes30
Bangladesh–Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 619–21
Bangladesh India case621–2
contentious cases283–5
International Court of Justice223, 226, 282–5
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea30, 208–9, 223–6, 282–5
maritime boundaries30, 221–3, 619–22
off-shore features220–1
sovereignty disputes222–3
proposals for pan-Asian tribunal288–9
constitutive considerations292–3
organizational considerations289–90
substantive considerations290–2
Singapore440, 442–3
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation287–8
South China Sea disputes30, 35–6, 117–19, 313–14, 443
WTO Dispute Settlement Body, see WTO Dispute Settlement Body
international economic law
Asian impact253–6
China239–40
China-led economic institutions252–3
European domination238–9
International Monetary Fund governance
reform250–1
India239, 242–6
Japan239
national models of participation240–1
Japan241–2
India242–6
China246–50
origins in Asia238
international environmental law202–4
air pollution, see air pollution
Australia
fisheries management781–2
Bangladesh611
challenges
biodiversity conservation193–7
climate change189–90, 384–5
human rights and environmental concerns, balancing200–2
marine and coastal environment197–200
regional air pollution191–3
education, importance of203–4
global conventions
Asian participation173–4
increasing cooperation174–5
marine pollution, see marine pollution
origins171
Stockholm Declaration (1972)171–2
Pakistan
biodiversity591
climate change591–2
MDGs592
Paris Agreement591–2
Ramsar Convention (1971)591
SDGs592
Philippines424, 425–6
regional regimes172–3
South Asian sub-region175–8
South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme175–8
Central Asian sub-region178–9
Southeast Asian sub-region179–82
Mekong River Basin sub-region182–5
Northeast Asian sub-region185–6
Pacific Island sub-region186–9
international humanitarian law166–9
accountability processes149–50
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts148–9
Association of South East Asian Nations147
Non-Aligned Movement146
responsibility to protect doctrine25, 151–3
support for international humanitarian law, reasons for155–6
Chinese humanitarian history154–5
cultural acceptance153–6
cultural/religious humanitarianism153–4
nuclear impact past and present154
samurai warrior code155
war, impact of154
Thailand381–2 see also responsibility
International Labour Organization (ILO)80
Bangladesh611
forced labour
Myanmar/Burma525–7, 532–5, 543–4, 547–8
Doe v Unocal542–3
ILO Commission of Inquiry536–9
(p. 839) ILO monitoring539–42
Protocol to ILO Convention No 29 545–7
International Law Commission (ILC)
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts148–9, 537
law of the sea206
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
archipelagic waters215
Asian participation209
illegal immigration and human trafficking231
mandatory ship reporting235
New Zealand805
passage of ships213
pollution235, 742
port security231–2
Singapore437
South Sea Island states742
International Military Tribunal for the Far East, see Tokyo Trial
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
bail-outs86
Bangladesh616
establishment19–20
governance reform250–1
India575
Japan’s exclusion from241
Nepal653
Singapore437
Vietnam487
International Seabed Authority (ISA)
Asian participation209
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)282–5
Asian participation30, 208–9
Australia782
Bangladesh–Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 223, 619–21
compulsory and binding procedures223–4
India573
maritime disputes30
proceedings223–6
Singapore443–4
investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS)269, 277–8
Asian reluctance279–80
Australia786
Cambodia518
bilateral investment treaties519–20
domestic investment law518–19
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes520–1
sub-regional diversity278–9
Vietnam491–2
J
Japan
annexation of Korea351–2
comfort women337, 353–4
Dokdo islets353
forced labour354–5
China99, 100–1
“civilization” of Japan321–4
colonial era18
commercial whaling119, 228–9
conformism325–6, 331–2
conservatism326–7
criminal state, as328–30
diplomatic behaviour320–1
engagement with international law78–80, 321–3
academia338–40
exclusion from Bretton Woods institutions241
positive impact of241
foreign policy325–6
Great Power status323, 327–30
Gulf war333–4
human rights332–3
incorporation of international law22, 81
international economic law
engagement with239
GATT membership241–2
Japan-US Status of Forces Agreement (1960)332
Japanese Red Cross155
Korean war333
comfort women337, 353–4
League of Nations325–30
(p. 840) Manchuria, invasion of328
modernization322
collapse328–9
Europeanisation322–3
World War I324–5
Myanmar/Burma, invasion of528
nuclear deterrence, attitudes to335–6
post-WWII22–4, 122
rehabilitation330–1
Stimson Doctrine329
support for US333–4
Tokyo Trial22, 24, 150–1, 330
attitudes to international law, impact on23–4
colonialism22–3
political context23
race23
rehabilitation330–1
trade242
Vietnam war333
World War I324–5
K
K’ung-fu-tzu, see Confucianism
Kashmir crisis104–5, 585–6
origins105–6
self-determination principle595–6
Simla Agreements105, 585
United Nations’ failure105
Kazakhstan, see Central Asian states
Korea
annexation by Japan, legacy of351–2
comfort women337, 353–4
Dokdo islets353
forced labour354–5
China, relationship with
Joseon dynasty342–4
division106
legal issues arising from355–60
maritime delimitation358–9
Military Demarcation Line356
Northern Limit Line356–7
piracy359–60
South Korea and law of the sea357–8
UN failure107
UN Temporary Commission on Korea106
war crimes157–8 see also North Korea; South Korea
Krygyzstan, see Central Asian states
L
land degradation177, 195–6
land pollution195 see also land degradation; soil erosion
law of the sea25
League of Nations
Asian participation80
Australia769, 773
Covenant19–20
India80, 100, 551, 557–9, 575
Japan22, 323–4, 329–30
mandates system19
New Zealand797, 803, 811, 813
Thailand364
trusteeship19
Vietnam483
legal pluralism36, 142–3, 242, 555–6, 637–9, 677, 682, 697, 700, 760
M
Malaysia476
engagement with international law458–9
compliance463–7
immunity from legal process463–5
establishment459–61
European Convention on Human Rights obligations462
human rights473–4
Abd Malek bin Hussin v Borhan bin Hj Daud & Ors475–6
Bangalore Principles475–6
creeping monism474–5
Mabo v Queensland [No 2]475
incorporation of international law467
conflict of law472–3
customary international law469–72
treaties467–8
independence462
Malaysia/Indonesia bilateral treaty216
legal system458
(p. 841) Non-Aligned Movement463
Singapore, maritime dispute with443–4, 465–7
mandate system19, 80
Mao Zedong98, 107
Maoism
Nepal630–1, 633–4, 653
marine conservation197–8
commercial whaling199, 228–9
environmental damage and marine pollution199
plastics199–200
illegal and unregulated fishing198
marine pollution
Australia781–2
exclusive economic zones218
New Zealand804, 805
plastics199–200
ship-source pollution214, 235, 742
Singapore442
South Pacific Island states734, 742, 765
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea805
regional cooperation233–4
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme187, 233–4
South China Sea234–5
Straits of Malacca and Singapore235
marine pollution
Australia781–2
exclusive economic zones218
New Zealand804, 805
plastics199–200
ship-source pollution214, 235, 742
Singapore442
South Pacific Island states734, 742, 765
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea805
maritime boundaries
Bangladesh–Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 619–20
continental shelf620
disproportionality test621
exclusive economic zones620
territorial sea620
Bangladesh India case621
baselines622
continental shelf622
exclusive economic zones622
jurisdiction621
land boundary terminus621
territorial sea622
overlapping territorial sea claims221–2
pre-UNCLOS221
Sea of Japan358–9
sovereignty disputes222–3
Thailand379–80
Yellow Sea358
maritime disputes30
maritime boundaries221–3
Bangladesh-India case621–2
Bangladesh–Myanmar maritime delimitation case30, 619–21
off-shore features220–1
Sea of Japan358–9
Thailand379–80
maritime security
armed robbery against ships229–31
human trafficking231
illegal immigration231
piracy229–31, 359–60
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction231–2
regional cooperation232–3
Mekong River Basin
geography182
hydropower developments184
sustainable development goals182–3
transboundary cooperation183–4
water allocation and use183–4 see also Association of South East Asian Nations
Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG)39
membership63
MSG Trade Agreement63–4
origins63
Pacific Islands Forum compared63–4
role63–4
(p. 842) migrant workers
Australia774
Myanmar545
protection of the rights of90, 129, 381, 454
Singapore454
Thailand379, 381, 383
military rule139
Myanmar527, 531–2, 534
Thailand376–7
millennium development goals
Pakistan592
Thailand383–4
monitoring
Association of South East Asian Nations49
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs)170, 172–3
Myanmar
Buddhism527–8
Constitution of 2008531–2
crimes against humanity168
first Constitution
currency devaluation530
ethnic conflicts529–30
foreign policy528–9
forced labour525–7, 532–3, 547–8
democratic transition543–4
Doe v Unocal542–3
ethnic minorities533–4
ILO Commission of Inquiry536–9
ILO monitoring539–42
Protocol to ILO Convention No 29 545–7
genocide158
International Criminal Court168
Japanese invasion528
legal culture
Burma527–30
martial law530
Rohingya people168
territorial issues379
war crimes168
N
National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs)130, 132–3
Nehru, Jawaharlal82–3, 574–5
Non-Aligned Movement105
One World concept102
Nepal629, 655
bilateral investment treaties652–4
engagement with international law644–5, 651–2
foreign investment652–4
history629–32
incorporation of international law634–7
judicial activism637–8
legal pluralism639–41
legal system634–5
transit arrangements646
disputes651–2
Indian blockades646–7
Indo-Nepal Trade Treaty and Protocol650
right of access to the sea648–9
right of transit648–9
Treaty of Transit649–50
UN involvement632–3
UN Mission in Nepal633–4
water resources
cross-border agreements643–4
Gandak Project642
Indo-Nepalese relations641–4
Kosi Project641–2
Mahakali Agreement642–3
Sarada Barrage Project641
New Development Bank253
New International Economic Order29, 84–5, 137, 255, 265, 658–9
New Zealand11, 796, 819–20
continental shelf805
Cook Islands800–2
(p. 843) early colonization796–7
engagement in international institutions10–11, 802–6
fisheries management804–5
immigration10
incorporation of international law816–19
annexation of Pacific Islands809
extradition treaties810
human rights816
interwar years811–13
postal and telegraph services809
post-WWII813–15
trade and commerce810
Treaty of Waitangi808–9
International Court of Justice803
international dispute settlement
interstate arbitration807–8
marine disputes805–6
Nuclear Tests case807
peaceful settlement of disputes806–8
Rainbow Warrior affair808
marine disputes805–6
marine pollution805
Niue800–2
Permanent Court of International Justice804
pluralism808
Tokelau800–2
Western Samoa797–800
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)24, 83, 105, 144
International Criminal Court145
international criminal law145–6
international humanitarian law146
Malaysia463
nuclear disarmament aims146
principles145
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
Australia778
Central Asian states721
China (1968)306
North Korea115–16
Pakistan587
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)7, 102–3
Afghanistan688, 691
Asian participation121–2
International Security Assistance Force115
North-East Asia Clean Air Partnership (NEACAP)192–3
North-East Asian Sub-regional Programme for Environmental Cooperation (NEASPEC)
activities186
membership185
North-East Asia Clean Air Partnership192–3
sustainable development goals186
North Korea106–7
International Criminal Court166–7
nuclear testing116
nuclear weapons programme115–17, 306
South Korean border356–7
maritime disputes357, 358
Trump116–17
UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in North Korea166–7
US/North Korea Agreed Framework116
war crimes157
nuclear non-proliferation, see Non-Proliferation Treaty
nuclear powers
North Korea115–17
Pakistan
export controls587–8
non-proliferation treaties587
safeguard agreements586–7
UN Resolution 1540 (2004)588–9
Nuremburg Tribunal
Tokyo Trial compared22–3, 102–3
O
Oceania defined10
One World concept102
opium wars (1839–42; 1856–60)21, 78, 99–100
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)7, 131
Bangladesh616, 617
(p. 844) Central Asian states705, 729
Malaysia463
Pakistan578
P
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)9, 39, 765
Australia and New Zealand10–11
climate change741
fisheries management198, 740
free trade62
human rights755
Melanesian Spearhead Group compared63–4
membership61
origins61, 739
regional security735–6, 740
structure62
weakness62–3
Pakistan
anti-corruption law599
Bangladesh112–13
chemical and biological weapons589–90
continental shelf592–3
counterterrorism
legislative framework579–83
US drone strikes583–4
US/Osama Bin Laden584–5
dispute settlement601–2
domestic legal framework
implementation of international law599–601
engagement in international law578, 586, 589, 592
environmental law591–2
exclusive economic zones592–3
human rights581–2, 590–1
independence576–7
India-Pakistan war112–13
International Court of Justice578
investment598
Kashmir crisis104–5, 585–6
origins105–6
self-determination principle595–7
Simla Agreements105, 585
United Nations’ failure105
land borders
Afghanistan594–5
Kashmir595–7
nuclear power, as a
export controls587–8
non-proliferation treaties587
safeguard agreements586–7
UN Resolution 1540 (2004)588–9
peacekeeping missions577–8
trade
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor597
Europe598
transboundary water courses593–4
peacekeeping missions
Afghanistan688
Association of South East Asian Nations47, 104, 378
Australia779–80
Bangladesh617–18, 628
Cambodia500
China307
Nepal633, 655
Pakistan577–8
Thailand377
perceptions of international law, see ambivalence regarding international law
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
Asian participation30, 267
Bangladesh/India dispute619
Pakistan
hydroelectric projects594
South China Sea117–18, 199, 313, 407, 443, 522–3
Philippines
applicability of international law428
colonization406
common law407
Constitution
conflict of law420–1
(p. 845) Incorporation Clause408
Treaty Clause408
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, relationship with420–1
direct effect doctrine (constitutionalization and)
Commission on Human Rights425
indivisibility of rights425–6
direct effect doctrine (Supreme Court rule-making)409–10
judicial notice as424
prerogative writs421–2
Writ of Amparo rule422–4
Writ of Kalikasan424
direct effect doctrine (state of exception)426–7
direct effect (statutory application)
Civil Code427
Revised Penal Code427–8
engagement with international law430–2
direct effect doctrine409–10
dualism409–21
Supreme Court under US406–9
environmental law424, 425–6
genocide158
human rights407, 411–13, 423–4, 425, 428–9
Incorporation Clause408, 410
Go Kim Cham v Valdez411–12
Kuroda v Jalandoni412
Yamashita v Styer412
independence81
International Criminal Court168–9, 418–19
comfort women cases419–20
international humanitarian law411–12
Japanese occupation407
human rights abuses168–9
Philippines/US relations406–9, 414–15
Bayan v Zamora415–16
Lim v Executive Secretary416
Nicholas v Romulo416–17
Saguisag v Ochoa417–18
‘political question’ doctrine419
soft law429–30
South China Sea disputes30, 35–6, 117–19, 313–14, 443
trade392
treaties and international agreements413–14
Treaty Clause408, 410–11
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea407–8
piracy34, 96, 229–31, 359–60
Q
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad)95–6, 120–2
Japan241
R
regional cohesion17
lack of28–9
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)87, 114
free trade agreements263–4
Regional Environment Programme for Central Asia (CAREC)178–9
regional identity6–7
Asia and the Pacific defined8–9, 8t
fragmented nature7–8, 25–7
electoral region7–8
geography7, 142–3, 268
political constructs7, 268
practical constructs7, 142–3
(p. 846) regional stability
Association of South East Asian Nations47–8 see also peacekeeping; security and defence
religious traditions12, 18, 57, 69, 71, 73, 89, 124–5
Asian values133–4, 140–1
religious humanitarianism153–4
Republic of Korea, see South Korea
responsibility
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts148–9
individual responsibility149–50
responsibility to protect doctrine25, 151–3
state responsibility wrongful acts148–9
responsibility to protect doctrine (R2P)25, 86, 151–3, 377–8, 780
rising sea-levels189–90 see also climate change