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date: 17 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the institutional organization of environmental regulatory systems. It considers traditional regulatory organization in the executive branch of government as well as the roles played by the legislature, the judiciary, and the fourth integrity branch of government in the regulatory system. The chapter first provides a brief overview of regulatory organization in the modern world before explaining how the legislature shapes the institutional regulatory architecture that governs environmental protection and conservation. It then looks at three internationally prevalent types of executive regulator that are entrusted with protecting and conserving the environment: single versus multiple agencies, integrated versus function agencies, and concentrated versus devolved systems. It also describes the regulatory roles of the judicial branch of government, the fourth (integrity) branch of government, ‘third parties as surrogate regulators’ (environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community associations, specialist ‘third party surrogate regulators’), and ‘the regulated as regulator’.

Keywords: comparative environmental law, governments, regulatory systems, environmental protection and conservation

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