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date: 18 January 2020

(p. 1157) Index

(p. 1157) Index

A
AAPL v Sri Lanka 1077, 1090
Abaclat award 405
Abi-Saab, G. 406, 605
Abrogation 19, 78
Adjudication
acceptance of 152, 439
basis of 181
compulsory 15
effective 810
emergence of 152
human rights 855, 857, 859
interpretation and 480
law-application purpose 790, 797, 807
need for 692
problem-solving purpose 807
resort to 790, 807
refusal of 152
rule of recognition, and 187
rules of 497, 587, 593, 594, 595
source of international law, as 269
See also Jurisdiction
Administrative law See Global administrative law
Adorno, T. 572
Advisory Committee of Jurists 21, 155, 156, 161, 166, 180, 181, 198
Aesthetics 385, 576
African Union 637
Akande, D. 924
Alexandrowicz, C. 238, 240n65
Alien Tort Statute 302, 308, 309, 315, 316, 317
Allot, P. 413, 465, 714
Alston, P. 434, 578n106, 758, 839, 895
Anarchy 640n1
Anghie, A. 753
Anti-metaphysics See Metaphysics
Anti-formalism 205n11, 223, 227, 235, 392
Anzilotti, D. 166, 525, 547n13
Aquinas, T.
human law 389
justice, theory of 259
law of nations (jus gentium) 18, 50, 57, 58, 62, 66
natural law 18, 50, 53, 54, 62, 70, 71, 500, 566, 567
other legal theorists in relation 51, 55, 56, 58, 67, 68, 69, 72, 500, 569, 573n77
phenomenological approach to law 247
Arbitration
clause 1070, 1079, 1085
commercial 1098, 1104, 1114
investment 38, 405, 465, 1080, 1086, 1087, 1098, 1099, 1114
Aristotle
Grotius, and 525n16
human society, theory of 260
justice, theory of 259, 565
mediation, on 532n43
other legal theorists in relation 69, 218, 247, 248n15, 525n16, 567, 670n32
phronesis (practical wisdom) 479
conception of nature 52, 54, 568
Armed conflicts 891, 893, 898, 903, 905, 910, 912, 915, 917, 997, 999
Armed groups
law-making by 35, 759, 763, 907, 925
Atapattu, S. 952
Auctoritas See Authority
Austin, J.
critiques of 498, 503, 505
international law, theory of 27, 133, 135, 152, 236n47, 393, 396, 452, 497, 610
law, theory of 55, 452, 459
law and morality 107, 153, 452, 497
natural law 107
(p. 1158)
Authority
auctoritas 28, 515, 519, 521, 524, 525, 530, 533, 1028
as a source of argument 68, 69
coercion and 519
ius gentium 64, 67, 77, 79
legitimate 2, 15, 31, 32, 438n82, 448, 685n10, 689, 691, 695, 703, 724, 756n36, 1032
potestas 519, 524, 525, 530n38, 533
‘standard view’ 703, 703, 706, 719
See also Legitimacy
Avena judgment 802, 877
B
Baker, S. 287
Balkin, J. 305, 306
Bañez, D. 78, 79
Barcelona Traction case 226
Beckett, J. 574n86, 613n43, 646
Belgium v Senegal 553, 880
Belli, P. 87, 90, 91, 96
Bello, A. 137, 138
Bentham, J. 204, 205n7, 229, 393, 396, 459, 497, 525
Bergbohm, C. 129, 139, 154, 160
Bering Fur Seals arbitration 953
Besson, S. 197, 436, 594n32, 614, 620n78, 705n10, 885, 940n4
Bianchi, A. 417
Bilateral investment treaties 464, 1071, 1072, 1099n17, 1101n26
Bloch, M. 307, 308
Bosphorus case 558
Bourdieu, P. 419, 484
Bourgeois, L. 181
Boyle, A. 948
Brandom, R. 407, 454, 455
Brierly, J. L. 27, 473, 502, 511, 713
Brownlie, I. 530n35, 652
Buchanan, A. 586, 692n27, 734n13
Bynkershoek, C. van 86, 87, 269
C
Çali, B. 704, 719
Calvo, C. 124, 125, 130
Cançado Trindade, A. A. 550n24, 576, 577, 753, 974
Cano, M. 68
Canon law 66, 69, 86, 89, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 287n19, 566
Capps, P. 713
Carty, A. 221n91, 240n67
Cassese, A. 915, 921
Celan, P. 470, 487
Certain German Interests in Polish Upper Silesia, judgment 1074
Channel Tunnel arbitration 557
Charlesworth, H. 647, 916
Chinkin, C. 751
Christiano, T. 706, 708, 709, 711, 735
Cicero 47, 52, 61, 108, 565, 567, 568, 569, 575
Clapham, A. 765
Classical law of nations
formative sources 19, 99, 100, 109
Climate change 649, 650, 653, 656, 945, 947, 956, 968, 973
Codification
Canon law 103
customary rules 339
environmental law 944
fundamental rights 776
international law 9, 20, 143, 147, 150, 152, 154, 159, 160, 220, 222, 287n19, 290, 525, 719, 866, 940
International Law Commission 532, 611
investment law 1111
law of treaties, of 473, 715
Roman law 102
Coercion
authority and 519
coercive nature of international law 22, 814
enforcement and 816
justification for 255
lawful 251, 256, 258, 641
personal 495
private choice, and 208
semantic coercion 250
treaty-making, in 253, 254, 649n41
unlawful 256
Coleman, J. 686
Colonialism 101, 148, 150, 198, 231, 236, 237, 281, 291, 568, 1017
Commercial arbitration 1098, 1104, 1114
Community
expectations 204, 208, 211, 212, 214
international See International community
interpretative 418, 426, 428, 434, 436, 437, 472, 487
normative practice 24, 325, 332n28, 333–9
Comparative law 4, 34, 38, 555, 1107, 1114
Compliance 563, 705, 816, 926, 930, 964, 1140n9
‘Concrete order thinking’ 206, 215, 218, 220, 222, 227, 228, 229
Connan, F. 49, 59
Consensualism 252, 274, 657, 711, 845
Consensus
consensus decision-making in WTO 1043
‘European consensus’ 861, 865, 887
‘thick stakeholder consensus’ 1040, 1044
Consent
basis for legal obligation 20, 112, 436n73, 713
dissent, and 124
implied 549n22, 1127, 1135
pacta sunt servanda 436n73, 505, 545, 558, 651, 993, 999, 1141
significance for positivism 255
State consent 232, 435, 463, 464, 498, 504, 739, 845, 942, 1039
Considerations of humanity 274
Constitutionalization 192, 529, 671, 1001, 1014
Consubstantial norms 824, 829, 830, 1148
Content independence 599n40, 707, 708
Contextualization 472, 483, 484, 861
Coordination 351, 412, 460, 673, 692, 696, 697, 711
Corporations
corporate codes of conduct 762, 766
corporate social responsibility 1111
liability of 310, 311
participation in international legal system 758
Craven, M. 254
Crawford, J. 185, 311, 606n8, 652
Critical legal scholarship 453
Croce, B. 303
Customary law
codification 339
constituent elements 91
in investment regulation 1086
as judge-made law 331
meta-customary law 188, 189
paradox 325, 330, 336, 716, 970
positivism and 323
primacy thesis 650
Roman law, and 291, 292n41
source of international law 91, 160
D
D’Aspremont, J. 239n59, 275, 390, 437, 454, 463, 586, 607, 610, 614, 615, 823
Darcy, S. 922
Decolonization 101, 210, 230, 1017
Deformalization 205, 207, 219, 229, 235, 238, 369, 712, 718, 1038
Defrenne judgment 776
Deliberative contestability 726, 737, 738, 743
Democracy
deformalization 207, 229
democratic equality 737, 738, 740, 741, 742, 743
democratic legitimacy 386, 465, 724
natural law, and 508
Derrida, J. 250
Descamps, E. 155, 168, 170, 172, 272
Dilthey, W. 416
Diplomacy 103, 931, 940
Diplomatic protection 555n37, 829, 852, 880, 998, 1113
Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights 408n34
Dissent
consent, and 124
Divine law 53, 56, 135, 157, 289, 565, 656
Doctrine
formalist 526
practice-oriented 515, 519, 524, 530
savante 520, 523, 530, 532
symbolic 526, 529, 531
(p. 1160)
Dogmatics 28
Domestic courts
jurisgenerative role 1139, 1141
transnational judicial dialogue 1144
Domestic law
as ‘facts’ 1074
domestic constitutional structures 1119
in WTO dispute settlement 1029
normativity 1074
relationship with international law 3, 38, 148, 544, 620, 825, 828, 1119, 1138
sources 2, 4, 21, 394, 397, 542, 554
Dominium 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 89, 295
Droit uniforme 1073
Dualism 100, 106, 130, 216, 507, 664, 825, 857
Dupuy, P.-M. 528, 927
Duties 578, 696, 733, 853
Dutt, C. 486, 488
Dworkin, R. 391, 392, 411, 425n12, 426, 427, 456, 479, 586, 619, 666n18
E
EC—Asbestos 1050
Emon, A. 566
Empowerment norm 347, 353, 355, 358, 359
EnCana v Ecuador 1075, 1077
Equality 257n54, 386, 482, 563, 567, 570, 575, 578, 620, 689, 845, 855
Erdemović case 922
Ethics 54, 212n45, 455, 459, 480, 576, 619
Eurocentrism 101n6, 235, 471, 483
European Union (EU)
autonomy of 769
Court of Justice 151, 559, 771, 772, 775, 795, 1022
legal instruments 557, 558, 771, 772, 779, 781
Ex aequo et bono decisions 274, 276, 549
Expert bodies 794, 918, 919
Extra-positive norms 562
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia 896
F
Falk, R. A. 206, 207, 508
Filartiga v Peña-Irala 310
Finnis, J. 331n25, 574
Fiore, P. 124, 138, 288, 525
Fish, S. 413, 417, 418, 425, 437
Fiss, O. 375
Fitzmaurice, G. 62, 196, 274, 429, 473, 502, 652, 831
Formalism
anti-formalism 205n11, 227, 235, 392
content-determination formalism 366, 368, 373, 374, 391
law-ascertainment formalism 366, 369, 373, 378, 379
law-interpretation formalism 368, 390, 391
outcome determinative formalism 369, 389, 390
source formalism 369, 391, 395
Foucault, M. 460, 461, 751
Fragmentation of international law 233, 351, 648
Friedmann, W. 464
Friendship 114, 260, 1051
Fuller, L. 213, 465, 573n79, 686n12, 963n19, 964, 965n28
Functionalism 463, 464, 989, 993, 1007, 1010
Fundamental rights
codification 776
Furundžija case 895
G
Gabčíkovo case 952, 954, 975
Gadamer, H. G. 416, 472, 475, 477, 482, 486, 488, 489, 519, 521
Gaius 56, 57, 58, 59, 92
Gehring, T. 943
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 408, 1030, 1035
General international law 168, 172, 187, 837, 868, 904, 998
General principles
derivation from domestic law 4, 157, 158, 282, 457, 506, 549n22, 952, 1022, 1107, 1135, 1138
(p. 1161)
nature 158, 170, 192, 431, 925, 974, 1091, 1130
explained within natural law theory 563, 579
of international law stricto sensu 853, 953
relationship to non liquet findings 170, 171, 900
Gentili, A. 46, 47, 59, 87, 90, 91, 94, 97, 500, 525
Georgia v Russia case 879
Germany v Council 778
Gestoso y Acosta, L. 288
Giardina, A. 1083
Ginzburg, C. 306, 308
Global administrative law 329, 720, 1003, 1133
Global legal pluralism 761
Globalization 231, 236, 448, 452, 460, 751, 828
Gold Reserve v Venezuela 1108
Green, L. 710
Gross, L. 438, 439
Grossraum 750n3
Grotius, H.
Aristotle, and 525n16
canon law references, use of 90
customary law, and 91
historical references, use of 93, 285, 287
law of nations (jus gentium) 60, 62, 91, 99, 100, 106, 112, 285
law of war and restoration of peace 46, 49, 80, 87, 112, 285, 500
natural law 51, 55, 62, 93, 285, 501, 511, 569, 570, 572
treaty interpretation, on 430n35
Grundnorm 251, 328, 347, 355, 356, 357, 358, 522, 528, 585, 593, 614, 962, 1138
Gulf of Maine case 185
H
Habermas, J. 246, 414, 425, 455, 466, 478, 766
Hall, W. E. 159, 160
Hammarskjöld, Å. 156, 157, 166, 169
Hart, H. L. A.
formalism 387
interpretative theory 426n15
law of nations 525
legal system 393, 505n57, 584, 585, 586, 590, 592, 608, 867, 929, 999
natural law 573
normative system of law 664, 685, 687
rule of recognition 187, 188, 359, 391, 394n34, 397, 497, 544, 613, 616, 708, 929
sovereignty 498
validity of law 454
Hauriou, M. 216
Hegel, G. W. F. 133, 136, 246, 257, 260, 306, 451
Heidegger, M. 416, 477, 478, 486, 487
Henkin, L. 573
Hermeneutics
conversational hermeneutics 27, 472, 477, 489
philosophical hermeneutics 27, 472, 474, 475, 476, 477, 482
Hierarchy
informal 646n21
of norms 24, 115, 548, 635, 642, 663, 780, 842, 1053
of sources 3, 14, 20, 30, 142, 154, 234, 274, 641, 642n7, 644, 647, 656, 821, 906, 1086, 1091
among sources of an international organization 771, 780, 785
Higgins, R. 206, 500, 510, 753
History
historical facts 281, 282, 283, 289
historical knowledge 301, 302, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 312, 316
international community as culmination of 451
material source of international law 279, 295
meta-history 245, 247, 249, 264, 265
of international law 16, 18
Holtzendorff, F. von 124, 125, 126, 130
Hoof, G. J. H. van 275, 462
Hotman, J. 89, 93
Hudson, M. O. 180, 182, 272
Human dignity 205, 208, 214, 410, 509, 573, 632, 895, 903, 915, 926
Human law 68, 71, 73, 389n15, 566 (p. 1162)
Human rights
adjudication 855, 857, 859
nature as rights 34, 841
domestic and international, relationship 854, 855
treaties
continuity 850
contractual reciprocity 874
erga omnes effect 851
reservations 439, 838, 847, 868, 875, 882, 886
status of individuals 877
universal bill of rights 865
Human Rights Committee (HRC) 439, 848, 875
Human Rights Council 794, 854, 918
Hume, D. 571
Husserl, E. 247, 249, 665
I
ICJ Statute, Article 38
completeness of sources enumeration 5, 198, 270, 614, 643, 798, 818, 824, 943, 1106, 1154
drafting 21, 167, 180, 181, 643
hierarchy of sources 30, 274, 644, 728
relevance 553, 809, 963
I. G. Farben Trial 311, 313, 314
Immunities 656, 822, 859, 995, 1145, 1147n50
Jurisdictional Immunities case 185, 1127, 1148
Imperialism 231, 236, 254, 313, 671
Implied consent 549n22, 1127, 135
Indicators of law 928
Individuals
consent 712
domestic law 1124, 1138, 1140
enforcement on 796, 803, 827
environmental law 964
human dignity 509
human rights 847, 851, 864, 877, 886
humanitarian law 898, 930n65
law of nations, and 75, 76, 78, 79, 111, 158
law-making authority of 439
liability of 311
natural law, and 51, 106
Roman law, and 67, 69
subjects of international law, as 753
Institut de droit international 150, 1014, 1083
Institutional facts 493, 494, 507, 511
Institutions 438, 462, 463, 464, 649, 654, 724, 725, 734, 742, 828, 940, 942
Intellectual property rights 759n53, 1030n10, 1076, 1078
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 753, 1107
Interactional law 36, 960
Intergenerational responsibility 954
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 719, 762, 794, 893
customary international humanitarian law, study of 646n24, 919, 927
International community
Aristotle’s theory of communities 261
‘constitution’ of 636, 651, 1001
culmination of history, as 451
customary rules and obligations 653
fundamental values of 632, 633, 696
future practice of 529
international courts, and 153
international law-enforcement, and 793, 795, 796
international law rules, and 999
international politics, and 692
legal document references to 464
legal language, and 516
natural law, and 569
new rules of law, and 499
non-State actors 766
participants 32, 152
peremptory obligations 632, 633
power relations 147
recognition of general international law norms 631
States in relation 226, 751
UN as representation of 1010
UN Charter as constitution 636
International conferences 150, 292
conferences of the parties (COP) 195, 942
International Criminal Court (ICC) 311, 464, 830, 893, 917, 1125
complementarity principle 906
(p. 1163)
Statute 905
International criminal law (ICL)
armed groups 759
court rulings 921, 924
customary norms 184, 190, 893, 915, 920
differentiation between opinio juris and State practice 190
expert bodies 918, 919
general principles 893
‘hybrid’ branch of law 915
law-making approach 916
moral sources 933
principle of legality 892, 893, 899, 904, 905, 924
regime of 891
Security Council Resolutions 916
State participation 740
treaties 901
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 189, 239n63, 901, 916
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 189, 239n63, 901
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
customary international law 394, 458
judges 173, 211
judgment enforceability 802, 808
International environmental law (IEL)
codification 944
harm prevention rule 971, 972, 973, 980
Multilateral Environmental Agreements 195, 967, 968n43
soft law, role of 977, 980
International financial institutions 464, 803, 1012, 1030
See also World Bank
International human rights law (IHRL)
customary 853, 857, 860, 861, 864, 866
droits de l’hommisme 840
general principles, importance of 845, 853
generality 839, 854, 859, 862, 863, 864, 868
non-State actors 439
objectivity 843, 846, 855, 857, 859, 861, 864, 886, 887
transnationality 856, 858, 867
See also Human Rights
International humanitarian law (IHL)
armed groups 759, 765
court rulings 190
customary norms 646n24, 893, 905, 919, 920, 925, 927, 928
expert bodies 918, 919, 928
general principles 893, 894, 898, 899, 900, 906, 907
moral sources 933
principle of legality 899
Security Council Resolutions 916
treaties 901
UN expert bodies 918
International institutions See Institutions
International investment law (IIL)
domestic laws 1071, 1073, 1074, 1086
fair and equitable treatment standard 1028, 1080, 1100, 1106
investor-State dispute settlement 1095, 1103, 1110
jurisprudential norms 1071
self-sufficiency of investment treaties 1090
International Labour Organization (ILO) 460, 719, 759, 766, 781, 1044, 1108
International Law Association (ILA) 716n72, 977, 1002, 1128
International Law Commission (ILC)
approach to codification 532, 611
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ARIO) 999, 1004, 1014, 1015
Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 533, 852, 862, 880, 886
fragmentation of international law, study of 351, 648
identification of customary international law, study of 351, 648
reservations to treaties, study of 868
unilateral acts, study of 196
(p. 1164)
International law-enforcement
bodies 792
capabilities 790
coercion and 816
domestic State organs 796
eclectic view of 808
formal classifications 808
hard/soft enforcement powers 793
international courts 794
international organizations resolutions 802
judgments 798
sources of norms 797
specialized regime norm enforcement 807
specific norm enforcement 806
State enforcement against other States 795
International law incorporation 790, 825
International law-making See Law-making
International legal officials 615
International legal personality 195, 752, 877, 908, 988, 1009, 1010, 1016, 1018, 1021n55, 1133
objective 1010
International Military Tribunal (IMT) 310, 313, 924
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 804, 994
International Organizations (IO)
accountability of 1012
acts of 21, 194
constitutive treaty 770, 785
creation of soft law 1112
functionalism 993
independent personality 1009
resolutions of 802
responsibility 1015
See also ILC: ARIO
subjects of international law 15, 1007
See also Institutions
International Prize Court 181, 272, 546, 549n22, 647
International trade law
interpretation 1047
scholarship 1033
WTO 1027
Interpretation
bias 474, 477
consistent 826, 828, 830
interdependence relationship with sources 423, 429, 440
interpretative authority 438, 441, 860
of treaties 286, 290, 292, 294, 374, 413, 425, 473, 480, 485, 617, 656, 947, 1047
reality of 402, 414
rules of 374, 458, 473, 480, 902, 1032, 1048
textual 413, 416, 425, 428, 436, 437, 902, 1029, 1042
theories of 376, 416, 424, 438, 472
Investment arbitration 465, 1080, 1086, 1087, 1098, 1099, 1114
Investment law codification 1111
Iron Rhine arbitration 557
Isidore of Seville 51, 57, 69, 569n51
Ius See Jus
J
Jellinek, G. 129, 140n120, 451, 528
Jennings, R. Y. 197, 819
Jones v United Kingdom 1145
Judicial dialogue 1144, 1149, 1154
Juridification 122, 670
Jurisdiction
compulsory 167, 168, 170, 187, 272, 497, 588, 593, 790, 861, 1042
extra-territorial 862
See also Adjudication
See also Enforcement
Jurisdiction of the Courts of Danzig advisory opinion 877
Jurisdictional Immunities case 185, 1127, 1148
Jurisprudence constante 1104
Jus cogens
identification
need for separate source 631
fundamental values 632
judicial decisions 1153
natural law 160, 267, 575, 577
VCLT, Arts 53 and 64 630, 849
Jus commune 87, 100, 101, 102, 109
Jus gentium 50, 61, 105, 112, 129, 285
Jus naturae 62, 100, 102, 108, 111 (p. 1165)
See also Natural law
Jus positum 518
Jus publicum europaeum 112, 148
Justice
theories of 259
Justinian 48, 51, 56, 58, 87, 92, 102
K
Kachenovsky, D. 158
Kadi case 636, 777, 778, 1020
Kant, I. 59, 136, 218, 251, 256, 258, 405n12, 450, 451, 459, 677, 712
Kassoti, E. 196
Kaufmann, E. 153, 452
Kaufmann-Kohler, G. 1111
Kelsen, H.
deduction 525
hierarchy of norms (Stufenbau) 233, 344, 663
international law theory 251, 356, 393, 450, 544, 550, 651, 670, 674, 677
Kelsen-Schmitt controversy 218, 250
legal system, theory of 585, 610, 665, 668
positivism 329, 337
Pure Theory of Law 344, 345, 353, 507, 526, 686
universal legal order 219
Kennedy, D. 314, 415, 417, 617
Kingsbury, B. 327, 465
Kiobel v Royal Dutch Shell 309, 310, 316, 1153
Klabbers, J. 784n34, 926, 1018, 1019
Kleinlein, T. 1130
Klüber, J. L. 129, 141
Kolb, R. 301, 920
Korhonen, O. 417, 472, 475, 476, 479, 481, 489
Koskenniemi, M. 140, 147, 304, 414, 425, 435, 481, 576, 606, 616, 712
Kosovo advisory opinion 194, 545, 556
Kuhn, T. S. 22, 246, 264, 265
Kunz, J. L. 230
Kupreškić case 894, 895, 921
L
Lac Lanoux arbitration 953
LaGrand judgment 877
Language 248, 385, 386, 453, 454, 479, 515, 522, 541, 586
Lasswell, H. D. 204n4, 206, 508, 509, 573, 574
Lauterpacht, H. 412, 480, 503, 511, 572, 647, 651, 713, 754, 1127, 1142
Law and Economics, School of 453, 529
Law students 5, 213, 276, 344
Law-making
arbitral 976, 1083, 1103, 1114
informal 75, 324, 329, 330, 371, 379, 552, 719, 737, 742, 943
judicial 188, 405, 838, 868, 924
League of Nations 182, 204, 206, 217, 230, 460, 670, 801n51
Legal facts 281, 289, 291, 294, 296, 299, 1035, 1038
Legal order 216, 256, 298, 346, 349, 358, 360, 596n35
Legalism 10, 15, 515
Legality
of international law 5
practice-based understanding 854, 963
relative 543
Legitimacy
consent-based 11, 328, 502, 656, 696, 709, 715, 846, 1131
democratic 386, 465, 709, 735, 738, 1132
institutional 705, 709, 717
of international law 5
political 704, 705, 725, 733
Legitimate authority See Authority
Leibniz, G. W. 94, 525
Lemire v Ukraine 1107
Lex ferenda 233n33, 234, 325n4, 526, 619, 698, 1152, 1153
Lex lata 233n33, 234, 325n4, 526, 698, 1153
Lex posterior 284, 628, 636, 644, 828
Lex specialis 232, 523, 628, 636, 644, 647, 821, 838, 868, 947, 999, 1086, 1088, 1089
LG&E v Argentina 1082, 1083, 1085
Liberalism 206n14, 237, 254, 255
Limited domain of law 391, 396
Losurdo, D. 253
Lotus case 176, 184, 545
Luban, D. 572
Luhmann, N. 229, 617 (p. 1166)
M
MacCormick, N. 494
Mälksoo, L. 134, 136, 441
Mallard, G. 484
Maritain, J. 573
Martens, G. F. von 128, 131, 135, 139, 149, 152, 154, 287, 303, 306
Martens clause 156, 172n33, 576, 920
Marx, K. 246, 667
Marxism 257, 268, 499, 529
McDougal, M. S. 203, 221, 222, 227, 410, 425n11, 508, 510, 573
Mediation 515, 522, 523, 532, 766
Merkl, A. J. 344, 345, 346, 347, 348
Meta-history See History
Metaphysics 245, 250, 515
Meta-theory See Theory
Middle Ages
casuistic theology 66
jus commune 101, 104
jus naturae et gentium 108, 111, 284
medieval jurisprudence 103, 108
natural law 566
scholasticism 45, 47, 50, 65, 67, 286, 567
Mobil Corporation et al v Venezuela 1108
Monism 670, 825, 857
Moore, J. B. 124, 273
Morality
displacement by law 11, 12, 14
moral values 10, 54, 55, 673, 688, 845
Most-favoured-nation treatment 1085, 1101
Multilateralization 1100, 1114
Municipal law See Domestic law
Murdoch, I. 577
N
Natural law
association with Christianity 52
democracy and 508
divine law, and 53, 56, 656
origins 51
rejection by positivists 154, 324
universal validity 51
Nature
observation of 563, 575, 576, 577
state of 61, 256, 262, 268
teleological conception of 52, 54, 568
Neto Paiva, V. F. 137
New Haven School 203, 206, 222, 228, 229, 230, 410, 453, 508, 573
Non-governmental organization (NGO) 650, 729, 742, 743, 758, 759, 766, 793, 899, 932, 965, 966
Nicaragua case 184, 185, 351, 408, 553, 646n24, 716, 920, 924, 972
Nietzsche, F. 667
Nollkaemper, A. 1143
Non liquet 156, 167, 170, 171, 175, 176, 177, 182, 272, 900, 1141
Non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) see Armed conflicts
Non-reciprocal obligations 847, 850, 864, 869, 903
Non-State actors 742, 758, 764, 766, 925, 976, 1012
Norm conflict 30, 361, 628, 636
Norman case 922
Normativity
guiding v binding 683, 684
normative closure 29, 589, 608
normative practice 24, 332, 337, 684
post-foundational approach to 661
relative 4, 239, 508, 719, 914
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1081
North Sea Continental Shelf cases 185, 991
Noyes, J. 274
Nuclear Tests cases 427, 817
Nuclear Weapons advisory opinion 184, 185, 954
Nullum crimen sine lege 35, 924, 928, 931
Nuremberg Military Tribunals 310
O
Obligations
erga omnes 226, 229, 545, 801, 818, 838, 847, 851, 876, 972, 1001, 1014
erga omnes partes 873, 880, 881, 886
mutual 875
objective 874, 875, 880, 885
omnium 78, 838, 839, 853, 863, 866
Oil Platforms case 1051, 1062
Ompteda, D. von 46, 50
Oppenheim, L. 123, 125, 126, 134, 135, 269, 327, 452, 502, 551, 571, 650
Ordinary meaning 407, 1049
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 460, 805, 1101, 1111
P
Pacta sunt servanda 436n73, 505, 545, 558, 651, 993, 999, 1141
Paradigm 22, 131, 264
Parry, C. 645, 652
Participants in international law-making 749
Patterson, D. 407
Pauwelyn, J. 597, 601
Pellet, A. 275, 840, 883
Peremptory norms See Jus cogens
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 147, 166, 174, 180, 206, 275, 429, 506, 546, 588, 627, 877, 974, 1034, 1074, 1108, 1130
Perreau-Saussine, A. 141
Peters, A. 255
Pfunders case 874
Phenomenology 245, 247, 249, 259, 332, 460
Phillimore, Robert Joseph Phillimore, 1st Baronet 135, 287
Phillimore, Walter Phillimore, 1st Baron 157, 158, 169, 170, 171, 181, 271, 273
Phronesis 477, 479, 489
Piédelièvre, R. 291
Pitts, J. 238
Plato 165, 479, 524, 565, 667n23
Policy-oriented approach 210, 528
Politics
historical knowledge, of 301
international law, and 2, 10, 203, 526, 528, 533, 611, 809, 981
law and 134, 136, 139, 141, 692
liberal doctrine of 9n45, 10, 712
Pollock, F. 270, 274
Popular control 736, 737, 738, 740, 741, 742, 743, 1123
Porter, J. 570
Positivism
consensualism and 252, 845
‘exclusive’ 669, 708
fact-value distinction 249
influence of 9n46, 502, 705, 1028
legalism and 515, 520
naturalism and 21, 134, 140, 154, 845, 1044
sources theory 4, 122, 252, 280, 323, 343, 397, 435, 575
Positivization 143
Postema, G. 332, 334
Potestas See Authority
Power
balance of 109, 115, 451, 741
separation of 293, 389, 544, 668, 802n55, 825, 1122, 1124, 1142
Practical Reasoning 673, 676
Pradier-Fodéré, P. 159, 288
Precedent
history and 286
in investment arbitration 1032, 1041, 1042
Professionalism 302, 307
Proportionality 387, 563, 742, 774, 776, 1003, 1109
Protection gap 800, 898
Publicness 447
Public order 208n25, 211, 229, 926, 1088
Public law of Europe See Jus publicum europaeum
Pufendorf, S. von 9n47, 61, 94, 106, 12, 148, 153n17, 269, 525, 569
Pulp Mills case 186, 552n28, 972, 974, 976
R
Rachel, S. 91, 95
Radbruch, G. 572
Rawls, J. 240, 619
Raz, J. 327, 338, 388, 606, 614, 676, 677, 684, 686, 707, 732
Realism 54, 204, 206, 210, 212, 250, 270, 368, 452, 481, 509, 876
Reason 52, 54, 61, 66, 70, 334, 450, 525, 577, 645 (p. 1168)
Recognition See Rule
Recursivity 608
Reflexive situatedness 472
Regime
self-contained 34, 690, 838, 1090, 1092
special 15, 35, 188, 892, 897, 904, 915, 916, 929
Reisman, W. M. 206, 211, 212, 926, 931
Religion 29, 471, 482, 501, 571, 576
Reparations for Injuries advisory opinion 752, 757
Reservations
acceptation 850
admissibility 439
practice of 1121, 122
severability 847, 849, 875, 883
validity 848, 887
Reuter, P. 516, 651
Rhetoric 48, 51, 414
Ricoeur, P. 248, 258
Right to rule 706, 725, 731, 735, 756n36
Rivier, A. 125, 135
Roberts, A. 619, 830, 1144
Rodríguez-Garavito, C. 766
Roman law
codification 51, 102
customary law, and 291, 292n41
source of law 69, 86, 90, 94, 103, 104, 105, 108
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) 905
Root, E. 155, 168, 170, 171, 172, 271, 273
Rostow, E. V. 210n, 212
Rousseau, C. 531
Rule
autonomy 228, 403, 418, 449, 458, 588, 663, 664, 665
of law 167, 197, 254, 284, 329, 376, 386, 396, 521, 607, 620, 689, 720, 1105
of recognition
adjudication, and 187
indeterminacy 5
plurality 5
primary 393, 587, 593, 596, 613, 999
secondary 6, 187, 188, 391, 393, 587, 593, 613, 704, 839
Rüsen, J. 304
S
Saar Papier v Poland 1107
Saipem v Bangladesh 1104
Salamanca School 50, 55, 66, 71
Saluka v Czech Republic 1087, 1089, 1090
Sassòli, M. 926
Savigny, F. K. von 220, 333n32
Scalia, A. 305, 395
Scelle, G. 452, 528n25, 828, 1147n48
Scheler, M. 248
Schlag, P. 375
Schleiermacher, F. 416
Schmitt, C.
anti-formalism 203, 206, 214, 227
Kelsen-Schmitt controversy 218, 250
Schmoller, G. von 219
Scholars See Doctrine
Scholastics 45, 47, 50, 65, 67, 286, 567
Schreuer, C. 754
Schütz, A. 260, 261
Scientism 515, 526
Secularism 579
Semantics 8, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 404, 439, 518, 522, 523, 823
Semiotics 516
Severability See Reservations
Seyersted, F. 1010
Shapiro, S. 686
Shelton, D. 955
Signs 513, 517, 518, 521, 667
Simma, B. 356, 434, 578n106, 944n25
Simoncioni case 1148
Situationality 480
Snyder, F. 483
Sociology 204, 213, 236, 280, 302, 475, 528
Soft law
classification of 197
environmental law 955
in investment disputes 1110
influence of domestic administration 1131
legal effects 6, 433, 977
legitimacy concerns 1112
normativity 552, 675
proliferation of 232
rise of 460, 1132
Soto, D. de 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 269 (p. 1169)
Sources
autonomy 449
auxiliary 282
co-constitutive relationship with systematicity 604
constructivist approach 1113, 1114
fontes juris 49
formal v material 6, 280, 507, 543, 554
history of 147
informal 6, 957
metaphor 8, 47, 99, 123, 270, 344, 404, 726
moral 933
multiple legal character 554
South-West Africa cases 575
Sovereignty
police powers doctrine 1079, 1087, 1090
significance 109, 150, 158, 237, 497
Soviet communism 209
Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) 901n54
Spiermann, O. 182
Standards 12, 302, 584, 719
Stare decisis effect 801, 1032
State consent 232, 435, 463, 464, 498, 504, 739, 845, 942, 1039
State responsibility 426, 916, 999, 1070, 1087, 1090, 1096
See also ILC: ARSIWA
Statehood 151, 450, 751, 755, 757, 1011
Strauss, L. 249, 763n77
Students See Law students
Suárez, F. 18, 55, 59, 60, 71, 74, 77, 89, 106, 252, 268, 500, 509, 525, 569
Subjects of international law
EU’s semi-autonomous system of sources 769
non-State actors 1030
plurality of 13, 149, 749
States as primary law-makers 3, 1033
System
systematicity 15, 583, 604, 668, 842
systemic agent 618
systemic integration 378, 458, 866, 1061
legal systems and morality 666
Systematicity See System
T
Tadić case 190, 898, 921, 923, 925
Talmon, S. 186, 191
Tams, C. 189, 191
Tasioulas, J. 236n47, 593, 707, 717
Teachings of publicists 154, 159, 166, 234, 273, 283, 521, 523, 530, 728, 821, 961, 975, 1033, 1072, 1096
See also Doctrine
Tecmed v Mexico 1085, 1107
Textor, J. 94, 95, 286
Textualism 390n17
Theologians 45, 65, 68, 90, 102, 122, 127, 133, 138, 268, 500, 566
See also Natural law
Theory
meta-theory 264, 447, 469
pure theory of law 344, 345, 353, 507, 526, 686
process theories 453
Stufenbau theory 344, 346, 349, 352, 353, 354, 358, 360
Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) 230, 237
Thirlway, H. 222, 270, 422n1, 619n75, 692n25
Total v Argentina 1108
Trail Smelter case 953
Transcendence 248, 250, 305, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 570, 575, 576, 577
Transnational legal networks 1132
Treaties
coercion 649n41
codification of treaty law 473, 715
contract-like 847, 885
legislative 847, 868, 885
living 945n34
primacy thesis 645, 650
proliferation 430
third-party effects 851, 866
travaux préparatoires 294, 413, 425, 1049
unequal 150, 230, 254, 255
See also Reservations
Triepel, H. 216, 217, 451, 528
Trilateralism 878
Tuck, R. 254, 256
Tzanakopoulos, A. 1148 (p. 1170)
U
Unilateral acts 195, 548n20, 552, 555, 970
United Nations Charter
amendment 636
Article 94 549, 801
Article 103 554, 625
‘international Constitution’, as 636
Preamble 547, 750
United Nations Conference for Trade and Development 1112
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 945, 948, 995
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)
amendments to UN Charter 636
declarations 675
expert bodies 794
resolutions 185, 195, 197, 462, 652, 656, 719, 804, 917, 927, 958, 1112, 1129
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
decisions 194, 635, 793, 928
expert bodies 918
judgment-enforcement power 801
resolutions 351, 545, 554, 584, 718, 804, 901, 916, 931
Universalism 132, 238, 479
Universalization 122
US v Altstoetter 924
US—Clove Cigarettes 1050, 1052
V
Validity 11, 56, 211, 255, 325, 327, 328, 346, 347, 349, 353, 426, 541, 556, 562, 680, 703, 705, 725, 729, 845, 848, 1039
Values
moral 10, 54, 55, 673, 688, 845
scales of 640, 645
Van Damme, I. 485
Vattel, E. de 50, 97, 106, 111, 112, 137, 148, 252, 258, 267, 268, 269, 285, 286, 450, 525, 571
Vázquez, G. 71, 74, 80
Vázquez de Menchaca, F. 77
Verdross, A. 352, 356, 525, 575, 577, 879
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)
Article 30 629, 1059
Article 31 294, 378, 404, 406, 409, 413, 425, 458, 485, 558, 822, 838, 857, 860, 866, 868, 902, 956, 1036, 1038, 1048, 1049, 1052, 1053, 1055, 1062, 1089, 1108, 1140
Article 32 294, 407, 412, 413, 425, 902, 1048, 1053, 1057, 1059, 1060, 1062
Article 53 630, 637, 849
Article 60 850, 873, 903
Article 64 631
travaux préparatoires 294, 413, 425, 1049
Villiger, M. 354
Virally, M. 194, 195, 196, 198
Visscher, C. de 176, 296, 528
Vitoria, F. de 50, 57, 66, 68, 69, 71, 75, 89, 218, 252, 268, 500, 509, 525
Voluntarism See Consent
Voyiakis, E. 475, 482
W
Waldock, H. 404, 473, 1053, 1055
Waldron, J. 593
Wall advisory opinion 185
Walter, R. 348
Walzer, M. 933
War
just war 68, 78, 88, 108, 110, 115, 139, 254, 933
law of war 46, 49, 57, 60, 75, 87, 94
war crimes 578, 912
Waste Management v Mexico 1105
Weber, M. 665, 730, 814n7
Weeramantry, C. 654, 954, 975
Weil, P. 4, 527n22, 955
Weiler, J. H. H. 480
Wendell Holmes, O. Jr. 789
Wheaton, H. 124, 130, 132, 138, 159, 269
WHO-Egypt advisory opinion 989,