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date: 16 May 2021

(p. 695) Index

(p. 695) Index

Note: Tables are indicated by an italic t following the page number.

Aarhus Convention215
ABC (Accessible Books Consortium)364n5, 373
abrogation, of obsolete conventions243–44
Accessible Books Consortium (ABC)364n5, 373
accountability, criminal57
Acharya, Amitav41, 43
Addis Ababa guidelines379
ad hoc committee (AHC)
on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism169
on the Peaceful Uses of the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor526
role of627–28
on Statelessness and Related Problems435–36
Affordable and Clean Energy (SDGs)226
aggression, crimes of462
Ago, Roberto600
Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon Agreement)193–94
Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Rescue Agreement)192
collective bargaining24
with other intergovernmental organizations66–68
air pollutants, transboundary207–9
Al-Assad, Bashar127
Al Hussein, Zeid Ra’ad399
Al Mahdi, Ahmad Al Faqi316
Alvaraz, José27, 72n11
Amador, Garcia630
to drug treaties283
to UN Charter24
UNSG role in689–91 See also ratification
Amerasinghe, Shirley Hamilton539, 542
annexes, in treaties514–15
Annual Report of Amnesty International (2016/17)398
Antarctic Treaty125
Arangio-Ruiz, Gaetano602
arbitration, international commercial. See international commercial arbitration
Arbour, Louise392–93
armed conflict255, 510–11
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)
adoption of131–33
decision-making procedure in628–29, 639
development of142–44
entry-into-force in689
voting with63–64
Article 102, of UN Charter663–80
impacts of677–80
implementation of665–69
origins of664–65
and treaty framework669–77
Articles, of UN Charter
one32, 75
two25, 30–31, 40, 74
forty-three73, 80
(p. 696) fifty-one30, 74
fifty-five32, 75
sixty-two32, 71, 77, 79
one hundred and two (see Article 102, of UN Charter)
one hundred and three24
Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts610
Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ASR)600–611
Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations (ARIO)600, 603, 606–7
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations)216
ASP (Assembly of States Parties)461–62
ASR (Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts)600–611
Assembly of States Parties (ASP)461–62
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)216
Aum Shinrikyo cult127
Aust, Anthony1
Avena and Other Mexican Nationals case577
Ban Ki-moon397
Bartoš, Milan572
Basel Convention215
Beckett, Eric550, 561
Belgian clause156
Besson, Samantha425
Betts, Alexander48
BiH (Bosnia and Herzegovina)484–86
in hybrid criminal courts479–84, 489
multilateral treaties related to671–72
and privileges/immunities561
transition from6
Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)127–29
BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH)372
Black, Walter303
Boat Paper532
Boister, Neil270, 279
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)484–86
Bosnia Genocide (case)27
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros532
Boyle, Alan8
Bretton Woods accord288
Brierly, JL495, 504–5
Brittain, Vera250
Broadcasting Treaty373n37
Brownlie, Ian105
Brundtland, Gro Harlem348
business community, in international commercial arbitration585–91
BVGH (BIO Ventures for Global Health)372
BWC (Biological Weapons Convention)127–29
Byrnes, Andrew257
Cambodia67, 453, 479–81
Caminos, Hugo542
and Fish Stocks Agreement533
and Mine Ban Treaty134
and privileges/immunities550
treaty implementation in5–6
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety335
Case Concerning United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran91
Cassin, René430
Castaneda, Jorge541
CCD (Conference of the Committee on Disarmament)128
CCIT (Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism)160–63, 175–79
(p. 697) CCP (Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material)123–24
CEDAW-OP (Optional Protocol to CEDAW)381
CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination)383–84, 390
Chapter VI (of UN Charter)28
Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (1974)297
chem-bio disarmament127–30
chemical pollutants207–9
chemical weapons127
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)128–30
China45, 264, 334, 462
China-Australia Free Trade Agreement515–16
Chitty, Gitakumar542
CHR (Commission on Human Rights)377, 430
Churchill, Winston287
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna)211
civil society, in international commercial arbitration585–91
CJEU (Court of Justice of European Union)499
climate change204–7
Cluster Munitions Conventions135
CMI (Comité Maritime International)641
CND (Commission on Narcotic Drugs)268
in changing context98–99
and customary rules92–98
in diplomatic/consular law566–71
and health law344
of law of treaties508–12
of lex scripta524
recourse to89–92
through soft laws109–11
in treaty-making617
Codification Division55–57, 64–65
Cold War182, 189, 321, 453
collective bargaining agreements24
Colombian-Peruvian Asylum case576
Comité Maritime International (CMI)641
Commission on Human Rights (CHR)377, 430
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND)268
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)253–54
Committee of Experts for the Progressive Development of International Law617, 617n12
Committee of Independent Experts245–47
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)
contributions of417–21
and Covenants404
issues affecting424–25
mechanisms of414–17
Committee on Rights of the Child384–85
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women261–62, 383–84
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)383–84, 390
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS)185–87, 190–92, 194–97
complaints385–88, 416–17
compliance5, 45–46, 575–78
Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT)160–63, 175–79
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organizations (CTBO)124
Conference Committee, and ILO standards245–46
Conference of Parties (COP)
and drug treaties268, 281–84
for normative frameworks360–61
and science knowledge exchange332
Conference of Plenipotentiaries436
Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD)128
(p. 698) Conference on Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character 1975 (CRSIO)566, 569–70, 574–75
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)5
Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty (2012)140
Conference on the Elimination or Reduction of Statelessness440
confidentiality, in inquiry process389
conflicts255, 309–10, 510–11
consensus, in multilateral treaty-making137–39
constitutional theory, and ILO conventions238–42
consular relations. See diplomatic and consular relations
Contact Group on Piracy off the Somali Coast650
contracts26. See also relational contract theory (RCT)
on Biological Diversity209–11, 330
concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)314
against Doping in Sport (2005)309n5
on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)256–65, 381, 388–89
on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention)209
establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization365
against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs/Psychotropic Substances (1988)271–72
on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects192–93
on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)211
on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (1979)214–15
on the Means of Prohibiting/Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)312–13
on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CCP)123–24
on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents (1973)151, 621–22
for the Prevention/Punishment of Terrorism165
on the Prevention/Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948)236, 455–56, 468, 619–20
on Privileges/Immunities of the Specialized Agencies (1947)551–54, 556–62
on Privileges/Immunities of UN (1946)545–50, 554–62
on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons61
for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)309–10
on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)316, 317n30, 320
on the Protection/Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)318–19
on Psychotropic Substances (1971)270
on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space193
on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)342, 377, 379, 381, 389–90
on the Rights of the Child (CRC)381
for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)317–18, 317n31
on Special Missions (CSM)566, 620–21
on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (1973)457
for the Suppression of Nuclear Terrorism (2005)153, 156, 158
for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997)151, 156, 158
for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (1999)152–53, 156
(p. 699) for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)254–55
against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment457
against Transnational Organized Crime and Protocols Thereto277–78
on Wetlands of International Importance (1971)212–13
conventional weapons transfers130–33
Coomaraswamy, Radhika258
cooperation, in UN Charter75
costs, of treaty-making142
Court of Justice of European Union (CJEU)499
adoption/assessment of400–401
components of401–2, 405–7
jurisprudence influenced by407–8
national implementation of403–4
and state party obligations402–3
CPED (International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance)381
Crawford, James603, 607
CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child)381
CRC-OP3 (Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communications Procedure)381, 387
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ)268
crimes against humanity452, 463, 471
criminal accountability57
criminal courts, hybrid467, 479–89
criminalized acts, in terrorism treaties150–52
cross-fertilization, in treaty making4
CRPD-OP (Optional Protocol to the CRPD)381
crystallization, of customary laws95
CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe)5
CSM (Convention on Special Missions)566, 620–21
CSW (Commission on the Status of Women)253–54
CTBO (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organizations)124
cultural diversity318–19
cultural expressions, defining319, 319n37
cultural heritage307–20
concepts of308–9
and cultural diversity318–19
defining308, 314n22–314n24
and international movements312–14
protection of, during conflict309–11, 309n8, 310n13
customary rules, and codification conventions92–98
CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention)128–30
Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998)231
Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization (2008)231
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict (1974)255
declaratory lawmaking106–9
defection, soft273–76
de Gouges, Olympe253, 264
(p. 700) Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area case94
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK)691
Democratic Republic of Congo v Rwanda case498
De Montesquieu, Charles285
clauses of98–99
in Specialized Agency Convention556
UNSG role in691
depositary, role of681–82. See also UN Secretary-General (UNSG)
de Quincy, Quatremére312
Design Law Treaty373n37
developing countries5, 298
development. See trade and development
diplomatic and consular relations565–81
further development, challenges of578–80
negotiations of620–21
process of multilateral treaties for571–75
disarmament, chem-bio127–30
discrimination, against women256
diseases341. See also international health law
dispute settlement, negotiation of615
diversion, of conventional weapons132–33
diversity, cultural318–19
Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS)
in initiation stage58
post treaty adoption64
in pre-initiation stage57
and treaty formulation59–60
domestic contracts26
double discussion procedure232
DPRK (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea)691
drug control regime. See international drug control regime
drug patents345–46
early warnings, and human rights treaty body389–90, 399
East Timor29, 453, 477
ECCC (Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia)479–81
ECJ (European Court of Justice)27
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in International Law (Ssenyonjo)410
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
and draft conventions2, 77
and drug control269
negotiations by33, 620
and New York Convention591
and statelessness430–31, 433–36
and trading systems288–89
The Economics of Tobacco Control349
EEC (European Economic Community)507, 651
Eisenhower, Dwight D183
El Erian, Abdullah573
emergency measures, in Covenant406–7
enforcement, indirect451
engagement, lack of140–41
entrepreneur, norm40–41
entry-into-force clauses689
environmental innovations214–15
environmental protections299–302. See also environment and sustainable development
environmental soft law113
environment and sustainable development201–28
international law influencing227–28
treaty-making for220–27, 671–72
UN role in216–20
errors, correction of691–92
ESC rights422–23
Espoo Convention209
European Court of Justice (ECJ)27
(p. 701) European Economic Community (EEC)507, 651
European Parliament658
European Union (EU)649–62
cooperation with659–61
and mixity656–59
participants in653–56
role of650–53
in UN688
Evensen, Jens541
exclusions, in terrorism treaties157–60, 162, 170, 176
exclusive economic zone (EEZ)333–34, 529, 541
express references, in Charter72–73
extradition, state role in155–57, 167–68
Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)479–81
fact-finding, in Charter29
FAO Constitution72, 72n10
FDI (foreign direct investments)293
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY)687–88
feminism251, 255
FENSA (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control)646
Final Clauses of Multilateral Treaties Handbook684
Finnemore, Martha40
Firearms Protocol (FP)131
First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1)381
First Protocol, in UNESCO310, 310n11
Fish Stocks Agreement (1995)533–35
Fitzmaurice, G495, 504–5, 629–30
in drug treaties275
in ILO standards237–38
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)115, 344, 659–60
footnotes, in treaties514–15
foreign direct investments (FDI)293
formulation, of multilateral treaties59–62
forum, choice of629
FP (Firearms Protocol)131
framework convention356–57
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)347–50, 353–54, 356–62
Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA)646
franchise agreements24
Francioni, Francesco309n8
Franck, Thomas M5
freedom, religious418
French clauses156–57
freshwater systems, transboundary212–13
Friendly Relations Declaration83
FRY (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)687–88
functional limitation test28
funding, of terrorism168–69
Gabcikovo-Nagymaros case497–98
gender, in human rights treaty bodies379
Gender Equality (SGDs)226
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)294
cooperation with298
and environmental protections299–302
and EU656–57
signing of287, 289
general comments
by Human Rights Committee407–8
by human rights treaty bodies383–85
by ICESCR and ICCPR415–16
Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications364, 364n3
Geneva-based Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria563
Geneva Protocol (1925)127–28
genocide452, 471
Gentlemen’s Agreement528, 540
Georges et al v United Nations et al555n49
Giang, Amanda45
(p. 702) Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel351
Global Environment Facility217
globalization, and health laws340–41
GMO Case336
Gómez-Mera, Laura48
good faith, in law of treaties513
Good Health and Well-Being (SDG)225
Gule Wamkulu318n33
Guymon, CarrieLyn277
Hafner, Gerhard628
Hague Conference for the Codification of International Law (1930)521
Hague Peace Conferences633n1
Hammarskjold, Dag29
Hatchard, John279, 281
Hathaway, Oona A45
Havana Charter290–93
health, right to422
health personnel, recruitment of351
Helfer, Lawrence345
heritage, cultural. See cultural heritage
Higgins, Rosalyn30, 494
HIV274, 342–43, 345
Host Country Agreements68
hostility, and cultural heritage310
Huber, Max599
Hudson, Manley O439
humanitarian intervention29–30
humanity, crimes against. See crimes against humanity
Human Rights Committee (HRC)387–88
contributions of417–21
and Covenants400
and individual complaints416
issues affecting424–25
legal precepts by407–8
mechanisms of414–17
Human Rights Council4
human rights law
HRC contributing to419, 423–24
and ICL455–57
individual responsibility in458
multilateral treaties for8
and women (See women)
human rights treaties
and international health law341–43
negotiation for3–4
and treaty bodies381 See also Covenants
human rights treaty body377–96
challenges to395
composition of378–80
human rights treaty body, competence of380–91
complaints procedures385–88
early warning/urgent action389–90
stakeholder engagement390–91
Hussein, Saddam127
hybrid criminal courts467, 479–89
IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)285, 288
ICAs (International Commodity Agreements)304–5
ICC (International Chamber of Commerce)586
ICCPR-OP1 (First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR)381
ICCPR-OP2 (Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR on the Abolition of the Death Penalty)381
ICERD (International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination)377, 381
ICESCR-OP (Optional Protocol to the ICESCR)381, 387
ICRC (International Committee for the Red Cross)677
ICRMW (International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families)381, 385
ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes)588, 592
ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda)453, 475–76
Ikenberry, G John49
ILO standards229–48
application of244–47
challenges of248
controlling features of233–38
interpretation of238–42
origins/purpose of229–32
process of setting232–33
review of243–44
IMF (International Monetary Fund)285, 288
immunity463. See also privileges and immunities
of Article102, 665–69
in Canada5–6
of Covenants403–4
in developing countries5
of human rights treaties399
in international commercial arbitration593–95
of law of the sea530–35
of Paris Agreement12
of UNCLOS530–35
Implementation Agreement (1994)530–33
implicit references, in UN Charter74–75
INCB (International Narcotics Control Board)268, 276
India127, 176, 235, 260, 264, 287
indirect enforcement, in criminal law451
individual complaints416–17
individual responsibility, in ICL458
infectious diseases, spread of341
influenza352. See also international health law
informality, in multilateral treaty-making139–41
Inhumane Weapons Convention133–34
initiation, of treaty-making55–59
innovations, environmental214–15
intangible cultural heritage317–18
intellectual property (IP) law363–74
and cultural heritage318
and health law342, 345
history of365–66
non-treaty approaches to372–73
politics affecting367–68
science influencing333
treaty-making in368–72, 368n19, 369n24, 370t
Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage317–18
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC)323–24, 330
Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services330
International Agreement on Olive Oil and Table Olives305, 688
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)115, 123, 123n4
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)285, 288
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)588, 592
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)586
International Coffee Agreement304–5
international commercial arbitration583–97
business community/civil society role in585–91
convention implementation in593–95
negotiation/adoption processes in591–93
International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC)677
International Commodity Agreements (ICAs)304–5
(p. 704) International Convention(s)
on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination377, 381
for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance381
for the Regulation of Whaling42
on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families381, 385
on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism22174–75
for the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism172–73
for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings169–72
international cooperation, in UN Charter75
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
and Article102, 667–69
Charter interpretation by26–27, 28
and codification91
compliance enforced by576
and diplomatic/consular law568
and ILO standards235–36, 239–40
and law of treaties498
UN Charter on73, 73n18, 79
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
articles of401
development of377, 397
monitoring work in414–17
treaty body of381
and treaty law419–20
and women rights256
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
articles of401–2
complaints procedures by387
on Covenants409, 411
development of397, 413
inquiries by388–89
monitoring work in414–17
and women rights256
International Criminal Courts (ICC)468–79, 489
challenges of465
chapter VII forums under474–79
creation of468–72
statutes of458–63
UN relationship with472–74
international criminal law (ICL)451–89
future directions of463–64
and hybrid criminal courts479–88
and international criminal courts (see International Criminal Courts (ICC))
and penal provisions454–58
statute of458–63
at UN452–54
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)453, 475–76
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)453, 474–75, 484–88
international drug control regime268–76
expanding scope of270–73
and health law343
multilateral treaties for673
and soft defection273–76
International Fruit Company656, 659
international health law339–62
evolution of339–40
future directions in352–53
and globalization340–41
and human rights treaties341–43
negotiations for358–60
normative framework for360–62
scope of343–44
UN role in344–46
WHO lawmaking in347–52, 356–58
International Health Regulations (IHR)343–44, 350–51, 362
international humanitarian law (IHL)133–35, 177–78, 458
International Labour Organization (ILO)
constitution of238–42, 246
and NSAs638–39
and privileges/immunities545
treaty-making by3
and women252 See also ILO standards
International Law Commission (ILC)
and 1969 VCLT495–99
and 1978 VCSST501–2
and 1986 VCLTIO504–5
and codification88–90, 110–11
and diplomatic/consular law566–67, 571–72, 579, 581
and ICC468–69
and ICL development453
and law of sea523, 526
and law of treaties493, 512
negotiation by618–22, 624–26
and privileges/immunities547
and refugees445
role in treaty-making627
and statelessness440
and state responsibility600, 602, 610
treaty interpretation by511–12
treaty-making role of34
on treaty reservations508–10
international law-making, fragmentation of78
Internationally Protected Persons Convention621
International Maritime Organization (IMO)636, 640–42, 646
International Monetary Fund (IMF)285, 288
international movements, and cultural heritage312–14
International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)268, 276
International Organization for Migration (IOM)654
international peace74, 81–82
international protections441–49
International Refugee Organization (IRO)441
international relations (IR)39
international security, UN Charter objectives on74, 81–82
International Tracing Instrument (ITI)131
International Trade Law Division (ITLD)58–59, 64
International Trade Organization (ITO)285, 290–94
international treaty-making39–50
and liberal international order decline48–49
norm dynamics in40–44
and regime creation44–48
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)333
International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)213
interpretation, of Charter25–26, 27
IOM (International Organization for Migration)654
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change)323–24, 330
IR (international relations)39
Iran nuclear agreement49
Iran-United States Claims Tribunal688
IRO (International Refugee Organization)441
ITI (International Tracing Instrument)131
ITLD (International Trade Law Division)58–59, 64
ITLOS (International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea)213
ITO (International Trade Organization)285, 290–94
ITPGRFA (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture)333
Jadhav case668
Jefferson, Thomas304
Jenks, Wilfred238, 241
Jensen, Steven41
Jokić, Miodrag315–16
jus sanguinis439–40
jus soli439–40
Kasikili/Sedudu Islands Case497n26
Kenya v. Somalia (2017)669
Keohane, Robert O47
Keynes, John Maynard291
Kiev Protocol (2003)209
Kigali amendment, to Montreal Protocol (2016)8, 206
Klabbers, Jan49
Koh, Harold353
(p. 706) Koremenos, Barbara47
Koskenniemi, Martti46
Kosovo Specialist Chambers (KSC)488
Krasner, Stephen44
Krisch, Nico80n47
KSC (Kosovo Specialist Chambers)488
Kubiciel, Michael282
Kyoto Protocol (1987)204
Lachs, Manfred188
LaGrand case577
Lake Success Protocol (1946)269
language, of treaties686. See also translation, of treaties
Lasswell, Harold D634, 640, 645
Lauterpacht, Hersch495, 504–5
environmental soft113
hard (see hard laws)
human rights (see human rights law)
international criminal (See international criminal law)
international health (See international health law)
international humanitarian133–35, 177–78, 458
outer space (see outer space law)
of sea (see law of the sea)
soft (see soft laws)
of treaties (see law of treaties)
lawmaking, declaratory106–9
law of the sea521–42
1958 UN conference on523–25, 537
and implementation agreements530–35
multilateral treaties for673
new challenges in535–36
law of treaties493–520
1979 Vienna Convention500–504
1986 Vienna Convention504–7
codifications of508–12
legal effects in516–19
negotiations in514–16
League of Nations
on arbitrations586
and drug control269
and Hague Conference521
privileges/immunities of545
promoting transparency665
and refugees441, 448
and terrorism147, 165
and transparency665
and women250–52, 254
Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia case93, 94–95
legal effect, in treaties516–19
lex scripta524
LGBTQ rights418
Liability Convention192–93
Liang Bin630
Lie, Trygve29
Lisbon Treaty651–52
List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding317
List of World Hertiage in Danger314–15
Lockerbie (case)27, 28, 154
MacNeil, Ian25
Magna Carta of space law188
The Making of International Human Rights (Jensen)41
Malaysia175, 259–61
Manila Declaration (1988)83, 615n3
Marakesh Treaty363, 363n2
Marbury v. Madison27
marine resources, protection of213–14
marine scientific research (MSR)333–34
master plan, in Charter71–72
McDougal, Myres S634, 640, 645
Meade, James291
Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (MICT)476
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)473
Merry, Sally Engle264–65
Miami Group336
MICT (Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals)476
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua91–92
Minamata Convention on Mercury208–9
Mine Ban Treaty134
modalities resolution61, 61n45
Modern Treaty Law and Practice (Aust)1
of CEDAW262–63
of ILO standards244–47
in international law218
monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems218
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer8, 34, 206, 690
Mothers of Srebrenica v Netherlands and the United Nations555n49
MRV (monitoring, reporting, and verification) systems218
MSR (marine scientific research)333–34
multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs)204–16
biodiversity/wildlife/species at risk209–10
chemicals/wastes/transboundary air pollutants207–9
climate change/desertification/ozone layer destruction204–7
oceans/marine resources213–14
regional/bilateral innovations214–16
transboundary freshwater systems/wetlands212–13
crisis of49
in IP law363–64
in treaties (see multilateral treaties)
and UN privileges/immunities546–47
multilateral trading system287–90, 294
multilateral treaties
adoption of63–64
bilateral and671–72
decline in8–9
formulation of3, 59–62 (see also multilateral treaty-making)
introduction of6–7
relationships managed through33
Secretary-General report of51–52
by themes672
U.S. ratification of45
multilateral treaty-making137–45
decline in670–71
diversity of52–53
by ICC468–74
informality in139–41
and privileges/immunities543, 562
skills/means for141–42
sovereignty and consensus in137–39
time pressure in142–44
by UN616
Munich Olympic Massacre (1972)166
mutual legal assistance464
Nagoya Protocol (2010)210
Nandan, Satya541
Nansen, Fridtj of428–29
national human rights institutions (NHRIs)391
National Rifle Association639
NCDs (non-communicable diseases)341
in international commercial arbitration591–93
for international health law358–60
interpretative materials during514–16
language of686
(p. 708) in law of treaties514–16
of multilateral treaties (see negotiations, of multilateral treaties)
participants in, of treaties61
through soft laws111–12
of UNCLOS528
UN treaties for2–4
negotiations, of multilateral treaties138, 615–31
criticism of54
examples of619–25
lessons from625–31
and terrorism162
UN techniques of617–19
New Delhi Declaration Principles of International Law on Sustainable Development221–22
New York Convention585–88, 591–97
NHRIs (national human rights institutions)391
Nicaragua v. Honduras (2007)668
NNWS (non-nuclear weapons states)122–23, 127
non-communicable diseases (NCDs)341
nondiscrimination, on basis of sex256
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)252, 390–91, 634. See also nonstate actors (NSAs), multilateral treaties
non-nuclear weapons states (NNWS)122–23, 127
nonproliferation weapons control treaties127–30, 135
nonstate actors (NSAs), multilateral treaties633–47
levels of638–44
UN framework for635–38
norm entrepreneur40–41
norm theories40–44, 50
North Korea123, 127, 420
North Sea Continental Shelf case93–97
NPT (Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty)122–23, 126–27
NTC (International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism22)174–75
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)122–23, 126–27
Nuclear Safety Convention (1994)115
nuclear weapons nonproliferation122–27, 408
Nuclear Weapons States (NWS)122
nuclear weapons tests, banning124
NWS (Nuclear Weapons States)122
obsolete conventions243–44
oceans, protection of213–14
O’Connell, DPO502
Office of Legal Affairs52
Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)380–81
OPCW (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)129
Open-Ended Working Group126
Opium Protocol (1961)270
Optional Protocol(s)
to CEDAW381
on Children in Armed Conflict381
to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communications Procedure381, 387
to the CRPD381
to the ICESCR381, 387
on Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography381
to UNCAT381, 389
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)5, 486–87
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)129
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)162–63, 171, 175–76
organized crime, defining278, 282. See also transnational organized crime and corruption regime
OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe)5, 486–87
OST (Outer Space Treaty)125, 188–91
outer space law181–98
formation of182–85
future of194–96
(p. 709) introduction of185–94
science influencing323, 332–33
and state responsibility599–600
Outer Space Treaty (OST)125, 188–91
outreach activities, by depositary693
ozone-depleting substances325–27, 329
ozone layer destruction204–7, 325–26, 329
package-deal approach528, 540
Pakistan159, 163, 668
Palermo Protocol255
Palestine61, 309n9, 674, 688
Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework352
Pardo, Arvid525–26
Paris Agreement (2015)
as binding8
and COPs204
and ILO229
implementation of12
multilateralism of49
NDCs in685–86
NSAs role in639–40
withdrawals from220
Paris Peace Treaty (1919)231
participation clauses687
partnerships, strategic140
patents, drug345–46
Paul, Alice251
Pauwelyn, Joost7
peace, international74, 81–82
peacekeeping28, 66
Pellet, Alain508
penal provisions454–58, 672
Pérez, Javier531
Peru v. Chile (2014)669
Philadelphia Declaration (1944)231
PIP (Pandemic Influenza Preparedness) Framework352
PoA (Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects)131
Pohl, Galindo541
poverty, in SDGs224
pre-initiation stage, of treaty-making56–57
prevention, terrorism153
privileges and immunities543–63
1946 convention on545–50
1947 convention on551–54
and diplomatic/consular relations572–73
treaty regimes established for554–62
Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (the PoA)131
prosecution, terrorism153–55, 153n29
protections, international441–49
Pulp Mills Case113–14
Qatar v. Bahrain (1994)668–69
Quality Education (SDGs)225–26
Ramsar Convention213
in ILO235–37, 242
of multilateral treaties45
of VCDR and VCCR575 See also amendments
Raustila, Kal639
references, in UN Charter74–75
refugee treaties429–34, 447–48
regimes44–48, 345–46
regional economic integration organizations (REIOs)688
Registration Convention193
Regulation64 Panels, 478–79
REIOs (regional economic integration organizations)688
Reisman, W Michael634, 640, 645
relational contract theory (RCT)24–25, 31, 35–36
Relationship Agreement, for UN/ICC472–73
religious freedom418
remedies, of Covenant408–9
Reparations (case)28
(p. 710) reporting
in Covenants405
by human rights treaty bodies380–83
and MRV systems218
by states415
transparency in218
Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity317
in ILO standards235–37
to treaties508–10
UNSG role in692–93
Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone (RSCSL)482
Resolution 51/210148–49
Resolution 1373149
resources, for multilateral treaty-making141–42
responsibility, individual458
Responsibility to Protect (R2P)41, 50
“1980 Review of the Multilateral Treaty-Making Process” (UN)51, 53, 55, 63
Rica v. Nicaragua222
Richardson, Egerton403–4
right to health422
Rink, Anna Cornelia282
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992)104, 108–9, 299–300
risk management334–36
Risse, Thomas42
Robinson, Joan291
Rome Statute of ICC458–61, 461–63
Rome Statute on the Crime of Aggression690
Roosevelt, Franklin D6, 287
Ropp, Stephen C42
Rose, Cecily281
Roth, Kenneth45
Royal Society321
RSCSL (Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone)482
Ruggie Principles643
Rule 11bis484
rules, customary92–98
Russia130, 144, 427–31, 462
Rwanda29, 475, 498
Sahawari Arab Democratic Republic (SADR)675
Sandström, Emil571–72
Satow, Ernest139
Savadi and others v. Belgium407
Schwarzenberger, Georg458
science, in treaty making321–37
access to existing331–32
contributions of324–31
and environment/sustainable development217
future of337
history of322–24
and risk management334–36
SCSL (Special Court for Sierra Leone)481–82
Seabed Treaty125
Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR on the Abolition of the Death Penalty (ICCPR-OP2)381
Second Protocol, in UNESCO310, 310n12
Secretariat, role of
in Article102, 667
in ICL development452–53
in treaty-making54–55, 66–68, 673–77
Secretary-General. See UN Secretary-General (UNSG)
security, UN Charter objectives on74, 81–82
Security Council. See UN Security Council (UNSC)
Selin, Noelle E45
sex trafficking254–55
side agreements, in treaties515
Sierra Leone67, 67n70, 481–82
signature, opening for686–87
Sikkink, Kathryn40, 42
Simma, Bruno69
skills, for multilateral treaty-making141–42
SOFAS (Status of Forces Agreements)66
soft defection, in drug treaties273–76
soft laws101–17
(p. 711) advantages of101–3, 116–17
disadvantages of103–4
and drug control275
reasons leading to102–4
of space181–82
UN use of (see UN soft laws)
in WIPO373n36
Sohn, Louis542
SOMAS (Status of Mission Agreements)66
South Sea China Arbitration616n4
sovereignty, in multilateral treaty-making137–39
Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL)481–82
specialized agencies
and human rights treaty bodies391
privileges/immunities of (see privileges and immunities)
treaty-making within78
Special Panels for Serious Crimes (SPSC)477–78
Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL)483–84
species at risk209–11
SPSC (Special Panels for Serious Crimes)477–78
Sputnik I183
SRM (Standards Review Mechanism)244
Ssenyonjo, Manisuli410
stagnation hypothesis7
in human rights treaty bodies390–91
in UN35–36
in UN Charter25
Standards Review Mechanism (SRM)244
statelessness treaties430, 434–41, 447–48
state responsibility599–611
debates about607–11
drafting articles on601–7
in negotiation618–19
economic rights of297
friendly relations between75
inadequate diffusion of information in425
obligations of, with Covenants402–3
reporting procedure for415
responsibility of (see state responsibility)
succession of, in treaties500–504
and terrorism148–49, 152–57
state terrorism180
Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAS)66
Status of Mission Agreements (SOMAS)66
STL (Special Tribunal for Lebanon)483–84
Stockholm Convention208
Stokes, Leah C45
Straddling Stocks Agreement213–14
Strasbourg Court418
strategic partnerships140
Strugar, Pavle315–16
Stuenkel, Oliver41
substance of rights417–19
Summary of Practice of the Secretary-General as Depositary of Multilateral Treaties684
supression conventions268
sustainable development303. See also trade and development
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)202–3, 223–28, 322
sustainable development solutions220–27
“Taking Forward Multilateral Nuclear Disarmament Negotiations” (Open-Ended Working Group)126
tariffs289, 295
TDB (Trade and Development Board)295
technology136, 578–79
Tehran Hostages case577
comprehensive approach to160–63
and contemporary threats168–79
defined160–61, 165
and general assembly147–49
sectional approach to150–60
sectoral approach to167–68
treaty-making relating to166
(p. 712) TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union)658–59
time pressure, in multilateral treaty-making142–44
tobacco control347–50, 353–54, 356–60
Tolfa, Mostafa34
Toonen v Australia418
trade and development285–97
and GATT/WTO297–303
and ITO290–93
multilateral trading system and287–90
and UNCTAD293–97
UN influence on285–86
Trade and Development Board (TDB)295
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs) Agreement342, 345–46, 368
trading system, multilateral287–90, 294
transboundary air pollutants207–9
transboundary freshwater systems212–13
translation, of treaties143–44, 624n57
transnational organized crime and corruption regime277–82
transparency218. See also Article 102
Transparency Convention588–95
Transparency Registry595
Transparency Rules589–91, 596–97
transportation, protecting150
travaux preparatoires, of treaties513, 517, 519–20, 595, 627, 628n80
Treaty Event693
treaty-making430, 434–41, 447–48
challenges to673–77
depositary duties in681–82
diversity in process of77–78
for environment and sustainable development220–27
by EU662
global trends in669–73
HRC contributions to419–21
human rights (see human rights treaties)
initiation of55–59
international (see international treaty-making)
in IP law368–72, 368n19, 369n24, 370t
multilateral (see multilateral treaties)
network of76
NSA role in638–39
periods of7
post-adoption concerns with64–65, 142–43
process of2–3
pursuing Charter objectives71–75, 83–84
refugee429–34, 447–48
science in (see science, in treaty making)
secretariat role in54–55, 66–68
supplementing/updating in65
in UN practice76–84
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)658–59
Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons43
Trump, Donald49, 353
Tuna-Dolphin 1301
2001 Bulletin682
Tyagi, Yogesh409
UN ad hoc Tribunals461, 468, 474–79
UNCAC (UN Convention against Corruption)280–81, 643–44
UNCAT (UN Convention against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment)381, 622–23
UNCAT-OP (Optional Protocol to UNCAT)381, 389
UN Charter23–37, 70n6
codification in87–88
cultural character in307
evolution of26–31
initial txt vs. application of69–70
international law in7
and law of treaties494
negotiation in113, 615n3
objectives of, and treaties70–75, 71n8, 566
as relational contract23–26
transparency in (See Article 102, of UN Charter)
treaty-making in31–36
and treaty regulation76–84
treaty role in2
women in252–53, 254 See also Articles, of UN Charter
UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)583–84, 588–94, 596
UN Conference(s)
on Environment and Development533
on International Organizations27
on International Trade Law58, 77
on the Law of the Sea (1958)523–25, 537
on Straddling Fish Stocks/Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1993-1995)534, 637
on Trade and Development286, 291, 293–97, 296n63
UN Convention(s)
on a Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences (1974)296
to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought/Desertification206–7
against Corruption280–81, 643–44
against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs/Psychotropic Substances (1988)5
on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property (2004)516, 518–19, 624–25
on the Law of the Sea (See UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS))
on Narcotic Drugs (1961)267, 270–72, 343
on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents (1973)565–66
on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities638–39
against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment381, 622–23
against Transnational Organized Crime267, 277–79
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
challenges to54, 535–36
codification in87–88, 89
development of525–30
implementation of530–35
negotiations of518, 539–41
and ocean protection213–14
science influencing323, 333
soft law use in114–16
and treaty formulation59, 537
and treaty ratification45
and underwater cultural heritage316 See also law of the sea
UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples639
Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs65
underwater cultural heritage316–17
UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (1998)637
UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)212, 214–15, 651, 689
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)204–7, 323–24, 327–28, 331, 660
UNGA resolution68/268, 393–95, 398, 410
UN General Assembly (UNGA)
and 1969 VCLT497
and armed conflict511
and Article102, 666
Charter interpretation by28
and codification89–90, 99, 110
compliance enforced by575–78
and corruption280
and diplomatic/consular law567, 571–72, 579, 581
(p. 714) and human rights treaty bodies377, 382, 398
and ICC468–69
ICL development by452–53, 459
in initiation stage58
negotiations by33, 618–25
and NGOs637–38
peacekeeping by28
in pre-initiation stage56
and privileges/immunities543
and refugee treaties428
role of2
and space law184–85
on state responsibility604–9
and terrorism147–49
and treaty negotiation112
and UNCLOS540
and weapons control treaties126, 131
UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights643
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)432–35, 437–38, 442–49
UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995)313, 313n16–313n19, 320
UN Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK)478–79
UN International Independent Investigation Commission483
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)121, 128, 182–85, 189–90, 531
UNISPACE+50 session197–98
United Nations (UN)
conferences of (see UN Conference(s))
contributions of1
conventions of (see UN Convention(s))
development of6
environmental problems addressed by216–20
role in negotiations626
stakeholders in35–36
trading systems influenced by286
treaties effectuating actions of73
treaties enabling actions of72–73
and UNCLOS530–35
women delegates in249–50
United Nations Organization Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)307–9, 309n9, 320
United States
and Article 5130
and cultural heritage316
and drug control regime269–70, 272, 275
and drug treaties275–76
and law of sea529–31
and organized crime277
science use in331, 333–36
and space law182–85, 188–91
and trade development286–91, 296, 302
and treaty-making44–49
voting in34
United States–Clove Cigarettes case361
United States-Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline (Reformulated Gas)301–2
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)32, 445–46
adoption of397
as soft law106–8
and women256
universal jurisdiction, principle of463–64
UNMIK (UN Interim Administration in Kosovo)478–79
UN Office on Drugs and Crime684
UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)268, 274
UN Secretary-General (UNSG)681–93
and Article 102679–80
Charter interpretation by28, 29
depositary functions of4, 684–93
and human rights treaty body392
and ICC473
in pre-initiation stage56
on refugee status442, 447
and Regulation 64 Panels 478–79
role of683–84
and STL483
and UNCLOS531
UN Security Council (UNSC)
and cultural heritage protections310–11
and diplomatic/consular law580
and ICC470–71
(p. 715) in ICC proceedings460–61
and nuclear weapon nonproliferation126
power of24
roles of29
and STL483–84
UN Charter on81–82
and WCC485
and weapon control enforcement130
UN Security Council Resolution 242143
UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961)267, 270–72, 343
UN soft laws106–16
codification/progressive development in109–11
and declaratory lawmaking106–9
and subsidiary rules/standards114–16
treaty interpretation through112–14
treaty negotiation through111–12
UNTAET (UN Transitional Administration in East Timor)477
UNTOC (UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime)267, 277–79
UN Torture Convention (1984)622–23
UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)477
UN treaties
changes in1–2
for environment/sustainable development (see environment and sustainable development)
implementation of4–6
making of137–38 (see also UN treaty-making)
multilateralism in6–9
for negotiations2–4
UN Treaty Collection682
UN treaty-making427–49
about137, 427–29
and international protections441–49
and law of sea522
and refugee treaties429–34
and statelessness treaties434–41
UN Treaty Series667
urgent action, and human rights treaty body389–90
Uruguay113, 275–76, 298–99, 336
U.S. Supreme Court27
US-USSR nuclear arms control arrangement121
Victor, David G47
Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities572, 630
Vienna Convention(s)
on Consular Relations (1963)565–66, 565n2, 575–76, 579–80
on Diplomatic Relations (1961)565–66, 565n1, 575–76, 579–80
and ILO standards240–41
on the Law of Treaties (1969) (See Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) (VCLT))
on the Protection of the Ozone Layer205–6, 325–26
on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties (1979)500–504
on Treaties Between States and International Organizations (1986)504–8
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) (VCLT)
and 1978 VCSST503
depositary functions in4, 685–91
development of495–99
interpretation of511–13
legal effects in516–17
negotiation in618
reservations in508–9
and state responsibility602–3
(p. 716) Vienna Formula61, 687
in treaty negotiations63
in UNCLOS negotiations540
for women254
Waldock, CHM495
war, laws of454–55
war crimes320, 452, 454, 471
War Crimes Chamber (WCC)484–85
Washington Treaty on the Protection of Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits369
waste pollutants, MEAs on207–9
Watts, Arthur504
WCC (War Crimes Chamber)484–85
weapons, chemical127
weapons control
history of121
progress in136
as term121n1
treaties for (see weapons control treaties)
weapons control treaties121–36
for chem-bio disarmament/nonproliferation127–30
conventional weapons transfers controlled by130–33
and IHL law133–35
for nuclear weapons nonproliferation122–27
weapons transfers, conventional130–33
Wessel, Ramses7
wetlands, protection of212–13. See also environment and sustainable development
Wiener, Antje43
Wilson, Woodrow665
WIPO Re:Search364n4, 372–73
withdrawal. See denunciation
importance of249
in international sphere250–54
UN instruments relating to254–64
Wood, Michael510
Working Group58, 126
World Bank349
world cultural heritage314–16
World Health Assembly (WHA)346, 348, 352, 356, 358
World Health Organization (WHO)
constitution of355
and drug control268
and heath laws340, 353, 357–58
lawmaking by347–52
and NSAs646
science influencing332
World Heritage Committee314–15, 314n25
World Heritage List314–15
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
contributions of363–64, 364n4
and cultural heritage318
future directions with373–74
history of365–66
on NGOs646
science influencing331–32
treaty-making by368–72
voting in365n11
World Trade Organization (WTO)
and drug control286
and GATT298–99
and globalization342
treaty interpretation by519
World War II, 182–83, 287, 522–23
Wouters, Jan7
Yankov, Alexander541
Yasseen, Mustafa Kamil503
Yugoslavia (former), and ICTY474–75
Zuleta, Bernardo542