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Alcide De Gasperi and Palmiro Togliatti  

Aldo Agosti

Published in print:
Nov 2015
Published Online:
Feb 2016
Alcide de Gasperi and Palmiro Togliatti were the two pivotal figures of the early postwar period. Despite their different political outlook, the two collaborated during the last phase of ... More

Bettino Craxi and Giulio Andreotti  

Antonio Varsori

Published in print:
Nov 2015
Published Online:
Feb 2016
Bettino Craxi and Giulio Andreotti played a leading role in Italy’s political life in the 1980s. Andreotti rose to prominence as Defense Minister in the 1960s, developing close links with ... More

Bringing the Territory Back in: Toward a New Understanding of the Regional Dimension of the EU  

Charlie Jeffrey and Carolyn Rowe

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Analysis of the ‘regional dimension’ of the EU has long since noted how the European integration process reframes the space for political action that regions can access. Clearly, ... More

Burden-Sharing  

Eiko Thielemann

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
References to ‘burden-sharing’, ‘responsibility-sharing’, or what the Lisbon Treaty now prefers to call ‘solidarity between the member states’ are frequently heard in the context of EU ... More

CAP  

Francis Snyder

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was the European Economic Community's (EEC) first (and for a long time only) common policy. Following the trauma of World War II, it was based partly ... More

The Challenge of European Union  

Richard Bellamy

Published in print:
Jun 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2009
This article examines the political challenges of the European Union (EU). It explains that political theorists and scientists alike have viewed European integration as a laboratory for ... More

Challenges to French Public Administration: mapping the vitality of its knowledge sources  

Philippe Bezes

Published in print:
Nov 2016
Published Online:
Jan 2017
This chapter aims to characterize the French administrative system and its contemporary transformations, by identifying the dynamics and diversity of the research conducted on this subject ... More

The Common Foreign and Security Policy  

David Allen

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Since 1954, when the six founding European member states of the European Coal and Steel Community chose not to create a European Defence Community (EDC), the member states of the EU ... More

Comparative Regional Integration: Theoretical Developments  

Walter Mattli

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Comparative regional integration has emerged over the last decade as an exciting area of research. Interest was sparked, in part, by a new wave of integration in Asia, Africa, and the ... More

Competition Policy  

Imelda Maher

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Competition policy is a highly technical policy field, which plays a role in wider EU constitutional and governance developments. It is inextricably linked to the internal market, making ... More

The Constitutional and Lisbon Treaties  

Youri Devuyst

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This article examines the EU's failed attempt to approve the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (Constitutional Treaty) and its successful replacement by the Treaty of Lisbon. ... More

The Constitutional Context of (Ever–Wider) Policy–Making  

Stephen Weatherill

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
There is a temptation to suppose that the creation and maintenance of an integrated trading area in the EU brings with it a need for a general regulatory competence vested in the EU ... More

Constitutional Politics: the French case and theory-building  

Sylvain Brouard

Published in print:
Nov 2016
Published Online:
Jan 2017
This chapter presents the intriguing puzzle of French constitutional politics: a spectacular increase in judicialization of French politics in the context of a flexible constitution and a ... More

Constructivist Perspectives  

Frank Schimmelfennig

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Constructivism claims that social ideas and discourses matter for European integration. In the constructivist perspective, European integration is at its core a process of community ... More

Coordinated Versus Liberal Market Economies  

Orfeo Fioretos

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
In creating and sustaining an internal market, EU governments have confronted an enduring governance dilemma, namely how to minimize barriers to international economic exchange without ... More

Coordination in the EU  

B. Guy Peters

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
Effective policy coordination is a central challenge for any government, including the governing institutions of the EU. Both the underlying policy issues being confronted by governments ... More

Council of Ministers and European Council  

Jeffrey Lewis

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
The EU's Council system is designed to represent national interests and make joint decisions. Descriptively, the Council is a composite organization of committee governance made up of ... More

Defense and Security Policy: beyond French exceptionalism  

Bastien Irondelle, Jean Joana, and Frédéric Mérand

Published in print:
Nov 2016
Published Online:
Jan 2017
This chapter examines what the international literature tells us about French security and defense policy, but also what the French case teaches us about this literature. French ... More

Defense Policy  

Anand Menon

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) is one of the most widely discussed areas of EU activity. Since its inception, the EU has used this new instrument to deploy missions to all ... More

Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union  

Vivien A. Schmidt

Published in print:
Aug 2012
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This article examines the quality of democracy and legitimacy of the EU. If the EU can be considered democratic in terms of its institutional set-up, it is so in ways unlike those of ... More

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