Mark Kritzman, Simon Myrgren, and Sebastien Page
A technique called dynamic programming can be used to identify an optimal rebalancing schedule, which significantly reduces rebalancing and sub-optimality costs. Dynamic programming provides solutions to multi-stage decision processes in which the decisions made in prior periods affect the choices available in later periods. Dynamic programming provides the optimal year-by-year decision policy by working backwards from year 10. The results of the test of the relative efficacy of dynamic programming and the MvD heuristic with data on domestic equities, domestic fixed income, non-US equities, non-US fixed income, and emerging market equities, show that the MvD heuristic performs quite well compared to the dynamic programming solution for the two-asset case and substantially better than other heuristics. The increase in the number of assets reduces the advantage of dynamic programming over the MvD heuristic and is reversed at the level of five assets. Dynamic programming cannot be applied beyond five assets, but the MvD heuristic can be extended up to 100 assets. The MvD heuristic reduces total costs relative to all of the other heuristics by substantial amounts. The performance of the MvD heuristic improves relative to the dynamic programming solution as more assets are added but this improvement reflects a growing reliance on an approximation for the dynamic programming approach.
This chapter examines the potential discrepancies in the regulation applied to overseas issuers, as opposed to domestic issuers, of four leading financial centers. They are New York, London, Hong Kong, and Singapore. It consists of three substantive sections. The first section will reviews existing literature and empirical evidence concerning the motivations and current state of cross-listing. The second section examines the listing route for an overseas issuer and inquires how it might differ from a domestic listing in the host country. This chapter particularly concerns the potential discrepancies of rules between a foreign listing and a domestic listing and asks if those discrepancies would lead to better or inferior investor protection. The third section examines the continuing regulation of foreign-listed companies, reviewing some regulatory concerns involving cross-listed companies and discussing what can be done to curb the problems, for instance, through regulatory cooperation between home and host regulators.
C.A. Knox Lovell and Emili Grifell-Tatje
We study various analytical frameworks relating productivity change to change in the cost structure and cost efficiency of the firm. We begin by motivating a focus on the cost side, and not the revenue side, of the profit objective of the firm. We continue by relating the cost accounting tool of standard cost variance analysis to the economics tool of cost efficiency analysis. We focus on managerially controllable drivers of cost efficiency, including productivity change and its components. We conclude by noting some significant empirical applications of the analysis, by recommending cost efficiency analysis as a valuable tool for benchmarking against the best, and by suggesting some new directions for research.
Marina Della Giusta, Maria Laura di Tommaso, and Sarah L. Jewell
In this chapter, we analyze the demand for paid sex of British men utilizing the British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles based on interviews in the period 2010–2012. The paper tests a theoretical model of demand for paid sex (Della Giusta et al. 2009a) where demand for paid sex depends on income, the amount of free sex, stigma, and reputation. A novelty of this chapter consists of analyzing the roles of income and religion. We find that the probability that men pay for sex is 6 percentage points higher for men with an income between £40,000 and £50,000, controlling for education and professional status. The probability of paying for sex increases between 2 and 5 percentage points if the man is religious, after controlling for conservative opinions.
Randall Morck and Bernard Yeung
This article discusses agency problems and capitalism. It suggests that real social costs of agency problems lie deeper, in the inner workings of the economy. Inefficient resource allocation by firms costs money, as do the monitoring and control mechanisms that might limit those problems. Some level of agency costs is thus unavoidable. But both firms and economies can seek ways to reduce unavoidable agency costs.
Petter N. Kolm and Lee Maclin
This article discusses the portfolio optimization with market impact costs, combining execution and portfolio risk, and dynamic portfolio analysis. A multi-period portfolio optimization model is proposed that incorporates permanent and temporary market impact costs, and alpha decay. There are five popular algorithmic trading strategies that include arrival price, market-on-close, participation, time-weighted average price (TWAP), and volume-weighted average price (VWAP). For a VWAP benchmark, the lowest risk execution is obtained by trading one's own shares in the same fractional volume pattern as the market. VWAP execution is expected to result in the lowest temporary market impact costs. The temporary market impact in a rate of trading model is a function of one's own rate of trading expressed as a fraction of the absolute trading activity of the market. One popular interpretation of the model is that the markets are relatively efficient with respect to the relationship between trading volume and volatility, which are typical inputs of the model. Any reduction in impact that results from more trading volume would be offset by an increase in impact due to increased volatility. The lowest absolute rate of trading can be realized by distributing one's orders evenly over time. This is called a time-weighted average price (TWAP) execution.
All Ties Are Not Created Equal: Institutional Equity Ties, IPO Performance, and Market Growth of New Ventures
Yong Li and Beiqing Yao
This chapter examines whether and how different types of institutional ties affect new venture performance at different organizational stages. The authors propose that equity ties to government agencies will enhance the speed and returns of initial public offerings (IPOs) but hinder post-IPO market growth. By contrast, equity ties to research institutes will contribute positively to both IPO performance and post-IPO market growth. The authors build their arguments on how the two types of institutional ties meet new ventures’ need to be legitimate and competitive pre- and post-IPO. They test their hypotheses with new ventures in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries that went public in China and find supportive evidence.
Armin Schwienbacher and Benjamin Larralde
This article discusses crowdfunding as an alternative way of financing projects, with a focus on small, entrepreneurial ventures. It first provides a description of crowdfunding and discusses existing research on the topic. The next section looks at crowdfunding in the context of entrepreneurial finance and thereby describes factors affecting entrepreneurial preferences for crowdfunding as a source of finance. Thereafter it elaborates different business models used to raise money from the crowd, in particular with respect to the structure of the crowdfunding process. Building on this discussion, the article presents and discusses extensively a case study, Media No Mad (a French start-up). It concludes with recommendations for entrepreneurs seeking to make use of crowdfunding and with suggestions for researchers about yet-unexplored avenues of research.
Antony Davies, Kajal Lahiri, and Xuguang Sheng
This article illustrates how frameworks built around multidimensional panel data of forecasts can be used not only to test the rational expectations hypothesis correctly, but also to study alternative expectations-formation mechanisms, to distinguish anticipated from unanticipated shocks, and to distinguish forecast uncertainty from disagreement.
Francis Breedon and Robert Kosowski
The article aims to discuss the optimal asset allocation for sovereign wealth funds (SWF). The main purpose of a commodity based sovereign wealth fund is to create a permanent income stream out of a temporary one and so allow consumption smoothing over time. The asset allocation framework typically consists of an objective function that implies a preference for the highest return for a given level of risk. The ultimate objective of a SWF is to smooth consumption and achieve intergenerational transfers. The accumulation of financial assets presupposes functioning markets for consumption goods such as food products. Another consideration that may guide the investment behavior of sovereign wealth funds and that highlights the role of liabilities is food security. Future food imports are a key component of the balance of payments identity. A rigorous analysis of the commodity fund's optimal asset allocation policy must take into account the role of liabilities and therefore requires an analysis of the country's balance of payments. The ALM takes into account the role of liabilities and the resulting additional hedging demands. The asset liability management (ALM) examines both assets and financial liabilities and models the return on assets and the return on liabilities.
Liang Han and Song Zhang
This article reviews literature on the important role played by asymmetric information in entrepreneurial finance from two perspectives: asymmetric information and relationship lending, and the theoretical modeling of asymmetric information. Then it examines the relationship between capital market conditions and entrepreneurial finance and attempts to answer two questions: Why is the capital market condition important for entrepreneurial finance? and What are the effects of capital market conditions on entrepreneurial financial behavior in terms of discouraged borrowers, cash holding, and the availability and costs of finance?
This chapter focuses on the selection of an audit firm by UK initial public offering (IPO) firms. It documents that many IPO firms switch to an audit firm in a different segment (big, midsize, or small), which suggests that IPO firms carefully select an audit firm of a particular quality level before they go public. It examines whether the selection of an auditor by IPO firms is driven by the demand for certification or insurance. The authors find that IPO firms are more likely to choose a high-quality auditor when the uncertainty of the firm’s future prospects is higher and they want to signal quality (certification driven by signaling). In addition, they find that firms with riskier IPO offerings select higher-quality auditors, in line with the insurance hypothesis. They find mixed results for the certification hypotheses when testing for the effect of auditor reputation on initial returns.
Austrian school economists have long been interested in monetary and financial operations that characterize modern capitalism. With a few exceptions, this interest was confined, at least until the late twentieth century, primarily to the aggregate effects of these operations on the workings of the economy at large, focusing on the overall outcomes of human action rather than specifics of how the decision to engage in those actions comes about. In other words, Austrian theorists emphasized the role of business enterprise but not the conduct of business. The last thirty years of development in the Austrian school have seen a profound change in this regard, with notable contributions emerging in all areas of business education. This chapter demonstrates the development of Austrian theory with respect to finance and makes the case that this development is sufficient in scope to qualify as a distinctive Austrian theory of finance.
Availability of Credit to Small Firms Young and Old: Evidence from the Surveys of Small Business Finances
The availability of credit is one of the most important issues facing small businesses, and is especially vexing for young and fast-growing firms that need new capital to finance growth. In the United States, small businesses produce about half of the total GDP in the U.S., employ about half of all private-sector U.S. workers, and have accounted for almost two-thirds of all job growth between 1993 and 2008. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the issue of credit availability to small firms. This article analyzes data from a series of four nationally representative samples of small U.S. firms conducted by the Federal Reserve Board over two decades. It explores differences in younger and older firms, using ten years as the demarcation point between young and old businesses. Younger firms seeking to grow have different credit needs than older, more mature firms. Many distinguish entrepreneurial firms from other small firms by their age. The article briefly describes the Surveys for Small Business Finances (SSBFs); summarizes two sets of studies that use the SSBFs to analyze the use of credit by small firms; and presents new evidence from the SSBFs on differences between young and old small firms, with a focus on the availability of credit.
Charles W. Calomiris
This chapter reviews the history of banking crises, with particular emphasis on the experience of the United States during the Great Depression. It considers the perspectives historical experience provide regarding the relevance of different theories of the origins of such crises, their consequences for the economy, their changing frequency over time, the potential role for lender-of-last resort assistance to ameliorate crises, and differences across countries in the propensity for crises.
The role of banks in real economic activity has been discussed at length, with arguments over whether bank development is merely a consequence of a growing economy, which simply demands a growing flow of intermediated funds, or whether instead banks themselves can spur further real economic activity. Both theory and empirical advances in recent years have put this causality debate to rest. Not only does banking matter but we now know better how. This chapter provides a panoramic view of the literature on this topic, from the earlier emphasis on causality, to its further investigation of the specific mechanisms through which banks affect the real economy and open issues on the table to carry research activity going forward.
Gerard Caprio Jr and Patrick Honohan
The history of banking around the world has been punctuated by frequent systemic crises. As with Tolstoy’s “unhappy families,” not all crises are the same; distinct roles have been played at different times by mismanagement, government interference, and macroeconomic shocks. This review identifies common features of crises in recent decades and describes how costly they have been in terms of their fiscal burden and the impact on macroeconomic growth. It proceeds to outline the conceptual issues identified by theoreticians and considers appropriate policy responses. Although the crisis that began in 2007 and the euro sovereign debt crisis are claimed to be mostly new, we find key elements that are painfully familiar in each. Brief lessons for regulation are provided.
Claudia M. Buch and Gayle L. Delong
The 2007–09 financial crisis has renewed interest in the causes of consequences of international bank mergers. While it is too early to assess the effects of recent developments on financial markets, there is a rich literature on international mergers and acquisitions in banking, which this chapter surveys. We focus on three main questions. First, what are the determinants of cross-border acquisitions of commercial banks? Second, do cross-border acquisitions affect the efficiency of banks? Third, what are the risk effects of international bank acquisitions? We begin with a brief summary of the stylized facts, and we conclude with implications for policymakers.
Allen N. Berger, Philip Molyneux, and John O. S. Wilson
This chapter provides a brief review of the recent financial crisis, the policy and banking industry responses to it around the world, and the resultant renaissance in banking research. This research suggests a need to better understand: financial development and the role of the state; financial innovation and the links to risk-taking; the optimal scale and scope of banks; and liquidity risk and creation. The chapter also provides a brief summary of the 39 additional chapters which make up the second edition of The Oxford Handbook of Banking.
Thorsten Beck and Robert Cull
This chapter takes stock of the current state of banking systems across sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that could help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the chapter documents that African banking systems are shallow but stable. African banks are well capitalized and over-liquid, but lend less to the private sector than banks in non-African developing countries. African enterprises and households are less likely to use financial services than their peers in other developing countries. The chapter also describes a number of financial innovations across the continent that can help overcome different barriers to financial inclusion and have helped to expand the bankable and the banked population.