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Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System  

Donald M. Caspary and Daniel A. Llano

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
As arguably the third most common malady of industrialized populations, age-related hearing loss is associated with social isolation and depression in a subset of the population that will ... More

The Auditory Brainstem Implant: Restoration of Speech Understanding from Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlear Nucleus  

Robert V. Shannon

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a surgically implanted device to electrically stimulate auditory neurons in the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem in humans to restore ... More

Autoantibodies and Neuropathic Pain  

John M. Dawes and David L. Bennett

A number of clinical studies indicated an association between autoantibodies and neuropathic pain. This is supported by the observation that immunotherapies that reduce antibody levels ... More

Axon Trajectories in the Auditory Brainstem  

Nell Beatty Cant

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
This chapter summarizes what is known about the organization of the axons that make up the white matter of the auditory brainstem. The sources of the axons in each of the major fiber ... More

Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans  

Nina Kraus and Trent Nicol

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The encoding of speech and music in the auditory brainstem is available at the human scalp via the auditory-evoked frequency following response. The FFR, primarily reflecting activity in ... More

Cancer and Pain  

Rie Bager Hansen and Sarah Falk

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Pain is a common and feared complication for many cancer patients. Cancer pain covers numerous pain syndromes; since the treatment is complex, it is essential to assess each individual ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemo- and Optogenetic Strategies for the Elucidation of Pain Pathways  

Sascha R.A. Alles, Anne-Marie Malfait, and Richard J. Miller

Pain is not a simple phenomenon and, beyond its conscious perception, involves circuitry that allows the brain to provide an affective context for nociception, which can influence mood and ... More

Chloride Channels in Nociceptors  

Uhtaek Oh and Jooyoung Jung

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Pain may be induced by activation of various ion channels expressed in primary afferent neurons. These channels function as molecular sensors that detect noxious chemical, temperature, or ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

Control of Locomotion in Hexapods  

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls ... More

Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity  

Brett R. Schofield and Nichole L. Beebe

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Descending auditory pathways originate from multiple levels of the auditory system and use a variety of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. ... More

Deviance Detection and Encoding Acoustic Regularity in the Auditory Midbrain  

Manuel S. Malmierca, Guillermo V. Carbajal, and Carles Escera

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jan 2019
In the past, there was a rather corticocentric conception of the processing of relationships between sounds that used to mostly relegate the midbrain function to a mere relay. However, ... More

The Diversity of Neuropathic Pain  

Nanna Brix Finnerup and Nadine Attal

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The present chapter presents an update of the current classification, diagnosis, assessment, mechanisms, and treatment of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain, which is defined as pain ... More

Dorsal Horn Pain Mechanisms  

Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer and Robert Ganley

The spinal dorsal horn and its equivalent structure in the brainstem constitute the first sites of synaptic integration in the pain pathway. A huge body of literature exists on alterations ... More

Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Types and Their Functional Specialization  

Edward C. Emery and Patrik Ernfors

Primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) respond and relay sensations that are felt, such as those for touch, pain, temperature, itch, and more. The ability to discriminate ... More

Effect of Sleep Loss on Pain  

Chloe Alexandre, Alban Latremoliere, and Patrick H. Finan

With the advent of modern lifestyles, there has been a significant extension of daily activities, mostly at the cost of sleep. Lack of sleep affects many biological systems, including ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2018
All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

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