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Aerodynamic Loading Due to Non-Synoptic Wind Systems  

Jubayer Chowdhury and Teng Wu

In this chapter, an effort has been made to give an overview of the aerodynamic loading on structures due to non-synoptic wind events, mainly tornadoes and downbursts. A brief description ... More

Analytical and Semi-empirical Models of Tornadoes and Downbursts  

Djordje Romanic and Horia Hangan

Analytical and semi-empirical models are inexpensive to run and can complement experimental and numerical simulations for risk analysis-related applications. Some models are developed by ... More

Antarctic Climate History and Global Climate Changes  

Pontus Lurcock and Fabio Florindo

Antarctic climate changes have been reconstructed from ice and sediment cores and numerical models (which also predict future changes). Major ice sheets first appeared 34 million years ago ... More

Assessing Wind Damage to Residential Structures  

Timothy P. Marshall and J. Arn Womble

Most building damage occurs at relatively low wind speeds, at or below 50 m s–1 (112 mph), as certain components fail, such as doors, windows, chimneys, and roof coverings. Rainwater then ... More

Characteristics of Downslope Wind Storms in the View of the Typical Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Hrvoje Kozmar and Branko Grisogono

There is a clear need to learn more about the exact characteristics of downslope wind storms in order to accurately address relevant topics in environmental aerodynamics and wind ... More

Coastal Hazards, Risks, and Marine Extreme Events: What Are We Doing About It?  

Eduardo Marone, Ricardo de Camargo, and Julio Salcedo Castro

This article describes the threat costal hazards pose to existing life in light of climate change and natural disaster. It includes an overview of flooding, extreme waves, and other ... More

Concluding Summary  

Horia Hangan and Ahsan Kareem

This chapter summarizes the book's study on non-synoptic wind storms (NSWSs). The book covers aspects related the general vulnerability to NSWSs in terms of (1) incidence, including the ... More

Convective Storms and the Insurance Industry: Challenges and Opportunities  

Kirsten D. Orwig

Convective storms affect countries worldwide, with billions in losses and dozens of fatalities every year. They are now the key insured loss driver in the United States, even after ... More

Economic and Policy Issues for Wind-Resistant Construction  

Kevin M. Simmons

This chapter summarizes recent research first on the policy prescription of building codes designed with wind engineering principles, then on research concerning how markets for ... More

Engineering Perspective of Tornadoes  

Kishor C. Mehta

This chapter is an introduction to tornado storms from an engineering perspective. The material included here relates to warnings and subsequent response by people, the chance of tornado ... More

Extremely Gusty Winds from a Viewpoint of Aerodynamic Force  

Junji Maeda, Takashi Takeuchi, Eriko Tomokiyo, and Yukio Tamura

To quantitatively investigate a gusty wind from the viewpoint of aerodynamic forces, a wind tunnel that can control the rise time of a step-function-like gust was devised and utilized. When ... More

Forecasting of Tornadoes and Downbursts: Challenges, Prioritization, and Progress  

Djordje Romanic

Tornadoes and downbursts cause extreme wind speeds that often present a threat to human safety, structures, and the environment. While the accuracy of weather forecasts has increased ... More

Groundbreaking Contributions to Downburst Monitoring, Modeling, and Detection  

Massimiliano Burlando and Djordje Romanic

Severe winds produced by thunderstorm outflows cause damage to structures and properties worldwide. Due to their high frequency of occurrence, these winds can be considered one of the most ... More


Horia Hangan and Ahsan Kareem

This Oxford handbook on non-synoptic wind systems is an outlook of the state of knowledge of various aspects of these wind systems and their impacts on our natural and build environment. ... More

Measuring the Engineering-Relevant Aspects of Non-Synoptic Wind Hazards  

John L. Schroeder

This article reviews the techniques and approaches historically employed to measure non-synoptic wind storms. While most of these efforts have originated from the atmospheric science ... More

Mesoscale, Microscale, and Numerical Models: Limitations and Future Evolution  

Patrick Hawbecker

Numerical models have been instrumental in analyzing the wind field of non-synoptic wind storms as it is very difficult to obtain a complete data set from observations alone. Depending on ... More

Non-Synoptic Winds Data Basis  

Uwe Ulbrich and Edmund P. Meredith

A high-quality data basis is essential for reliable assessment of non-synoptic wind hazards and determination of any mitigation measures needed. Common data sources, however, often come ... More

Novel Physical Simulators for Non-Synoptic Wind Systems: Limitations and Future Evolution  

Horia Hangan, Maryam Refan, Partha P. Sarkar, and Delong Zuo

The study of wind effects on buildings and structures is primarily based on physical simulations of wind events. Synoptic, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) winds have been simulated in ... More

Numerical Simulation of Flight and Impact of Windborne Debris  

Takashi Nomura

Numerical methods to simulate flight and impact of windborne debris are described. The problems are treated as fluid–structure interaction problems based on the ALE finite element flow ... More

Other Models: Data-Driven Approaches for Non-Stationary Non-Synoptic Winds  

Dae Kun Kwon and Ahsan Kareem

In comparison with atmospheric boundary layer winds, which are generally regarded as stationary, windstorms such as hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones; thunderstorms and downbursts; and ... More