This chapter questions the accuracy of the contrast between an Anglo-American component view and a Continental European perspective view of pragmatics. The latter is described as a necessarily interdisciplinary approach to linguistic pragmatics as a general science of language use. The question of possible unity in this wide field is addressed, concentrating mainly on the notions of implicitness, variability, negotiability, and adaptability. The chapter concludes with reference to a dividing line that is deemed more important in the light of recent developments: the contrast between strongly Western-based conceptualizations of language use and views that are rooted in non-Western cultures and societies.
The Luwian language belongs to the Luwic subgroup of the Indo-European Anatolian languages and is a close relative of Hittite. It was used for writing in the Empire of Hattusa and the Neo-Hittite states, which arose after its collapse (appr. 1400-700 BC). It is recorded in two scripts: an adaptation of Mesopotamian cuneiform and Anatolian hieroglyphs. The goal of this article is to provide a concise description of the Luwian language. It contains both information on its structure, with an emphasis on phonology and morphology, and sociolinguistic data. The grammatical description is predominantly synchronic, but historical and comparative information is occasionally introduced if it has a potential to clarify the synchronic state of affairs.
The history of research in neurolinguistics has provided an evolving picture of the neural basis of language. This chapter provides a brief review of its historical roots, its theoretical underpinnings that still guide much of current research, what has been learned, and what challenges and questions remain for the future. The field has progressed from a singular focus on the aphasias to the application of a broader palette of methodologies that have revolutionized our ability to map structural and functional properties of the brain. An earlier focus on localization of function has advanced to a recognition that components of the grammar are broadly tuned, recruiting neural systems rather than functionally encapsulated neural regions. Today’s neurolinguistics research promises to provide a deeper understanding of language—its representations, organization, and processes—and the neural systems underlying it—their structure, connections, computations, and intersection with other cognitive domains.
This chapter concentrates on word length, emphasizing relevant quantitative and synergetic approaches. Alternative units for measuring word length are discussed with regard to their usability, as well as the influence that different kinds of material may have on studying word length. In addition to presenting some basic descriptive statistical characteristics, this contribution shows that word length is a substantial and central phenomenon for a comprehensive theory of language. It is shown, first, that the way in which words of a given length occur in linguistic material is not chaotic, but follows clearly defined, law-like regularities; and second, that word length is not an isolated category within the linguistic system, but is closely interrelated to other properties of the word, as well as of other linguistic units, levels, and structures. Theoretical models are discussed, concerning not only these interrelations, but sequential text analysis and frequency distributions.