Joan Martí Molist
Volcanoes represent complex geological systems capable of generating many dangerous phenomena. To evaluate and manage volcanic risk, we need first to assess volcanic hazard (i.e., identify past volcanic system behavior to infer future behavior. This requires acquisition of all relevant geological and geophysical information, such as stratigraphic studies, geological mapping, sedimentological studies, petrologic studies, and structural studies. All this information is then used to elaborate eruption scenarios and hazard maps. Stratigraphic studies represent the main tool for the reconstruction of past activity of volcanoes over time periods exceeding their historical record. This review presents a systematic approach to volcanic hazard assessment, paying special attention to reconstruction of past eruptive history. It reviews concepts and methods most commonly used in long- and short-term hazard assessment and analyzes how they help address the various serious consequences derived from the occurrence (and nonoccurrence in some crisis alerts) of volcanic eruptions and related phenomena.
Eduardo Marone, Ricardo de Camargo, and Julio Salcedo Castro
This article describes the threat costal hazards pose to existing life in light of climate change and natural disaster. It includes an overview of flooding, extreme waves, and other water-related stressors. The article discusses how human-induced risks in the coastal zone, resulting from mismanaged urbanization, persistent pollution, and overexploitation of resources, exacerbate matters and pose extra pressure on the environment, science, and society. Ways of measurement and reaction to these events, as well as best practices for preparedness, are discussed. Businesses, individuals, and ecosystems are under threat of destruction from these circumstances. The article also emphasizes the need to make scientific work in this field accessible and understandable to society and decisión makers.
Rob Wilby and Conor Murphy
Some of the most profound impacts of climate variability and change are expected in the water sector. These include more frequent, severe, and persistent droughts; more frequent, widespread, and extreme floods; more episodic and harmful water pollution episodes. Coping with more variable water supplies alongside rising demand will involve institutional reform, new infrastructure, adjustments to operations, and water demand management. A smarter, decision-led approach to deploying climate information in water management will also be required. This chapter begins with an overview of analytical frameworks for assessing and adapting water resource systems to uncertain climate threats and opportunities. It then gives examples of the diverse sources of information that are being accessed by some water managers to establish plausible ranges of climate change as a basis for decision-making. Examples from Denver, Colorado, and Dublin, Republic of Ireland show how narratives of future system changes and historical data can help test the efficacy of decisions under uncertainty. These two case studies demonstrate how early dialogue and information exchange among practitioners and scientists are fundamental to adaptation planning. In both places, unconventional sources of climate risk information were used to more rigorously stress test water management and planning assumptions. The preferred adaptation decision frameworks were dynamic, iterative, and open-ended. The chapter closes by acknowledging that further development of the decision-making approaches described herein may be needed to evaluate mixtures of adaptation options across multiple sectors.
This article discusses the importance of assessing and estimating the risk of earthquakes. It begins with an overview of earthquake prediction and relevant terms, namely: earthquake hazard, maximum credible earthquake magnitude, exposure time, earthquake risk, and return time. It then considers data sources for estimating seismic hazard, including catalogs of historic earthquakes, measurements of crustal deformation, and world population data. It also examines ways of estimating seismic risk, such as the use of probabilistic estimates, deterministic estimates, and the concepts of characteristic earthquake, seismic gap, and maximum rupture length. A loss scenario for a possible future earthquake is presented, and the notion of imminent seismic risk is explained. Finally, the chapter addresses errors in seismic risk estimates and how to reduce seismic risk, ethical and moral aspects of seismic risk assessment, and the outlook concerning seismic risk assessment.
Julie Rozenberg, Laura Bonzanigo, and Claire Nicolas
Increasing the amount of resilient infrastructure investments in developing countries is key to achieving development goals. Two issues need to be addressed to better support investment decisions. First, analysts need to better integrate the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of investment decisions in their quantitative analyses, given the intertwined objectives of climate change adaptation and poverty reduction. Second, analysts and practitioners need to recognize that the future state of those three dimensions is deeply uncertain and that new techniques need to be used that look for robust investments—performing well under multiple future conditions—rather than an optimal solution under a single prediction of the future. Doing so can be achieved by beginning important decision processes with an integrated model representing technical and socioeconomic factors, and exploring various interventions under many possible futures.
Peter Challenor, Doug McNeall, and James Gattiker
This article examines the dynamics of the US economy over the last five decades using Bayesian analysis of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models. It highlights an example application in what is commonly referred to as the new macroeconometrics, which combines macroeconomics with econometrics. The article describes a benchmark New Keynesian DSGE model that incorporates four types of agents: households that consume, save, and supply labour to a labour ‘packer’; a labour ‘packer’ that puts together the labour supplied by different households into an homogeneous labour unit; intermediate good producers, who produce goods using capital and aggregated labour; and a final good producer that mixes all the intermediate goods. It also considers the application of the model in policy analysis for public institutions such as central banks, along with private organizations and businesses. Finally, it discusses three avenues for further research in the estimation of DSGE models.
Physical Mechanisms Responsible for Track Changes and Rainfall Distributions Associated with Tropical Cyclone Landfall
Johnny C.L. Chan
As a tropical cyclone approaches land, its interaction with the characteristics of the land (surface roughness, topography, moisture availability, etc.) will lead to changes in its track as well as the rainfall and wind distributions near its landfall location. Accurate predictions of such changes are important in issuing warnings and disaster preparedness. In this chapter, the basic physical mechanisms that cause changes in the track and rainfall distributions when a tropical cyclone is about to make landfall are presented. These mechanisms are derived based on studies from both observations and idealized simulations. While the latter are relatively simple, they can isolate the fundamental and underlying physical processes that are inherent when an interaction between the land and the tropical cyclone circulation takes place. These processes are important in assessing the performance of the forecast models, and hence could help improve the model predictions and subsequently disaster preparedness.
Howard B. Bluestein
In the past four decades much has been discovered about tornado formation and structure from observations, laboratory models, and numerical-simulation experiments. Observations include nearby movies and photographs of tornadoes, fixed-site, airborne, and ground-based mobile Doppler radar remote measurements, and in situ measurements using instrumented probes. Laboratory models are vortex chambers and numerical-simulations are based on the governing fluid dynamical equations. However, questions remain: How and why do tornadoes form? and How does the wind field associated with them vary in space and time? Recent studies of tornadoes based on observations, particularly by radar, are detailed. The major aspects of numerically simulating a tornado and its formation are reviewed, and the dynamics of tornado formation and structure based on both observations and laboratory and numerical-simulation experiments are described. Finally, future avenues of research and suggested instrument development for furthering our knowledge are discussed.
Trends in Vulnerability to Climate-related Hazards in the Pacific: Research, Understanding and Implications
John Hay, Virginie Duvat, and Alexandre K. Magnan
The unique coping capacities and other attributes that Pacific island nations have been developing for centuries have sustained them in the face of an enormous range of local and global challenges. These include climate change-related hazards, and especially tropical cyclones and high-wave incidents that notably generate landslides and river and coastal flooding; droughts; heat waves; and ocean warming. Such hazards place resources, people, and assets at serious risk, as reflected by their vulnerability. However, measuring climate change vulnerability is problematic since climate hazards combine with anthropogenic and other physical drivers to influence the nature, levels, and variability of vulnerability. The few longitudinal studies that have been undertaken for the Pacific island countries show high and increasing vulnerabilities, despite considerable investment of money and other resources at community, island, sector, and national levels. Considering the elements of risk (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and capacity to adapt), this chapter critically reviews the approaches used in the Pacific to assess vulnerability, analyzes recent changes in the vulnerability of island nations, and lays the foundation for some new thinking on island habitability and futures. It uses lessons learned, as well as success stories and success factors, to present priorities related to the assessment of climate change vulnerabilities, risks, and possible adaptation interventions in the Pacific islands region. These underpin a series of principles aimed at harmonizing understanding and action. Notably, the chapter concludes that transformational resilient development can provide a more effective response to increasingly unprecedented risks and higher vulnerabilities, for both high and low islands, including atolls.
This work reports on the main physical processes that arise in the environment of the megacity from the “urban metabolism”—the complex interactions of the climate with the activities performed in the city and its built structure and texture—as well as on associated large-scale processes that generate hazards for the megacity’s inhabitants. It is estimated that in a few decades most of the world’s population will live in urban centers. Both the growth of megacities and climate change will increase the vulnerability of huge sectors of the population to climatic consequences of the urban metabolism. These include urban heat islands, pollution, and extreme weather events such as heat waves and floods. Developing policies to mitigate these threats will require integrating scientific knowledge with management skills, communication among cities about effective approaches, and taking into account residents’ needs for health and the capacity to live safely.
Peter Berry, Anna Yusa, and Livia Bizikova
Climate change is likely to increase drought globally and regionally, including within Canada, by the end of the century. In recent years, drought has affected communities across Canada and can have significant impacts on individuals. Health risks relate to the exacerbation of food and waterborne diseases, inadequate nutrition, impacts on air quality, vector-borne diseases, illnesses related to the exposure of toxins, mental health effects, and impacts from injuries (e.g., traffic accidents, spinal cord injuries). In Canada, the impacts of drought on human health and well-being are not well understood and monitoring and surveillance of such impacts is limited. In addition, important factors that make people and communities vulnerable to health impacts of drought require more investigation. These factors may differ significantly among the populations (e.g., rural vs urban) and regions (prairies, coastal, and northern). Vulnerability to drought health impacts in Canada due to climate change may be affected by: (1) changes in exposure as droughts increase or combine with other extreme events (wildfires, heat waves) to harm health; (2) changes in adaptive capacity due to impacts on, for example, health services from increasing extreme weather events; and (3) changes in susceptibility related to demographic (e.g., aging, chronic diseases) and socioeconomic trends. Effective measures to increase the resiliency of Canadians to drought health impacts require proactive adaptation efforts that increase knowledge of factors that make people and their communities vulnerable to this hazard, information as to how droughts might increase in the future, and integration of this information into future policies and programs. This paper identifies a set of indicators that may be used to gauge vulnerability to the impacts of drought on health in the context of climate change in Canada to inform adaptation actions.