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Acquisition of Comparatives and Degree Constructions  

Kristen Syrett

Print publication date:
Jul 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter looks at the acquisition of comparatives from formal, theoretical, and cross-linguistic perspectives. It begins by reviewing children’s aberrations from adults in the form of ... More

The Acquisition of Word Prosody  

Paula Fikkert, Liquan Liu, and Mitsuhiko Ota

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
This chapter provides a state-of-the-art overview regarding the acquisition of three aspects of word prosody: lexical tone, pitch accent, and word stress. It also addresses word-learning ... More

Amphichronic Explanation and the Life Cycle of Phonological Processes  

Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
In amphichronic phonology, synchronic and diachronic explanation feed each other. The architecture of grammar predicts the possible modes of implementation of phonological change (including ... More

Analyzing the ONZE data as evidence for sound change  

Jennifer Hay

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Launched in 1989, when Elizabeth Gordon became aware of the existence of a set of recordings of early New Zealand English, the Origins of New Zealand English Project (ONZE) provides a ... More

The anatomical and physiological basis of human speech production: adaptations and exaptations  

Ann MacLarnon

Print publication date:
Nov 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article provides details on human speech production involving a range of physical features, which may have evolved as specific adaptations for this purpose. All mammalian vocalizations ... More

ANVIL: The Video Annotation Research Tool  

Michael Kipp

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Jan 2014
Empirical research often involves three activities: the systematic annotation of audiovisual media (coding), the management of the resulting data in a corpus, and various forms of ... More

Arabic Intonation  

Dina El Zarka

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This overview of intonation in Arabic compares the intonational systems of selected Arabic dialects from Morocco in the West to Kuwait in the East. The formal comparison will mainly be ... More

Argument Structure  

Joshua Viau and Ann Bunger

Print publication date:
Jul 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Children acquiring any language must develop an understanding both of how event components are encoded in verb meanings and of the argument structure of those verbs, that is, how the ... More

Articulatory Analysis and Acoustic Modeling: Articulatory To Acoustic ModelingUltrasound As a Tool For Speech ResearchMethodologies Used to Investigate Laryngeal Function and Aerodynamic Properties of SpeechOn The Acoustics and Aerodynamics of Fricatives  

Khalil Iskarous, Lisa Davidson, Helen M. Hanson, and Christine H. Shadle

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article describes theory and research methods employed for articulatory, acoustic, and aerodynamic analysis of speech. One of the theories, dispersion-focalization theory (DFT), ... More

Articulatory Measures of Prosody  

Taehong Cho and Doris Mücke

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
Prosodic research in speech production usually focuses on the way the prosodic structure influences the phonetic implementation of segmental and suprasegmental features. The realization of ... More

Articulatory Processing and Frequency of Use in Sound Change  

Joan L. Bybee

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2015
This chapter discusses the role of articulatory processing in sound change, emphasizing the tendency towards reduction and overlap of articulatory gestures, as well as explanations proposed ... More

Asian Pacific Rim  

Sun-Ah Jun and Haruo Kubozono

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
This chapter describes the prosodic systems of Japanese and Korean, the two major languages spoken in the Asian Pacific Rim. It covers both lexical and post-lexical prosody of these ... More

Australia and New Guinea  

Brett Baker, Mark Donohue, and Janet Fletcher

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
The languages of Australia constitute a single genetic group. They are non-tonal, in that tone is not lexically contrastive in any Australian language, and they tend to have stress systems ... More

Austronesia  

Nikolaus P. Himmelmann and Daniel Kaufman

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
While the Austronesian family is large, the main focus of this chapter is on the languages of the Philippines and Indonesia as very little is known about other parts of the family. In the ... More

Austronesian  

Robert Blust

Print publication date:
Sep 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Austronesian is the second largest language family on earth in number of languages, and had the widest geographical extent of any language family prior to the modern era. For these reasons ... More

Automatic Prosody Labelling and Assessment  

Andrew Rosenberg and Mark Hasegawa-Johnson

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
Automatic prosody labelling is a useful front-end for automatic speech recognition, for automatic speech understanding, and for the development of corpora used to create speech ... More

The Autosegmental-Metrical Theory of Intonational Phonology  

Amalia Arvaniti and Janet Fletcher

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Feb 2021
The chapter outlines the basic principles of the autosegmental-metrical (AM) theory of intonational phonology. AM posits that at the phonological level intonation consists of a string of ... More

Bantu Phonology  

David Odden

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
This chapter surveys the main phonological phenomena found in Bantu languages. One such phenomenon is vowel harmony, where suffixes typically alternate in height depending on the preceding ... More

Basic Types of Phonological Change  

András Cser

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter discusses the most fundamental types of phonological change. The first part is a presentation of the basic notions underlying virtually any discussion in historical phonology ... More

Bilingualism and Child Phonology  

Conxita Lleó

The present article poses some fundamental questions related to bilingualism and to the acquisition of two phonological components, by very young children. It discusses different types of ... More

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