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Persian  

Maziar Toosarvandani

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jan 2019

...missing. (5) (6) But in general, any argument can be null in Persian, including subjects (7a), direct objects (7b), and indirect objects (7a). (7) It may not be impossible to isolate conjunction reduction and null complement anaphora in Persian as distinct elliptical constructions, but this challenging work remains to be done. 1 Any data not attributed to any source comes from two native speakers of Persian. Whether original or taken from elsewhere, all examples come from the variety of Persian spoken in Iran, which is called Farsi in the language itself....

Old Persian  

Jan Tavernier

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...used: court and administration. It should, however, be stressed, that Old Persian, as we know it from the inscriptions, was not the vernacular spoken by the Achaemenids and their Persian subjects. The inscriptional language is more an artificial language, peppered with non-Persian (e.g., Median) words (cf. Lecoq 1974a ). The expression “Old Persian,” as used here, may indicate two sociolects: inscriptional Old Persian and vernacular Old Persian. Old Persian as a Court Language As Old Persian was always found in royal inscriptions, it was quickly assumed that the...

From Old to New Persian  

Mauro Maggi and Paola Orsatti

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018

...Old to New Persian Mauro Maggi and Paola Orsatti * * Sections 2.1–2.3 and 2.5–2.11 (Old and Middle Persian) by Mauro Maggi; sections 2.4 and 2.12–2.22 (New Persian) by Paola Orsatti 2.1 Over 2,500 years of Persian Persian had its cradle in and owes its name to the south-western region of Iran called Pārsa in Old Persian (Middle Persian Pārs , New Persian Pārs, Fārs ) and Persis in Greek. Among the Iranian languages, that are conventionally divided into the three stages of Old, Middle, and New Iranian, Persian occupies...

Persian as a Heritage Language  

Anousha Sedighi

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018

...on the language policy and bilingual education, Najafi (2009) studies the maintenance of Persian language among Iranians in the United States and examines the data from secondary sources such as the US Census (2000) and the Iranian Survey (2007). Najafi’s research shows that among second-generation Iranians 70.3 percent understand Persian, 55 percent speak Persian, 27 percent can read in Persian, and 21.6 percent can write in Persian. Thus, she argues that the rate of Persian loss as an oral language is 45 percent and that the rate of language loss as a literate language...

Academy of Persian Language and Literature  

Mohammad Dabir-Moghaddam

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018

...contained twelve articles as summarized and translated by me from the first issue of name-ye færhængestan (1943 [1322 h.š.]: 1, 2): (1) To compile a Persian dictionary; (2) To select terms for all aspects of life with preference given to Persian words and terms; (3) To purify Persian through discarding its inappropriate foreign words; (4) To write a grammar and develop procedures and rules for coining Persian words as well as accepting or rejecting foreign words; (5) To collect technical terms used by craftsmen and artisans; (6) To collect words and...

Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages  

Pouneh Shabani-Jadidi and Anousha Sedighi

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018

...addition to classical Persian, it includes contemporary pronunciations and idiomatic expressions used in everyday life. This masterpiece was written in Persian script and included Russian transcription. The renowned scholar, Phillott (1919) has published a substantial Persian grammar guide, which discusses Eastern dialects of Persian as well as colloquial Persian. Another textbook that focused on the spoken form of Persian and written around this time in Calcutta is by Abdulhaq Nasrābādi ( Tabsarat-ol Atfāl , or ‘  Teaching Spoken Persian ’ ). In North America...

Prophecy in Persian Yehud  

Jon L. Berquist

Print publication date:
Nov 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2016

...historical and contemporaneous. In the Persian period, the production of prophetic literature, remembering prophets of earlier periods in Israelite and Judean history, occurred at the same time that new prophets were proclaiming oracles and utterances of God relevant to the situations of their time. Prophecy and prophetic literature, although two separate phenomena, both transpired in Yehud, and contributed to the shaping of a new public identity for the Yehudite community. Persian Yehud Scholars use the term “Persian Period” (or “Achaemenid Period,” which...

Specific Features of Persian Syntax: The Ezafe construction, differential object marking, and complex predicates  

Pollet Samvelian

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018

...its uses in Middle Persian and the emergence of the Ezafe construction. 3 (7) Haya, hayā, taya becomes = ī in Middle Persian ( haya > hyǝ > yǝ > = ī ) and progressively loses its demonstrative/relative value to end up as a simple linker (cf. Jügel 2015 : 290ff.). The possessor, as well as adjective modifiers, are introduced by the Ezafe particle ī in Middle Persian: (8) As noted by Bubenik (2009) , with the consolidation of the sequence Possessee-Possessor and Modified-Modifier we reach the New Persian state of affairs. This...

The Levant During the Persian Period  

Gunnar Lehmann

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014

...often called the ‘Achaemenid period’, a notion with strong historical connotations. In the southern Levant archaeologists prefer the label ‘Persian period’; this notion, too, reflects the historical changes rather than the development of the material culture. In addition, the notion Fig. 55.1 Map of Persian-period sites in the Levant ‘Persian period’ suggests wrongly that the material culture in the Levant is of ‘Persian’ character. Indeed, the study of the material culture of this period was long somewhat neglected, with the unsaid implication that everything...

Law in the Persian Period  

Alejandro F. Botta and Brandon J. Simonson

Print publication date:
Nov 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2019

...law in the Persian period and, consequently, the laws that appear in the biblical text. This chapter reviews the historical context of the Persian period relevant to biblical law, with especial attention paid to the concept of Persian imperial authorization, the ambiguities of translating Persian dāta or “law,” the distinctions between royal and local law as evidenced in Darius’s “codification” of local laws, and the case of law in Persian Egypt in order to define the role and function of law in the Persian provinces. Reviewing the development of Persian control over...

Teaching Practices in Persian Art Music  

Erum Naqvi

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...one); and third, we may learn something about the factors that influence conceptualization in general. I hope to illustrate this through the following analysis of teaching practices in Persian art music. Persian Art Music in Context Persian art music is a relatively small, but highly revered tradition residing within the broader scope of Persian music. The overall landscape of Persian music encompasses a variety of different kinds of music. Traditional rural folk music (of tribal origin) and contemporary popular music (increasingly infused with music of other cultures)...

Judaeo-Arabic and Judaeo-Persian  

Geoffrey Khan

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009

...texts may have been written by Persian-speaking immigrants in Palestine and Egypt. This applies especially to a corpus of early Judaeo-Persian texts written by Karaite Jews. In the fourteenth Century Judaeo-Persian works began to be written in a form of New Persian that was essentially identical to that of Classical Persian, except for its representation in Hebrew script and the usage of a number of Hebrew and Aramaic words. Even the orthography of Judaeo-Persian in this classical phase of its literature imitated that of Classical Persian, as was the case with Classical...

Aramaic, Parthian, and Middle Persian  

Seiro Haruta

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Middle Persian and Parthian inscriptions are dealt with here. Transcription of Middle Persian is based on MacKenzie (1971) dictionary; scholars have been gradually following MacKenzie’s method with some modification by Humbach and Skjærvø (1983) for purposes of transliteration ( Skjærvø 1996 : 518–20). It should also be noted that the term “Pahlavi” has three meanings: (1) Middle Persian in Zoroastrian literature contained in books; (2) Middle Persian written in a late cursive script, the so-called Pahlavi script; (3) Middle Persian written in Middle Persian script...

The Coinage of the Persian Empire  

Michael Alram

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012

...Lampsacus—struck in the weight of a Persian daric and of extraordinary artistic quality—had become an important currency within and outside the Persian Empire and supplemented the imperial daric in international payments ( Kraay 1976 : 251). A completely different picture is presented by the coinage of the Persian governors in Cilicia. These silver staters based on the Persian standard (double sigloi) were produced from about 380 B.C. onward, mainly in Tarsus to finance the Egyptian expeditions and other campaigns of the Persian army in the eastern Mediterranean. The...

The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 bce)  

A. Shapur Shahbazi

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...aristocracy, led by a military commander named Harpagus, joined Cyrus and accepted him as the legitimate heir to the throne. This established the Achaemenid—or the first Persian—Empire, in which the Medes shared the status of ruling people with the Persians, so much so indeed that the Greeks frequently called the Persians “Medes” and coined the term “Medizing” to denote “pro-Persian policy” or “Persian partisan.” Cyrus opened a new phase in the military and political history of the Iranians and their neighbors. To understand his actions, one needs only to glance at the...

Sovereign Wealth Funds in the Persian Gulf States  

Gawdat Bahgat

Print publication date:
Oct 2017
Online publication date:
Nov 2017

...most oil and gas fields are either onshore or in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. This accessibility means that much of the oil and gas production in the Gulf region is less environmentally challenging and cheaper to produce. Third, the Persian Gulf region has been producing and exporting oil and gas for decades. Generally the energy infrastructure is well developed. Extensive pipeline networks connect the oil and gas fields to marine export terminals and loading platforms on the Persian Gulf. From there the region has easy access to the high seas and global...

The Multilingual Environment of Persian and Ptolemaic Egypt: Egyptian, Aramaic, and Greek Documentation  

Dorothy J. Thompson

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...of Egypt under Persian control was a mixed one with many different peoples who spoke (and often also wrote) a range of languages. Some groups were already well established when the Persians came: the Ionian, Carian, and Jewish troops employed and settled under the preceding Saite dynasty. Phoenician settlers, too, who were often involved in shipping and commercial ventures, may be traced back even further; an additional military role is suggested by the name of the Phoenician quarter at Memphis—the “Tyrian Camp” (Herodotus 2.112.2). With the Persian conquest, a new...

The Archaeology of Judaism From the Persian Period to the Sixth Century ad  

James F. Strange

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

... Chapter 56 The Archaeology of Judaism From the Persian Period to the Sixth Century ad James F. Strange 1 Judaism in the Persian Period In 539 bc Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and ruled an empire that included Judea, now known as ‘Yehud’. According to the Cyrus Cylinder and Ezra (1: 2–4), he allowed subjugated peoples to return to their ancestral homes and defeated deities to be returned to their ruined sanctuaries. Cuneiform clay tablets of the Persian period have appeared in excavations at Gezer and in Hadid, about 35 km north‐west of Jerusalem...

The Multilingual Environment of Late Antique Egypt: Greek, Latin, Coptic, and Persian Documentation  

Jean-Luc Fournet

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...institutions already in place and used by the Persians. If any effort at linguistic adaptation was made, it was on the part of the Persians that we must look for it. Thus, the Persians Rasbanas and Reme wrote letters in Greek to the scholasticus Marinus ( P. Oxy. LI 3637, XVI 1862–1863; cf. Foss 2002 , 170–171 ). A few rare points of interference between the two languages, which show that these ten years of conquest, despite everything, did leave various linguistic traces, may nonetheless be noted: The name of the Persian office sālār (“official”) passed into Greek...

Israel to the End of the Persian Period: History, Social, Political, and Economic background  

J. W. Rogerson

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009

...Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. Grabbe , L. L. 1992. Judaism from Cyrus to Hadrian , i: The Persian and Greek Periods. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. —— 2000. ‘The History of Israel: The Persian and Hellenistic Periods’. In A. D. H. Mayes , ed., Texts in Context: Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 403–27. —— 2004. A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period , i: Yehud: A History of the Persian Province of Judah. London: T. & T. Clark International. Halpern , B. 2001. David's Secret...

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