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Iran  

Daniel T. Potts

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...as the modern Islamic Republic of Iran, not in the maximalist sense of ‘greater Iran’, which extended deep into the Caucasus and Central Asia, incorporating areas well outside the boundaries of present day Iran at various points in the pre‐Islamic past. The boundaries of Iran have always been porous, however, and not all religious praxis within ancient Iran can be considered indigenous. By the late fourth millennium bc , if our understanding of certain divine symbols is correct, non‐local deities were being worshipped at Iranian sites, and this phenomenon persisted...

Medieval Iran  

Neguin Yavari

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...dramatic consequences for the development of (both religious and secular) political thought and institutions in Iran, most notably demonstrated in the Iranian revolution of 1979. In the past 500 years, Iran and Shi‘ism have been shaped by a convergence of influences and trends that emerged in earlier centuries. It took the Arab armies almost two decades to conquer the various regions of Iran, and this they accomplished with the assistance of a good number of Iranian soldiers and men of higher status, whose livelihood was threatened after the downfall of the Sasanians. The...

The Paleolithic of Iran  

Nicholas J. Conard, Elham Ghasidian, and Saman Heydari–Guran

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

... Chapter 3 The Paleolithic of Iran Nicholas J. Conard , Elham Ghasidian and Saman Heydari-Guran After reviewing the history of research on the Paleolithic of Iran, this chapter examines the Lower (Acheulean), Middle (Levallois-Mousterian), Upper Paleolithic (Baradostian) and Epipaleolithic industries attested throughout Iran. The typology and chronology of the major lithic industries represented in Iran are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed upon evidence discovered by Iranian researchers since 2000. Acheulean Mousterian ...

Iron Age Southeastern Iran  

Peter Magee

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Fairservis (“Complex B”) encountered on survey across southeastern Iran and Baluchistan ( Franke-Vogt 2001 ). For now, however, the archaeological record from Iron Age southeastern Iran is perhaps the most incomplete of all those from ancient Iran. Renewed excavations in these regions will hopefully remedy this situation and throw light on a region that was a nexus between Arabia, Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia. Further Reading There is no synoptic study of the Iron Age in southeastern Iran. For the principal evidence from Tepe Yahya see Lamberg-Karlovsky...

Linguistic Groups in Iran  

Ran Zadok

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Gutians Manneans Hurrians Iranians Introduction The main pre-Iranian ethnoi in Iran are from south to north: Elamites in southern Iran, Kassites in Luristan and in the fluvial valleys of the Zagros, Lullubians in southeastern Kurdistan, Gutians somewhere in the Zagros, Manneans in northeastern Kurdistan, and Hurrians in the piedmont of the northern Zagros and near Lake Urmia. The Iranians are not autochthonous to the Iranian plateau: all the onomastic and lexical material from or about Iran before 881 BC is non-Iranian. From the third millennium BC...

Early Writing in Iran  

Jacob L. Dahl

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Mesopotamia (Uruk IV–style tablets), and proto-Elamite tablets in Iran. The Split between Mesopotamian and Iranian Writing In more mature texts from Mesopotamia and Iran we can establish rules for the order of objects and qualifiers (mostly numerical signs). In protocuneiform the numerical signs always precede the object they qualify, whereas the opposite is true in proto-Elamite. It may also be possible to show the same distinction in the very earliest numero-ideographic tablets, where examples from Iran invariably have nonnumerical signs preceding the numerical...

The Bronze Age in Northeastern Iran  

Christopher P. Thornton

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...area of Jajarm in western Khorasan. Iran 3: 97–107. ———. 1974. City and river in Iran: Urbanization and irrigation of the Iranian Plateau. New Haven: Society for Iranian Cultural and Social Studies. ———. 1985. Anthropology. EnIr 2: 107–16. Spooner, B. , and L. Horne. 1980. Cultural and ecological perspectives from the Turan program, Iran. Expedition 22/4: 4–10. Stronach, D. 1972. Yarim Tepe. In Excavations in Iran, the British contribution, 21–23. Oxford: Organizing Committee of the Sixth International Congress of Iranian Art and Archaeology. Sykes, P. M...

The Chalcolithic of Northern Iran  

Barbara Helwing

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...explanations from Iran and the Indo-Iranian borderlands. JCS 61/2: 1–23. ———. 2011. Equus Asinus in highland Iran: Evidence old and new. In Between sand and sea: The archaeology and human ecology of southwestern Asia, Festschrift in honor of Hans-Peter Uerpmann, ed. N. J. Conard , P. Drechsler , and A. Morales , 167–76. Tübingen: Kerns Verlag. Rezvani, H. 1999. Prehistoric settlement patterns and cultures in Semnan Province, Central Plateau, Iran. IW: 220–21. Roustaie, K. Forthcoming. Archaeological survey of the Sahrud area, northeast Iran: A landscape approach...

The Chalcolithic in Southern Iran  

Cameron A. Petrie

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ———. 2001. Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran, 1967–1975: The third millennium. Cambridge: ASPR Bulletin 45. ———. 2008. review of A. Alizadeh, The origins of state organizations in prehistoric highland Fars, southern Iran: Excavations at Tall-e Bakun. BiOr 65/1–2: 195–206. ———. 2009. Bevel-rim bowls and bakeries: Evidence and explanations from Iran and the Indo-Iranian borderlands. JCS 61/2: 1–23. ———. 2011. Nomadismus in Iran von der Frühzeit bis in die Moderne—Eine...

The Islamic Conquest of Sasanian Iran  

Michael G. Morony

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Mianab Plain of lowland Susiana, south-western Iran. Iran 41: 99–137. ———. 2007. Archaeological surveys in the “Eastern Corridor,” south-western Iran. Iran 45: 23–55. Morony, M. 1987. Arab ii. Arab conquest of Iran. EnIr 2: 203–10. ———. 1995. Material culture and urban identities: The evidence of pottery from the Early Islamic period. In Identity and material culture in the Early Islamic world , ed. I. A. Bierman , 1–48. Los Angeles: UCLA Near East Center Colloquium Series. ———. 2004, Social elites in Iraq and Iran: After the conquest. In The Byzantine and...

Eastern Iran in the Achaemenid Period  

Bruno Genito

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...center and periphery, were crucial factors affecting the visibility of the Achaemenid Empire in its easternost regions ( Briant and Herren Schmidt 1989 ). Similarly, the geographic definition of “eastern Iran” requires clarification as well because, as a geomorphological unit, the term “Iranian plateau” is not restricted to the borders of the Islamic Republic of Iran, but extends far beyond them toward the west and the east. In reality, the plateau can be considered as extending roughly from an imaginary line joining the Gulf of Alexandretta and Trebizond, to the Pamirs...

Southwestern Iran in the Achaemenid Period  

Rémy Boucharlat

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...26 Southwestern Iran in the Achaemenid Period Rémy Boucharlat The archaeological evidence from the key sites of Pasargadae, Susa, and Persepolis is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on monumental, particularly palatial architecture. Smaller, elite residences scattered along the Royal Road in Fars and funerary architecture are described. The complex chronology of the major Achaemenid monuments in southwestern Iran is elucidated. Cyrus Pasargadae Susa Persepolis Royal Road Introduction Southwestern Iran is the region of origin...

The Use of Akkadian in Iran  

Katrien de Graef

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...Chapter 14 The Use of Akkadian in Iran Katrien De Graef The domination of Susa by the Akkadian Empire in the late third millennium BC resulted in the use of Akkadian at Susa and elsewhere (e.g., Chogha Gavaneh) for a wide range of purposes. Akkadian was the written language of choice in juridical, literary, religious, and economic texts as well as royal inscriptions. The peculiarities of written Akkadian in Iran are discussed, as are the relationships between written Akkadian and Elamite. Akkadian was used in Iran into the first millennium BC, when...

Greek Sources on Achaemenid Iran  

Maria Brosius

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

... Chapter 33 Greek Sources on Achaemenid Iran Maria Brosius Achaemenid Iran features prominently in a wide range of Greek sources, from the historical writing of Herodotus to the tragedy of Aeschylus and the biographies of Xenophon and Plutarch. This chapter surveys the Greek literary sources on the Achaemenid Empire, evaluating their utility as historical sources and discussing the attitudes of Greek writers and their audiences to ancient Iran. The relationship between Herodotus and the text of Darius I’s Bisotun inscription is discussed. The fragments...

Qajar Iran (1795–1921)  

Mansoureh Ettehadieh Nezam-Mafi

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...ruler. The weakness of Iran and its involvement in the war with Russia had given these states more freedom, and they refused to pay taxes. Among these, Herat, in the vicinity of Khorasan, was nearest to Iran, with a large Shi‘i population of Iranian origin who favored Iran. However, the British, always nervous about the defense of India, considered Herat the gateway to that country and were afraid the privileges Iran granted to Russia would be extended to Herat if it were to fall into Iranian hands. In fact, the British believed the Iranian bid for Herat was due to...

The Mongols in Iran  

George E. Lane

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012

...10 The Mongols in Iran George E. Lane Iran was dramatically brought into the Mongol sphere of influence toward the end of the second decade of the thirteenth century. As well as the initial traumatic military incursions, Iran also experienced the start of prolonged martial rule, followed later by the domination and rule of the Mongol Ilkhans. However, what began as a brutal and vindictive invasion and occupation developed into a benign and culturally and economically flourishing period of unity and strength. The Mongol period in Iranian history provokes controversy...

Key Questions Regarding the Paleoenvironment of Iran  

Matthew D. Jones

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...time and space. This chapter reviews evidence of how the environment of Iran has changed, particularly over the last 20,000 years, and looks at the key questions driving paleoenvironmental work in the region. These questions are also valid in regions outside of Iran, but given Iran’s size and geographical and geological location many of these issues come together in Iran leading to a complex, but fascinating, paleoenvironmental picture which has the potential to teach us much about change in Iran itself but also further afield. This chapter will look at issues of variability...

Alexander the Great and the Seleucids in Iran  

Paul J. Kosmin

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...spotlight shifts westward and Iran drops back into narrative obscurity. The Antigonid glacis in western and central Iran did not last long. The final decade of the fourth century was marked by the meteoric rise to dominance of Seleucus Nicator, satrap of Babylonia, in Mesopotamia, Iran, and Central Asia. Seleucus, having fled Antigonus’ march from Iran in 315, returned four years later to claim back his satrapy. With the strong support of the indigenous population he faced down an eastern invasion from the Antigonus-aligned governors of western Iran and seized Susiana, Media...

The Use of Greek in Pre-Sasanian Iran  

Georges Rougemont

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

...writers—at least those whose works have reached us—say very little about Iran. Therefore, in order to study the use of the Greek language in Iran, we must rely mainly on Greek documents found in Iranian territory. These comprise about eighty inscriptions on stone, pottery, or metal objects (I exclude here texts on objects that are by definition mobile, such as coins and stamped amphora handles). This is of course a provisional number and one will never find as many Greek inscriptions in Iran as in Anatolia, but there will be more finds; those already discovered provide...

The Early Bronze Age in Northwestern Iran  

Geoffrey D. Summers

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013

... ———. 1961a. Excavations at Yanik Tepe, north-west Iran. Iraq 23: 138–53. ———. 1961b. Circular buildings found at Yanik Tepe in north-west Iran. Antiquity 35: 237–40. ———. 1962. Excavations at Yanik Tepe, Azerbaijan, 1961: Second preliminary report. Iraq 24/2: 134–52. ———. 1964. Excavations at Yanik Tepe, Azerbaijan, 1962: Third preliminary report. Iraq 26/1: 54–61. ———. 1970. Excavations at Haftavân Tepe, 1968: First preliminary report. Iran 8: 157–71. ———. 1972a. Yanik Tepe. In Excavations in Iran: The British contribution, ed. P. R. S. Moorey , 13–14...

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