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Abolition and Antislavery  

John Stauffer

Print publication date:
Jul 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the historiography of abolition and antislavery. Abolitionism is an idea, articulated through language that emerged in the eighteenth century and propelled people to ... More

America in 1492  

Cameron B. Wesson

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This chapter examines the nature of Native American societies immediately prior to the advent of sustained contacts with Europeans in the late fifteenth century. Touching on the broad ... More

The Americas, 1450–2000  

Edward J. Davies, II

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the history of the Americas from 1450 to 2000. It describes the Americas before European contact; disease and death brought by the European arrival in 1492 due to new ... More

Belize  

Mark Moberg

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Belize’s history and politics reflect the country’s anomalous position between the Anglophone Caribbean and Hispanic Central America. Older historical narratives emphasized its ... More

Brazil  

Robert W. Slenes

Print publication date:
Jul 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article reviews scholarship on the history and historiography of slavery in Brazil. Brazil possessed a more varied slave economy with a much larger sector producing for the internal ... More

The Catechism: A Malleable Means to Disparate Ends (1750–1850)  

Brian Connaughton

Online publication date:
Dec 2020
The catechism has a centuries-long history and has been used for numerous, initially religious, purposes. Forcefully present throughout is its tendency to simplify and condense complex ... More

Central America and the United States  

Michel Gobat

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Central America has endured more US interventions than any other region in the world. This history reflects the long-standing belief of US officials that their country’s global aspirations ... More

Central America since the 1990s: Crime, Violence, and the Pursuit of Democracy  

Christine J. Wade

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Central America’s transitions to democracy and the end of civil wars in the 1990s brought the promise of peace, yet the region’s new democracies have struggled with epidemic levels of ... More

The Cold War: Authoritarianism, Empire, and Social Revolution  

Joaquín M. Chávez

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Global and regional political and cultural trends shaped a set of interrelated and persistent conflicts between authoritarian regimes and democratic and revolutionary forces during the Cold ... More

Colonial Community Life  

Joan Bristol

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Between the early sixteenth and late eighteenth centuries Spanish colonial life was undergirded by a general theory, not always realized in practice, that social and political order would ... More

Colonial Latin America  

Nicholas A. Robins

Print publication date:
Apr 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article explores the genocides of conquest and colonization in Latin America, highlighting the shortcomings of conventional definitions of genocide. According to some interpretations ... More

Colonial Spanish South America  

Lyman L. Johnson and Susan M. Socolow

Print publication date:
Dec 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article covers Spanish South America, particularly the Andean core of the empire but also a surprisingly rich historical literature on the River Plate, long a marginal corner of the ... More

Communism in Latin America  

Mike Gonzalez

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Latin America’s communist parties were shaped by the Soviet Union’s political priorities up to 1945. This sparked debate with those that emphasized the specificity of Latin American ... More

Consumption in Latin America  

Fernando Rocchi

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
In this article, the main debates on consumption in Latin America, a topic that has yet to receive full scholarly attention, are analyzed. Current discussions tend to limit its focus to the ... More

Costa Rica  

Iván Molina

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
From 1840 to the present, Costa Rica has sharedsimilar historical processes with its Central American neighbors, but differed from them by consolidating a stable democracy. The Costa Rican ... More

Cuba  

Matt D. Childs and Manuel Barcia

Print publication date:
Jul 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article reviews scholarship on the history and historiography of slavery in Cuba. In the sixteenth-century, Africans crossed the Atlantic and accompanied Diego Velésquez and other ... More

Disaster: Student Massacre, 1968 to Earthquake, 1985  

Ageeth Sluis

Online publication date:
Nov 2020
The 1968 Tlatelolco Student Massacre and the 1985 Mexico City Earthquake—two catastrophic, “watershed” events—are generally thought to have defined recent Mexican history in leading to ... More

The Early Republic and Santa Anna  

Barbara Tenenbaum

Online publication date:
Feb 2021
When Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, it inherited a declining silver economy, and an ever-expanding northern neighbor that already had begun its industrial revolution with ... More

Educating the Nation’s Youth  

Elena Jackson Albarrán

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
From the Porfirian period through the revolutionary decades, Mexican educational institutions implemented the waves of Liberal pedagogical trends that sought to universalize education in ... More

El Salvador  

Erik Ching

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
El Salvador stands out as exceptional in the history of modern Latin America for some tragic reasons: its duration of military rule (1931–1979), the scale of its government-ordered mass ... More

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