Matthew E. Reynolds
5150: On Unethical Privacy is an autobiographical piece where Matthew Reynolds recounts the situation wherein he was involuntarily committed shortly before his 21st birthday. He describes the situation that led to his psychotic break, and the problems his parents had, who he is very close to and have had a large place in his treatment. He was incapable of informed consent and, after being tranquilized, due to his manic depression, he slept for 36 hours wherein neither his parents, physician, psychiatrist, or anybody else were contacted. Finally, his main moral dilemma is discussed. He highlights just what went wrong ethically based on his own memory of events, which he learned of during and after his involuntary committal. His main argument is: “what use is a psychotic patient’s undeniable rights to privacy, if he is incapable of helping himself?” He notes how these systems backfired throughout.
Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Brian F. O'Donnell, Dean F. Salisbury, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz, Colleen A. Brenner, and Jenifer L. Vohs
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychotic illness that has been associated with alterations in synaptic connectivity and neurotransmission. Since event-related potential (ERP) components are typically generated by the summation of postsynaptic potentials produced by neural populations, these measures are well suited to assess such pathophysiological alterations. This chapter reviews the utility of ERP components in the investigation of the cognitive and neural mechanisms affected by schizophrenia. It focuses on five components: mismatch negativity (MMN), P50 measures of sensory gating, N100 and P300 in the oddball discrimination paradigms, and the N400 component elicited during language processing. These components test key cognitive systems affected by schizophrenia: sensory memory (MMN), sensory processing and inhibition (P50, N1), selective attention and working memory (P300), and semantic processing (N400). These components are discussed with respect to the following issues: (1) cognitive and neural systems indexed by the component, (2) abnormalities in schizophrenia, (3) sensitivity and specificity to schizophrenia, (4) clinical correlates, and (5) relationship to genetic variation. ERP components are well validated biomarkers for schizophrenia which have significant promise in the characterization of genomic and epigenomic factors, pharmacological response in humans and animal models, and the developmental and cognitive expression of the illness.
Michael A. Arbib
The chapter presents the hypothesis that early Homo sapiens were language-ready in the sense that they had brains that could have supported language had it already been developed, but were not yet language-using. Informed by data from comparative neuroprimatology, the approach sees protolanguage emerging from complex recognition and imitation of manual skills via biocultural evolution, while cultural evolution alone supported the emergence of language from protolanguage. This approach supports the view that the Homo sapiens language-ready brain had the more general property of being construction-ready, and that this made possible the emergence of drawing and painting through later cultural evolution.
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or categorize musical pitches accurately without an external reference. Although AP is generally thought to be rare, music psychology research in the past few decades has debated on every aspect of the phenomenon. This chapter will review the theories, methods, and findings on AP from the cognitive psychology and neuroscience literature, with the goal of elucidating some of the following controversies on AP: its identification and prevalence, its genetic and environmental origins, its psychological and neural underpinnings, and the degree to which it may be informative as a scientific model of brain function.
Abuse of people with disabilities is a substantial problem because of the particular physical, emotional, and sexual vulnerabilities that people with disabilities have, in addition to being vulnerable to the abuse associated with their disabilities. The problem of abuse for the disabled population is complicated by a lack of knowledge in health-care professionals, lack of awareness in people with disabilities themselves, and limited resources for, and barriers to, intervention. In this chapter I will examine the nature of the problem, the types of abuse related to disability, and the vulnerability factors that increase risk. We will look at how to assess for abuse in people with disabilities, the consequences often faced in reporting abuse, and the best practices for assessment. I will also review the limited research on different cognitive, behavioral, or psycho-educational intervention approaches. Given the challenges to successfully evaluating and addressing this problem, mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of this issue.
Edward S. Shapiro, Jaime Benson, Nathan Clemens, and Karen L. Gischlar
The assessment of academic skills is an essential and critical component of the life of all schools. Like the assessment of other areas of functioning, assessment of academic skills needs to include multiple methods, multiple modalities, and multiple perspectives to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the problem. The process of assessment needs to cut across the range of direct and indirect approaches in order to capture a complete viewpoint of the academic skill problems that the student is experiencing. Included in the chapter are brief reviews of direct assessment methods built on observation, curriculum-based assessment, normative or criterion-referenced standardized tests, permanent product or portfolio review, as well as indirect methods built upon rating scales and interviews with teachers and students.
Academic Interventions: What School Psychologists Need to Know for Their Assessment and Problem Solving Consultation Roles
Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, and Nicole Alston–Abel
This chapter provides an overview of critical concepts about academic interventions that school psychologists can apply in their assessment (prevention and diagnosis) and problem solving consultation roles. Topics covered include (a) general principles from research on reading, writing, math, and science instruction and learning; (b) home–school relationships; and (c) issues of diversity, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. School psychologists are encouraged to read widely and deeply the research literature on academic instruction and learning, to which many disciplines have contributed. School psychologists are also encouraged to practice and master the artful transformation of that research knowledge to the individual case at hand within a specific social context, including the family, classroom, school, community, and culture.
Maureen A. McCarthy, Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Suzanne C. Baker
The authors provide a rationale for academic program reviews (APRs), highlighting their role in improving teaching, learning, and program quality in psychology departments. Following a brief history of accreditation in higher education, they introduce the purpose and scope of quality benchmarking in psychology program. Specific guidelines for organizing an APR for a psychology department include writing and organizing a self-study document, selecting an external reviewer(s) to lead the program evaluation, and planning for and scheduling activities for a reviewer’s visit. The essay concludes by considering the future of the APR in psychology education, especially at the undergraduate level.
Jonathan B. Bricker
This article summarizes the theory, clinical methods, evidence, and mechanisms of action for the application of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to tobacco smoking cessation. Following an overview of the relational frame theory underlying the ACT cessation interventions and contrasts between ACT and standard behavioral clinical practice guideline cessation interventions, a session-by-session clinical summary is presented for the delivery of an ACT cessation intervention. The evidence reviewed from the 15 randomized clinical trials published to date (total n = 6991) shows that ACT is a strong alternative to standard behavioral therapies when delivered in traditional modalities (e.g., group) and is particularly efficacious as a smartphone-delivered cessation intervention (e.g., iCanQuit smartphone app). Acceptance of cravings is an important mechanism of action. Future directions include next generations of digital delivery, such as conversational agents (i.e., “chatbots”).
María Oliva Márquez-González, Andrés Losada, and Rosa Romero-Moreno
Dementia caregiving is associated with negative physical and psychological health consequences. Multicomponent, behavioural, and psychotherapeutic interventions for reducing caregivers’ distress, particularly the cognitive-behavioural ones, present the greatest effect sizes, but nevertheless these effects are only moderate. The third wave of behavioural therapies and, specifically acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), offers interesting therapeutic tools aimed at fostering the acceptance of aversive internal experiences and the commitment to personal values. Given the chronic nature of the caregiving situation and the unchangeability of many of its elements (e.g. feeling sadness or grief), ACT represents a promising and potentially helpful therapeutic approach to help dementia caregivers to decrease their emotional distress. Very few studies have so far analysed the efficacy of ACT or some of its components (e.g. mindfulness) in this population, but these provide some preliminary support for the utility of this approach in improving caregivers’ psychological well-being. Assuming the need for further research in order to consider ACT as an empirically validated therapy for dementia caregivers, in this chapter we analyse, in the context of caregiving, the psychological processes highlighted in the ACT model of psychopathology, such as experiential avoidance, describing examples of them in cases of caregivers we have assisted in our clinical work, and outlining ACT-based therapeutic strategies that we have found useful on a clinical basis for modifying them.
Robert Zettle and Suzanne Gird
Acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions are part of the third generation of cognitive–behavioral therapies (Hayes, 2004). Among these approaches, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) enjoy the greatest empirical support in the treatment and prevention of depression. Despite some similarities, ACT and MBCT differ on philosophical, methodological, and strategic dimensions. Outcome literature is more extensive for MBCT; empirical support for putative therapeutic processes specific to each appears to be stronger for ACT. Increasingly both approaches have been extended into clinical areas previously occupied by the other, with ACT being used for prevention of depression and MBCT for treatment of acute depressive symptoms. These developments have made it possible to indirectly compare their therapeutic impact and suggest shared mechanisms of action. Randomized clinical trials in which ACT and MBCT are directly evaluated on common outcome and process variables are recommended to more fully explicate these comparisons.
Dieter du Plessis
The autobiographical story of Dieter is sketched here to portray his struggle to fit in the worlds of others while living in a world that is created from his luscious and profound imagination, but that is hardly possible, and mostly impossible, for others to grasp or even imagine. In spite of his reading a lot, much intellectual ability and ability with words, Dieter’s inabilities are both subtle and like walking into a brick wall. He is not defined by these limitations, however, even though his identity has been a burden. Instead, he believes, among many other things, in creating endless possibilities through the powers of thought, and heroically wants to share his world through poetry and writings that have not been heard or read before.
Harry Knoors and Marc Marschark
Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children are more at risk than hearing children for developing cognitive deficits despite universal newborn hearing screening, early intervention, early input of sign language, and pediatric cochlear implantation. DHH children and adolescents may exhibit cognitive differences due to differences in perception and language modality. They may also experience an elevated risk of developing cognitive deficits due to periods of linguistic and cognitive deprivation and periods of chronic stress and fatigue. This chapter describes the possible causes for cognitive deficits of DHH children and the consequences for learning, both direct (because of cognitive overload) and indirect (because of behavior problems). Subsequently, the chapter outlines the various ways in which cognitive deficits may be accommodated through preventive measures, structured instruction, and specific interventions. The chapter concludes that, in all areas, there is first and foremost a need for more well-constructed effect studies. At the same time, application and further evaluation of the few available well-designed interventions are highly recommended.
Elizabeth M. Altmaier
Along with other professions, psychology engages in accreditation, a system of quality assurance to evaluate the various aspects of educating a professional psychologist. Accreditation builds on a program’s ongoing strategies of self-study and change, with the addition of a formal review that includes an on-site evaluation of the program by faculty peers from other institutions. Both site visitors and the Commission on Accreditation judge the program’s ongoing adherence to a set of standards regarding necessary content, processes, and policies. In psychology, accreditation is available for programs of study that result in the PhD and PsyD degree, for year-long internships that precede the granting of the doctoral degree, and for one or two year postdoctoral fellowships or residencies. This chapter describes the history of accreditation, outlines the current system, documents various external influences on accreditation, and considers several challenges to be met in the future.
Miguel Pinedo, Sarah Zemore, Cheryl Cherpitel, and Raul Caetano
This chapter reviews a study exploring the influence of acculturation on alcohol use disorders (AUD) among a sample of Mexican-origin participants residing on and off the US-Mexico border region. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine what domains of US acculturation predict AUD; (2) determine whether retaining aspects of Mexican culture protects against AUD; (3) examine potential mediators that might explain the relationship between acculturation and AUD, including factors relevant to a stress-based model and a normative model; and (4) determine whether the relationship between acculturation measures and AUD differs by environmental contexts. Findings suggest the influence of acculturation on Mexican women’s drinking behaviors might vary across environmental contexts. Characteristics of the border environment might exacerbate alcohol problems among more acculturated women. Findings also support a normative model of acculturation. Programs and prevention strategies at the border targeting drinking norms and motives might be particularly beneficial for women.
Acculturation and Alcohol Use Among Hispanic and Asian American College Students: What Do We Know and Where Could We Go?
Byron L. Zamboanga, Cara C. Tomaso, and P. Priscilla Lui
Many college students, are susceptible to alcohol use and related problems, including Hispanic and Asian Americans. A potential factor contributing to this risk is acculturation, which can be defined as the process of psychological, behavioral, social, and cultural change and adaptation that occurs when individuals or groups from different cultural backgrounds come in contact. This chapter provides a narrative review of the literature examining acculturation and alcohol use among these populations. One key theme to emerge from this review is that the exact direction of the association between these variables is unclear and therefore should be considered with caution. While the existing evidence is relatively limited, gender and, to some extent, ethnic group membership appear to moderate the association between acculturation and alcohol use. Several methodological issues pertaining to the study of acculturation, future research directions, and implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Seth J. Schwartz and Jennifer Unger
The purpose of this book is to bridge “basic” theory and research on acculturation—that is, what acculturation is, how it operates, and what are the appropriate methods to study it—with “applied” acculturation research—that is, how acculturation affects various health behaviors and outcomes among migrant populations. This introductory chapter reviews current theory and research on acculturation and health and points to future directions for the field. We also propose some new ideas to help move the field forward. The chapter also lays out the structure of and goals for the book. Fundamental definitional issues regarding what acculturation is, and how it could relate to health outcomes, are covered.
Ana F. Abraído-Lanza, Karen R. Flórez, and Rachel C. Shelton
Despite the many health benefits of physical activity (PA), the majority of Latinos do not meet recommended levels of PA. This chapter provides an overview of research on acculturation and PA among adult Latinos in the United States. It identifies gaps in knowledge concerning the association between acculturation and different types of PA, the joint effects of socioeconomic position and acculturation on PA, and research on gender. It suggests several areas for further research related to acculturation and PA, including an exploration of norms, social networks, and broader social contexts. It concludes that although the bulk of evidence indicates that greater acculturation is associated with increased PA, more complex research designs and greater methodological and conceptual rigor are needed to move forward research in this area.
Acculturation and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults from Immigrant Families
Jennifer Tsai, Davida Becker, Steve Sussman, Ricky Bluthenthal, Jennifer Unger, and Seth J. Schwartz
Adolescents and emerging adults who engage in risky sexual behaviors (RSBs), such as inconsistent condom use, having multiple partners, having sex at a young age, and having sex while intoxicated or high, are at elevated risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unplanned pregnancy. The chapter discusses the relationship of acculturation (along with associated intrapersonal and interpersonal mediators and moderators) with RSB outcomes. Acculturation can be a protective or risk-enhancing factor for RSBs among adolescents. Intrapersonal variables, such as academic achievement, sexual intention, and sexual health knowledge, and interpersonal variables, such as parent, peer, and partner relationships, can act as mediators between acculturation and RSBs. The strength of these relationships may be further moderated by religiosity and gender. Implications for future research and interventions are proposed.