Edward S. Shapiro, Jaime Benson, Nathan Clemens, and Karen L. Gischlar
The assessment of academic skills is an essential and critical component of the life of all schools. Like the assessment of other areas of functioning, assessment of academic skills needs to include multiple methods, multiple modalities, and multiple perspectives to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the problem. The process of assessment needs to cut across the range of direct and indirect approaches in order to capture a complete viewpoint of the academic skill problems that the student is experiencing. Included in the chapter are brief reviews of direct assessment methods built on observation, curriculum-based assessment, normative or criterion-referenced standardized tests, permanent product or portfolio review, as well as indirect methods built upon rating scales and interviews with teachers and students.
Academic Interventions: What School Psychologists Need to Know for Their Assessment and Problem Solving Consultation Roles
Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, and Nicole Alston–Abel
This chapter provides an overview of critical concepts about academic interventions that school psychologists can apply in their assessment (prevention and diagnosis) and problem solving consultation roles. Topics covered include (a) general principles from research on reading, writing, math, and science instruction and learning; (b) home–school relationships; and (c) issues of diversity, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. School psychologists are encouraged to read widely and deeply the research literature on academic instruction and learning, to which many disciplines have contributed. School psychologists are also encouraged to practice and master the artful transformation of that research knowledge to the individual case at hand within a specific social context, including the family, classroom, school, community, and culture.
Maureen A. McCarthy, Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Suzanne C. Baker
The authors provide a rationale for academic program reviews (APRs), highlighting their role in improving teaching, learning, and program quality in psychology departments. Following a brief history of accreditation in higher education, they introduce the purpose and scope of quality benchmarking in psychology program. Specific guidelines for organizing an APR for a psychology department include writing and organizing a self-study document, selecting an external reviewer(s) to lead the program evaluation, and planning for and scheduling activities for a reviewer’s visit. The essay concludes by considering the future of the APR in psychology education, especially at the undergraduate level.
Elaine Clark and Janiece L. Pompa
Current neuroscience research suggests that with appropriate interventions of sufficient duration and frequency, struggling readers can access quicker, more efficient neurologic pathways for reading. Some research has indicated, however, that effective remediation may require 90 minutes of daily direct instruction in reading, for one to three years, before permanent structural changes in the brain are seen. In this chapter, the application of neuroscience research to reading interventions is discussed. Components of effective remedial reading interventions are reviewed, with examples given of research-supported Tier 3 and Tier 4 instructional programs. The authors raise questions, however, about the sufficiency of RTI methods alone to identify students with specific learning disabilities, and design interventions that can effectively meet their educational needs.
Kathleen S. Arnos and Arti Pandya
Genetic factors are believed to account for more than half of all cases of congenital or early-onset moderate to profound deafness. The identification of several dozen genes for deafness, one of which accounts for a high proportion of all childhood deafness, has enabled the identification of the exact cause of deafness in many children through genetic testing. Parents, family members, deaf and hard-of-hearing adults, as well as health care and educational professionals often are unaware of the exact process and goals of genetic evaluation and may have questions about the usefulness of genetic testing. Sensitive and appropriate genetic evaluation and testing, coupled with appropriate interpretation and information through genetic counseling, can be invaluable to many families. Health professionals and those who work with deaf children in educational and service settings play an important role in helping parents and family members understand the value of a genetic evaluation and making referrals to genetics professionals.
Suzanne C. Baker and Catherine L. Franssen
The study of animal behavior holds a special place in psychology, as many early psychologists studied behavior across a range of species. Although psychology is frequently defined as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes,” contemporary psychology focuses on the behavior of humans. Including a comparative perspective can provide students with a clearer understanding of behavioral diversity and the factors that influence it. We discuss topics typically covered in an animal behavior course, along with some newer emerging topics in the discipline, and provide information about teaching resources and strategies. We also provide examples for incorporating a comparative perspective throughout areas of the psychology curriculum such as brain and behavior, sensation and perception, cognition, and personality.
Bert De Smedt and Roland H. Grabner
In this chapter, we explore three types of applications of neuroscience to mathematics education: neurounderstanding, neuroprediction, and neurointervention. Neurounderstanding refers to the idea that neuroscience is generating knowledge on how people acquire mathematical skills and how this learning is reflected at the biological level. Such knowledge might yield a better understanding of the typical and atypical development of school-taught mathematical competencies. Neuroprediction deals with the potential of neuroimaging data to predict future mathematical skill acquisition and response to educational interventions. In neurointervention, we discuss how brain imaging data have been used to ground interventions targeted at mathematics learning and how education shapes the neural circuitry that underlies school-taught mathematics. We additionally elaborate on recently developed neurophysiological interventions that have been shown to affect mathematical learning. While these applications offer exciting opportunities for mathematics education, some potential caveats should be considered, which are discussed at the end of this chapter.
Applying the Portfolio Model of Adaptability: A Career Guide to Managing Academic Environments and Departmental Politics
Frederick T. L. Leong, Madhur Chandra, and Siddharth Chandra
In this chapter, we propose the use of the Portfolio Model of Adaptability (PMA) to help faculty manage their career advancement in academia. We begin with an overview of complexity theory as it relates to academic environments and describe several conceptual models for understanding the organizational and interpersonal dynamics within colleges and universities. In viewing the academic environment through the perspective of a Lewinian force-field analysis, we recommend the use of a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. We also illustrate the importance of Positionality when conducting a force-field analysis or a SWOT analysis. In addition, we argue that Positionality needs to be understood from a person–environment fit perspective. Career success is viewed as achievement of optimal fit at the various levels. Finally, we move to the central theme of our chapter, which is the application of the Portfolio Model of Adaptability to help us manage this complexity and prevailing and countervailing forces within our academic environment when charting a course toward a successful academic career. The Portfolio Model is described and followed by examples of the application of the model to the academic environment across the different levels of person–environment fit.
Barbara R. Schirmer and Cheri Williams
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research on approaches to reading instruction with deaf students. Although the body of research literature on the reading processes of deaf students consistently generates implications for instruction, relatively few studies have investigated instructional interventions with deaf readers. Brief descriptions of the research published before 2000 are offered in this chapter, except in cases of early seminal studies and lone studies in major areas, as a foundation for understanding the current research that is described in greater detail. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implications for future research on instructional approaches that could serve to inform teacher practice.
Jenny L. Singleton and Samuel J. Supalla
This chapter reviews published or known assessments of children’s language proficiency across a number of the world’s signed languages, including American Sign Language, British Sign Language, Australian Sign Language, Sign Language of the Netherlands, and German Sign Language. Critical issues in sign language assessment are also discussed, with special attention to possible threats to test reliability and validity. For example, test examiners may doubt the authenticity of the elicited language sample from a deaf, signing child, or test developers may question whether an adaptation of a spoken-language test is appropriate for use with deaf, signing children. The authors conclude that there remains a critical need in many countries for commercially available, and easy to administer, signed language proficiency assessments for use in research and education settings with deaf and hearing individuals.
Maribeth Gettinger, Clarissa J. Schienebeck, Stephanie Seigel, and Laura J. Vollmer
The quality of classroom environments is a central variable in determining behavioral and learning outcomes of students. This chapter reviews learning environment research that links measurable dimensions of teaching and classroom environments to student performance, including effective teaching behaviors, classroom management, teacher–student relationships, academic learning time, emotional climate and support, grouping format, class size, and physical characteristics. A review of three approaches to assessing these dimensions of classroom environments is provided; specifically, classroom observations, classroom environment surveys, and eco-behavioral assessment. Finally, implications for classroom practice and future directions for research are presented.
Robert J. Volpe and Sandra M. Chafouleas
Given the considerable amount of research attention that has been provided to externalizing behavioral deficits, a wide array of assessment methodologies is available to reliably assess core features. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a guide for the assessment of externalizing behavior problems. The chapter begins with an overview of externalizing problems, with focus on disorders of attention and disruption. Discussion of relevant disorders is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition, text revision; DSM-IV-TR) and special education law. Next, a five-phase model is presented for school-based assessment of externalizing problems that addresses issues of classification (screening, multimethod assessment, interpretation of results) as well as design and evaluation of the treatment plan.
Randy W. Kamphaus and Kristen L. Mays
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the assessment of internalizing problems in children and adolescents. The chapter consists of three sections. The first section summarizes the categorical and dimensional systems used to classify social and emotional problems in youth. The second section discusses a variety of assessment techniques (e.g., structured and semistructured interviews and behavioral rating scales) that can be used to evaluate internalizing problems. This section also provides descriptions of several assessment measures including the DISC-IV, K-SADS-PL, ASEBA, BASC-2, BYI-II, CDI, RCMAS-2, and STAIC. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of several practical issues to consider when evaluating the emotional and behavioral status of youth.
The study of beliefs is important because in addition to values, norms, and personality, beliefs are a major antecedent of social behaviours. This article provides an update of the study of beliefs in Chinese culture by integrating research that has emerged later on. The two major objectives of this article are to consolidate what has been known about beliefs in Chinese culture, and to identify fruitful directions for future research on this important topic. Chinese culture is rich in the variety and quantity of traditional beliefs because of its long history, but, as this article states, only a few of these rich belief constellations have been explored by psychologists. The article then reviews a few major traditional beliefs deemed important for future psychological research. However it states that there are still many gaps in the knowledge about beliefs among Chinese and how they function to influence social behaviours.
Mayer Connie and C. Tane Akamatsu
Bilingual approaches in the education of deaf students have been in place for almost three decades and debate continues as to the merits of these programs, particularly with respect to the relationship between bilingualism and the development of text-based literacy. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first section examines the theoretical frameworks which that underpin the move to bilingual models of education for deaf students with a particular emphasis on the expectations with respect to the development of literacy. References are made to other bilingual contexts in which the research on this point has been more extensive and exhaustive. This is followed by a review of the literature within the context of deaf education beginning with the earliest studies from the 1980’s. The chapter concludes with a summary and synthesis of what has been learned from the research to date and positions this review in the context of the outcomes suggested by the theory and by the research from other bilingual settings. Suggestions are made and questions posed as to directions for future study and research.
Challenging Gifted and Talented Learners with a Continuum of Research-Based Interventions Strategies
Sally M. Reis and Joseph S. Renzulli
An overview of definitions of giftedness, special populations of gifted and talented children, methods of identification, and a continuum of services are summarized in this chapter. These services include organizational strategies (such as instructional grouping options), instructional strategies (such as acceleration and enrichment options), and a variety of talent development opportunities that should be included in a continuum of services that will engage and challenge all gifted and talented students. Also included in this chapter are some social and emotional challenges that may affect gifted and high potential children, such as the potential underachievement of children who do not encounter sufficient challenge in school. The chapter ends with a summary of research about the effectiveness of grouping, instructional, and talent development strategies, as well as recommendations for the creation of a continuum of services in each school district that will challenge and engage all students.
Children and Youth Who Are Hard of Hearing:: Hearing Accessibility, Acoustical Context, and Development
Janet R. Jamieson
Children and youth who are hard of hearing comprise a substantial proportion of the birth to young adult population with hearing loss, but in spite of this, researchers have paid scant attention to this group, in comparison to their peers who are deaf. However, there is currently a growing interest in the development of children whose hearing losses range from mild to severe. This focus has come about in part because of the widespread implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI), which is resulting in far earlier diagnosis and intervention—and improved outcomes across domains—than was evident in the past, and in part because of improved amplification technologies. Taken together, the overall impact of EHDI and improved amplification options is that there appears to be an increase in the population of children who are now able to develop functional communication skills more characteristic of hard-of-hearing children than of deaf children.
The aims of this chapter are to consider (1) the challenges inherent in interpreting research on individuals who are hard of hearing in the absence of a consistent definition, (2) outcomes in terms of speech and language development in children who are hard of hearing, (3) the vital role of acoustic ecology and hearing accessibility in the lives of children and youth who are hard of hearing, (4) the relationship between hearing accessibility and identity construction in hard-of-hearing adolescents, and (5) the actual and anticipated impact of newborn hearing screening and early intervention for this population.
Ed Baines and Peter Blatchford
This chapter examines the role of school playground games in children’s development. Games and play take place in a range of settings, both in and outside of the home, in gardens, parks, on the streets, designated playgrounds, or other locations. They also take place and are often studied on the school playground and this will be the main context in which the role of games and other playground activities will be discussed here. The school playground is a useful research site because it is one of the few locations where children interact in a relatively safe environment, free of adult control, and when their play, games, and social relations are more their own. There is an appreciation by many researchers that much can be learned about children from studying their behavior and experiences whilst engaged in play and games (see Blatchford & Sharp, 1994; Pellegrini, 2005; Pellegrini & Blatchford, 2000; Smith, 1994; Sutton-Smith, 1982). Although playground activities express something about the individual child, individuals on the playground are situated and live their lives in complex social structures. Social structures involve and are expressed through, for example, play, games, even hanging around, and the study of playground activity can help with the understanding of peer relations in terms of friendship, peer groups, and social status. A key message in this chapter therefore is that if we want to find out about children’s social and psychological development, including their relationships with peers and the acquisition of social and cognitive skills, then we need to study how these arise out of the everyday reality of children’s playful activities and interactions with others in everyday contexts.
The chapter draws mainly on psychological research on games and social activities that children participate in during middle childhood and to some extent adolescence. There are five main sections which cover the following issues: the current status and context of play outside and inside school; definitions of games and perspectives on their role in development; how games and social activities change with development during and beyond middle childhood, how this varies by sex, and how games are learned from other children; the role playground games have in supporting peer relationships and the development of social-cognitive skills; the role of games in relation to learning and engagement in the classroom, school belonging, and adjustment.
For illustration, we draw on several of our own research projects, in particular the Nuffield Foundation-funded national surveys of recess (or breaktime as it is called in the UK) in schools (conducted in 1995 and 2006) and pupil views on recess and social life outside of school (Blatchford & Baines, 2006; Blatchford & Sumpner, 1996), and a Spencer Foundation-funded project on playground activities and peer relations in UK and US schools (Baines & Blatchford, 2009; Blatchford, Baines & Pellegrini, 2003; Pellegrini, Kato, Blatchford & Baines, 2002; Pellegrini, Blatchford, Kato & Baines, 2004). Reported data will come in the main from the UK part of this project, including unreported data from a three-year follow up, unless otherwise stated. We will refer to these as the ‘Nuffield’ and ‘Spencer’ projects, respectively.
Jane V. Oakhill, Molly S. Berenhaus, and Kate Cain
This chapter considers the normal development of children’s reading comprehension, as well as individual differences and specific difficulties related to children’s reading comprehension. Most of the studies in this area have been carried out with children who are learning to read in an alphabetic orthography, and this chapter reflects that bias. The chapter outlines the development of various processes that are related to reading comprehension in the early school years. The authors also consider the relationship between these processes and reading comprehension ability. The chapter concludes with a consideration of the implications for research and practice during the early school years.
Yu-Jing Ni, Ming Ming Chiu, and Zi-Juan Cheng
Chinese students have excelled in many international assessments of mathematics achievement (e.g. Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study [TIMSS]), thereby drawing great interest from researchers, educators, and policy makers inside and outside the Chinese community. This article draws upon three strands of research (developmental, instructional, and social-psychological) cutting across three different levels (societal/cultural [macro, nation], institutional [meso/micro, family, classroom], and individual [nano]) to examine the ingredients that have shaped the mathematics achievements of Chinese students. This article traces the early numerical development of Chinese children before considering learning and instruction in Chinese mathematics classrooms. Apart from exploring the broader sociocultural contexts in which the Chinese way of learning and teaching mathematics is rooted and supported, it also depicts a profile of Chinese students' achievements in mathematics against these backgrounds. Broadly, this article helps to understand Chinese students' mathematics achievement and its contexts.