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About Institutions, Mainly, but not Exclusively, Political  

Jean Blondel

Print publication date:
Jun 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the concept of institution by examining the components of an institution and the way in which institutionalization can increase or decrease. It considers the place to ... More

Accountability and the Nonprofit Sector  

Steven Rathgeb Smith

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Accountability in nonprofits is complicated and multi-faceted. Nonprofits can also be sites of vibrant civic engagement, community governance, and providers of valuable local services. ... More

Accountable Corporate Governance  

Sheldon Leader

Print publication date:
May 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This chapter explores the ways in which public standards of accountability are brought to bear on a nominally private institution: the commercial corporation. It considers several classic ... More

Accumulation  

David Bailey

Online publication date:
May 2022
Accumulation—as both a process and a concept—has been of central importance to International Political Economy (IPE), especially for those approaches informed by Marxism and critical ... More

Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions  

Maxwell McCombs and Sebastián Valenzuela

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter discusses contemporary directions of agenda-setting research. It reviews the basic concept of agenda setting, the transfer of salience from the media agenda to the public ... More

Agricultural Futures: The Politics of Knowledge  

Ian Scoones

Print publication date:
Jan 2015
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Global assessments have become central to international debates on a range of key policy issues. They attempt to combine “expert assessment” with processes of “stakeholder consultation” in ... More

AI and International Politics  

Amelia C. Arsenault and Sarah E. Kreps

Online publication date:
Feb 2022
In light of contemporary technological advancements in the fields of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, coupled with significant investment in AI research and development by ... More

AI and the Economic and Informational Foundations of Democracy  

Carles Boix

Online publication date:
Mar 2022
As has been the case for previous technological revolutions, AI will have economic and informational effects that may impact the nature and stability of democracy. In advanced democracies, ... More

AI Challenges for Society and Ethics  

Jess Whittlestone and Samuel Clarke

Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Artificial intelligence is already being applied in and impacting many important sectors in society, including healthcare, finance, and policing. These applications will increase as AI ... More

AI Governance Multi-stakeholder Convening  

K. Gretchen Greene

Online publication date:
Mar 2022
This chapter offers reflections and advice on AI ethics and governance from a year spent leading Partnership on AI’s multi-stakeholder Affective Computing and Ethics project, involving more ... More

AI, Complexity, and Regulation  

Laurin B. Weissinger

Online publication date:
May 2022
Regulating and governing AI will remain a challenge due to the inherent intricacy of how AI is deployed and used in practice. Regulation effectiveness and efficiency are inversely ... More

Aligning AI Regulation to Sociotechnical Change  

Matthijs M. Maas

Online publication date:
Mar 2022
How do we regulate a changing technology, with changing uses, in a changing world? This chapter argues that while existing (inter)national AI governance approaches are important, they are ... More

American Political Development and Political History  

Richard R. John

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This essay traces the long and productive relationship between two genres of historical writing: American political development (or APD) and American political history. It is written ... More

American Political Parties: History, Voters, Critical Elections, and Party Systems  

Joel H. Silbey

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article provides a sweeping analysis of the history of American political parties. It specifically uses the lens of critical election theory to explore the scholarly treatment of the ... More

Analyzing American Political Development as It Happens  

Theda Skocpol

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Historical institutional scholars can analyze politics as it happens, not just developments long past. A powerful theoretical approach should give clear guidance about questions worth ... More

APD and Rational Choice  

Jeffery A. Jenkins

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
Rational choice and American political development (APD) both emerged as responses to (perceived) limitations with the dominant behavioral tradition. While their critiques were based on ... More

Arms Control and Disarmament  

Keith Krause

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter evaluates the achievements and limitations of the United Nations (including the Conference on Disarmament) in the field of disarmament, emphasizing the UN’s role as part of ... More

Arms Control and Disarmament Diplomacy  

Rebecca Johnson

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This article begins by discussing the four kinds of development that helped change the expectations, objectives, and conduct of modern disarmament diplomacy: (i) transformative advances in ... More

Artificial Intelligence for Adjudication: The Social Security Administration and AI Governance  

Kurt Glaze, Daniel E. Ho, Gerald K. Ray, and Christine Tsang

Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Despite widespread skepticism of data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) in adjudication, the Social Security Administration (SSA) pioneered path-breaking AI tools that became ... More

Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare  

Nakul Aggarwal, Michael E. Matheny, Carmel Shachar, Samantha X.Y. Wang, and Sonoo Thadaney-Israni

Online publication date:
Mar 2022
Artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to significantly impact healthcare systems, including clinical diagnosis, healthcare administration and delivery, and public health infrastructures. ... More

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