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Aldo Moro and Enrico Berlinguer  

Emanuele Bernardi

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Moro and Berlinguer were instrumental in the rapprochement between the Communist Party and Christian Democracy (DC) in the mid-1970s. As President of the DC, Moro identified cooperation ... More

Bureaucracy  

Simona Piattoni

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The Italian state apparatus has been characterized by a mix of surprising continuity and substantial change. Adaptation was prompted not so much by attempts at reform as by pressures ... More

The Bureaucracy: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service, and Other Government Departments  

Jeremy Greenstock

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
The exponential growth in the complexity of human exchange has led to two major developments in the protected world of the diplomat: the entry into intergovernmental business of most other ... More

Bureaucratic Politics in Israel  

Sharon Gilad and Nissim Cohen

Print publication date:
Apr 2021
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Studies of the Israeli public sector point to the vast influence of the Ministry of Finance (MOF) across multiple policy domains. This chapter combines bureaucratic politics research and ... More

C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite  

William Genieys

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This chapter examines The Power Elite, a radical work by C. Wright Mills that challenges the foundations of US liberal democracy and analyses the conditions under which democratic pluralism ... More

Cabinet Decision-making in Parliamentary Systems  

Michelangelo Vercesi

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
This chapter deals with the internal decision-making process of political executives in parliamentary systems, that is, how executives take their own collective decisions. The focus is on ... More

Campaigns and Elections in a Changing Media Landscape  

Michael X. Delli Carpini and Bruce A. Williams

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The media landscape of countries across the globe is changing in profound ways that are of relevance to the study and practice of political campaigns and elections. This chapter uses the ... More

Christian Democracy: The  

Gianfranco Baldini

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Democrazia Cristiana (DC) was the cornerstone of the First Republic. Thanks to the Communist Party’s exclusion from government, the DC was the core of government, dominating the political ... More

Christian Democracy in Power, 1946–63  

Paolo Pombeni

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The early postwar years marked a challenging and dynamic phase for Christian Democracy (DC). In this period, the party stabilized the county and shaped its democratic institutions in a ... More

Common Agency? Legislatures and Bureaucracies  

Mathew D. McCubbins

Print publication date:
Jun 2014
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
In all democracies, whether presidential or parliamentary, the chain of political delegation is a complex process involving a multitude of principals, many of which are frequently replaced. ... More

Communists  

Paolo Bellucci

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The Italian Communist Party (PCI) has been the subject of sustained scholarly attention. The narrative of its development over the postwar period and beyond the fall of Soviet Communism is ... More

Constituency Candidates and Political Representation  

Thomas Zittel

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Candidates in constituency campaigns are important agents in the representative process. This chapter surveys the state of the literature that relates to the extent to which and how ... More

Constructivist Approaches to the Study of Political Executives  

Dennis C. Grube

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Constructivism is a theoretical perspective that embraces the inherent uncertainties of human experience. In the study of political executives, this has manifested itself as seeking to ... More

The Cultural Pre-Requisites of Democracy  

Christian Welzel

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
This chapter discusses the mentality structures that must be encultured in a population to allow it to sustain stable democracy. Contrary to the mainstream in the literature, I argue that ... More

David B. Truman, The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion  

Wyn Grant

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This chapter examines David B. Truman’s book The Governmental Process(1951, 1971), which offers a classic pluralist analysis of interest groups and their relationships with political ... More

Descriptive Representation Revisited  

Anne Phillips

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
Descriptive representation—understood as a concern that the gender and ethnic composition of elected assemblies should roughly correspond to the gender and ethnic composition of their ... More

The Development of Congressional Elections  

Wendy J. Schiller

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article discusses the capacity of Congress elections to serve as an effective electoral mechanism in democracy. It discusses scholarship and studies that focuses on congressional ... More

The Distribution of Ministerial Posts in Parliamentary Systems  

Hanna Bäck and Royce Carroll

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The distribution of ministerial posts is an important step in the democratic process in parliamentary democracies, as ministers are likely to influence the policy outputs of governments. ... More

Does Economic and Political Integration Undermine Representative Democracy?: Lessons from the 2008 Economic Crisis in the European Union  

Jorge M. Fernandes and Pedro C. Magalhães

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The Great Recession and the Eurozone crisis are frequently treated as having led to a breakdown in democratic representation in Europe, as deeply constrained governments became unable to ... More

Dynamic Representation  

Christopher Wlezien

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2020
This chapter considers what we have learned—and still have to learn—from research on dynamic representation in the United States and other countries. To begin with, it provides a basic ... More

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