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Bang, P., Scheidel, W., & Robinson, C. (2013-02-01). The First Islamic Empire. In The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. : Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 Aug. 2020, from https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195188318.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195188318-e-19.