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Acceleration, Deceleration, Escalation, and De-escalation  

Wesley G. Jennings and Bryanna Hahn Fox

Published in print:
Jan 2019
Published Online:
Dec 2018
This chapter examines two patterns of change seen in individual offending behaviors at certain times and ages: acceleration or deceleration and escalation or de-escalation. In order to ... More

Adolescent Crime and Victimization: Sex and Gender Differences, Similarities, and Emerging Intersections  

Holly Foster

Published in print:
May 2014
Published Online:
Jul 2014
This essay examines sex/gender differences and similarities in offending and victimization among young people. Gender differences are pronounced for violent behaviors and smaller for minor ... More

Adolescent Development, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice  

Jennifer L. Woolard

Some form of delinquency is a normative part of adolescence for a majority of teens, yet the consequences of risky behavior and juvenile justice involvement can be severe. This article ... More

Adolescent Precursors of White-Collar Crime  

Simon I. Singer

Delinquency in adolescence is a known precursor to adult criminality. Nonetheless, the delinquencies of adolescents are generally considered irrelevant to adult white-collar crime. This ... More

Adult Offender Assessment and Classification in Custodial Settings  

James Bonta Ph.D. and J.S. Wormith Ph.D.

Published in print:
May 2018
Published Online:
Nov 2016
This chapter describes the developments that have occurred over the past three decades in the area of offender assessment and classification, including discussion of why offender ... More

Advances in Visualization for Theory Testing in Environmental Criminology  

Patricia L. Brantingham, Paul J. Brantingham, Justin Song, and Valerie Spicer

Published in print:
Sep 2018
Published Online:
Feb 2018
This chapter discusses advances in visualization for environmental criminology. The environment within which people move has many dimensions that influence or constrain decisions and ... More

The aftermath of sex offender registration and other controls  

Kristen M. Zgoba

Published in print:
Jan 2017
Published Online:
Jul 2017
This essay begins with a review of public reaction to sexual offenses and the rise in social awareness that sex offenses have promoted. Statistics exploring the prevalence of sexual abuse ... More

Age and Crime  

Chester L. Britt

Published in print:
Jan 2019
Published Online:
Dec 2018
This chapter provides an alternative framework for thinking about the research on age and crime. It argues that, contrary to a popular view in the research literature that emphasizes ... More

Age of Onset of Offending Behavior  

Elaine Eggleston Doherty and Sarah Bacon

Published in print:
Jan 2019
Published Online:
Dec 2018
This chapter first provides an overview of the empirical observations that have shaped the age-of-onset research. It approaches these empirical observations as the central “facts” ... More

The Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control  

John H. Laub, Zachary R. Rowan, and Robert J. Sampson

Published in print:
Jan 2019
Published Online:
Dec 2018
This chapter turns to the age-graded theory of informal social control. This theory posits that crime is more likely to occur when an individual's bond to conventional society is weakened. ... More

Alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual offending  

Paul M.G. Emmelkamp and Fleur L. Kraanen

Published in print:
Jan 2017
Published Online:
Jul 2017
Substance use and criminal behaviour often go hand in hand, and sexual crimes are no exception. This essay on alcohol and drug use in relation to sexual offending aims to provide a brief ... More

American Corrections: Reform Without Change  

Karol Lucken and Thomas G. Blomberg

Published in print:
Apr 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article outlines the corrections system of America. It traces the history of the corrections system and offers some observations on what led to the massive prison buildup. It ... More

Antisocial Behavior  

Michael Tonry and Harriet Bildsten

Published in print:
Aug 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses antisocial behavior orders (ASBOs) in England and Wales and recent U.S. policies based on the broken windows hypothesis. The broken windows hypothesis and its policy ... More

The Appeal of the Crime Genre  

Gray Cavender and Nancy Jurik

This chapter provides an overview of the longevity and popular appeal of the crime genre and its relevance to the field of criminology. In our discussion we include such media as novels, ... More

Arms Trafficking  

Andrew Feinstein and Paul Holden

Published in print:
Oct 2014
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This essay provides a brief overview of arms trafficking, its participants and enabling partners, and the prospects of a reduction in arms trafficking through various legal mechanisms. It ... More

Auto Theft  

Michael Cherbonneau and Richard Wright

Published in print:
Aug 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article reviews our current knowledge about automobile theft. It defines crime and outlines its prevalence. It further examines the social and economic consequences of auto theft and ... More

Back to Basics: Gender and the Social Psychology of Aggression  

Richard B. Felson

Published in print:
May 2014
Published Online:
Jul 2014
This essay suggests that activist rhetoric and imprecise language should be discarded when studying gender and violence. Violence against women should be compared to violence against men ... More

The Benefits and Penalties of Gender for Criminal Justice Processing Outcomes Among Adults and Juveniles  

Theodore R. Curry

Published in print:
May 2014
Published Online:
Jul 2014
This essay examines recent research on gender and criminal justice processing outcomes and makes three broad conclusions. First, the benefits of gender that accrue to female offenders are ... More

Beyond Rape: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Violence During Warfare  

Gabrielle Ferrales and Suzy Maves McElrath

Published in print:
May 2014
Published Online:
Jul 2014
Gender-based violence is one of the oldest sustaining features of war but has received significant scholarly attention only in the past two decades. Much of this work, however, focuses ... More

Biological Perspectives on Sex Differences in Crime and Antisocial Behavior  

Jill Portnoy, Frances R. Chen, Yu Gao, Sharon Niv, Robert A. Schug, Yaling Yang, and Adrian Raine

Published in print:
May 2014
Published Online:
Jul 2014
This essay reviews research in the domains of genetics, structural brain imaging, neuropsychology, psychophysiology, and hormones in order to examine (a) whether the same risk factors that ... More

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