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The A Priori  

Christopher Peacocke

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The existence and nature of the a priori are defining issues for philosophy. A philosopher's attitude to the a priori is a touchstone for his whole approach to the subject. Sometimes, as in ... More

‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay of ... More

‘A Ritual of Discourse’: Conceptualizing and Reconceptualizing the Analytic Relationship  

Judith Hughes

Print publication date:
Feb 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Freud embarked on his exploration of an unconscious domain hand in hand with his clinical practice. He was thus forced to think deeply about the relationship between doctor and patient. He ... More

Abhidharma Philosophy  

Jan Westerhoff

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article provides an introduction to Abhidharma philosophy. The Abhidharma is a collection of texts intended to deal with what the Buddha taught. It is one of the three collections that ... More

Abortion  

John Harris and Søren Holm

Print publication date:
Sep 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Abortion is one of those classic problems that has been discussed in all of the major ‘fertile periods’ of practical philosophy, from the flourishing of Greek thought, through the medieval ... More

Abortion and Death  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This chapter, which examines views about abortion and death, discusses claims about abortion and explains some ways for considering these claims to be true. It analyzes whether abortion ... More

Abortion and Public Health Ethics  

Mahmoud F. Fathalla

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
There is an ethical imperative to take public health action to eliminate the global problem of unsafe abortion. The moral obligation is dictated by the magnitude of the problem, the health ... More

Abortion Revisited  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The three major classical accounts of the morality of abortion are all subject to at least one major problem. Can we do better? This article aims to discuss three accounts that purport to ... More

Absolute Knowledge and the Ethical Conclusion of the Phenomenology  

Dean Moyar

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Hegel wrote in The Science of Logic that the deduction of the concept of science was accomplished at the end of the Phenomenology of Spirit in ‘Absolute Knowledge.’ This chapter links the ... More

Absolutism  

Mark Goldie

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
Absolutism is a nineteenth-century term designed precisely to address the mismatch between doctrine and power. The intellectual resources of absolutism were far older than the Renaissance ... More

Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (d. 925), The Spiritual Medicine  

Peter Adamson

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter offers an overview and analysis of an important ethical work by the early thinker Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī (251/865–313/925). In keeping with his main ... More

Access to Basic Reproductive Rights: Global Challenges  

Sheelagh McGuinness and Heather Widdows

Print publication date:
Feb 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
If women are to have true equality with men, they must be able to control the number of children they have and the time of childbirth. Access to family planning services, particularly safe ... More

Access to Pregnancy-Related Services: Public Health Ethics Issues  

Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Elana Jaffe, and Margaret Olivia Little

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Advancing fair access to evidence-based pregnancy-related services is a critical public health priority. It is widely recognized that there are inequalities in lifesaving interventions. ... More

Accountability and Implicit Bias: A Study in Scepticism about Responsibility  

Gideon Rosen

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Are we morally blameworthy when we act from implicit bias? The chapter argues that implicit biases generate wrongful action by generating strong normative illusions—vivid false beliefs ... More

Accountability, Answerability, and Attributability: On Different Kinds of Moral Responsibility  

Sofia Jeppsson

Print publication date:
Mar 2022
Online publication date:
Feb 2022
This chapter provides an overview and brief critical discussion of moral responsibility pluralism: that is, theories according to which there are several different kinds of moral ... More

Achievement and Meaning in Life  

Gwen Bradford

Print publication date:
Jun 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Achievements play a key role in many accounts of meaning in life. What characterizes projects that are the best sources of objective worth and meaning? A natural thought is that the ... More

Acquiring Aristotelian Virtue  

Nafsika Athanassoulis

Print publication date:
Feb 2018
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
This chapter examines the role of the virtuous agent in the acquisition of virtue. It rejects the view of the virtuous agent as a direct model for imitation and instead focuses on recent ... More

Act Consequentialism and the No-Difference Challenge  

Holly Lawford-Smith and William Tuckwell

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Oct 2020
According to act-consequentialism, only actions that make a difference to an outcome can be morally bad. Yet, there are classes of actions that don’t make a difference, but nevertheless ... More

Action  

Alfred R. Mele

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
What are actions? And how are actions to be explained? These two central questions of the philosophy of action call, respectively, for a theory of the nature of action and a theory of the ... More

Action and selfhood: a narrative interpretation  

László Tengelyi

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter enters into a debate with the analytic theory of action, especially the version developed by Donald Davidson, who makes it clear that the upsurge of a desire to perform a ... More

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