This chapter explores the history of state formation in the Anatolian States, focusing on the Hittite state, which it explains arose in north-central Anatolia early in the Late Bronze Age while the Middle Bronze Age saw the rise of an Indo-European dynasty. It also considers the role of Pithana and his son and successor Anitta in establishing the first great Anatolian empire and the conquests made by the Hittites.
Steven J. Garfinkle
This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes the city-state, focusing on the historical periods of early Mesopotamia. The chapter also considers the ideology of the city-state, the administration of an integrated economy, the emergence of kingship and institutions of government, and the replacement of the city-state system with territorial kingdoms.
This chapter examines the history of state formation in ancient Greece during the Bronze Age, providing an overview of the nature of the Minoan states and the extent of control exercised by Mycenaean states. It describes the key features of the states in the Mycenaean period, which include state structure and organization, palatial centers, military organization, economic organization and administration, and systems of communication and representation.
This chapter examines the history of state formation in Carthage, explaining that the history of the Carthaginian state is one with a changing constitution, with new institutions emerging and old institutions losing importance. It investigates why Carthage did not go the way of many other poleis like those in Greece. The chapter also argues that the end of Carthage is inextricably bound up with the question of Roman imperialism and that while its ruling aristocracy died with its city, there was no doubt that the Carthaginians had identified themselves with their city, its history, and its traditions.
Jonathan S. Perry
Focusing on a few key passages, derived principally from law codes and literary sources, this chapter sketches out the legal situation of collegia vis-à-vis “the state”. However, this material is weighed against the rich epigraphic evidence (i.e. inscribed documents) that suggests the widespread and, in practical effect, unrestricted nature of Roman associations. It suggests that the appearance of governmental interference and regulation, from the late Republic throughout the Principate, was itself merely a pretext, as the government continued to encourage the development and proliferation of collegia as a means of social and political control. It questions whether the senate and the emperors had an interest in actually regulating and licencing collegial assembly, and whether legal texts can be reconciled with the inscriptional material attesting extensive collegial organisation, particularly in Italy and the Empire’s western provinces.
The Roman law of contract has developed itself around the idea of obligation. At the beginning of its history, transactions were possibly differentiated only at an economical level, while from the juristic point of view only the obligatio mattered, so that the judicial remedies were general actions. This was probably a legacy of archaic law and society—which valued community more than the individual—some features of which were retained until the end of the Republic. However, changes in civil procedure caused the arising of a contractual system based on typicality, and this had the further consequence that the transactions not received into the system were considered atypical, their protection being provided by the reuse of the ancient general actions under new form. At the end of the Principate, changes in society and civil procedure reduced the importance of typicality, and some characteristic features of classical contract law were lost.
This article discusses the courts and the judicial system of Roman Palestine. It takes note of the judicial diversity that existed during the time, and considers the Roman provincial jurisdiction that acted as investigating magistrates, among others. The next section looks at the jurisdiction of Roman Palestine, where it introduces the Book of Acts, the literary representation of Roman justice. The article also refers to several sources that reflect the views of the governed about the purpose of Roman administration.
Joseph G. Manning
This chapter examines the history of, and the important factors that contributed to, state formation in ancient Egypt during the period from around 3500
Mogens Herman Hansen
This chapter examines the history of city-states of polis in ancient Greece. It explains that a polis was a strongly institutionalized and centralized micro-state consisting of one city and its immediate hinterland, and that it had an advanced degree of urbanization whereby the majority of the population lived in the urban center. Aside from being the center of habitation, it was also the center of industry and trade, education and entertainment, political institutions, and defense. The chapter furthermore considers the relation between the poleis.
This chapter examines the history of the koinon, a form of regional state in ancient Greece comprised of multiple poleis and in some instances other forms of community, and characterized by the division of sovereignty among the regional government and its constituent communities. It explains that the koinon was a remarkably widespread phenomenon and that almost of mainland Greece and the Peloponnese became part of a koinon. The chapter suggests that the koinon arose amidst a world of poleis against a background of strong group identities and that its nature was profoundly altered in the process of the Roman conquest of Greece in the second century.
This chapter, which explores the history of multi-city states in ancient Greece during the archaic and classical periods, explains that leaders of small city-states were forced to attempt to establish multi-city states because of increasing competition for scarce resources in an age of expanding population and pressures from neighboring cities. It analyzes why these attempts failed, arguing that it is more fruitful to consider state formation as an ongoing process of structural change than as a one-time event.
This chapter, which explores the history of state formation in ancient Greece during the Hellenistic period, describes state power during this period and discusses the narrative, genealogy, and structure of the Hellenistic state. It explains the concepts of basileia and basilikon, and argues that the importance of the Hellenistic empires in the history of the ancient state is linked to several factors. These include the reemergence of a neo-near eastern landscape of kingly polities and the integration of the Greek world of the cities within this world.
This chapter explores the history of the formation of the Iranian Empires, identifying the major phases in state formation, which include the Achaemenid Empire, Iran in Hellenistic times, the Parthian Empire, and the Sasanian Empire. It also describes the key features of the Achaemenid Empire, the Arsacid-Parthian Empire, and the Sasanian Empire, and explains the factors and conditions that influenced state formation.
This chapter examines the history of the formation of Jewish states, discussing the geography and phenomenology of the Jewish states, and the relation between ethnos and state. It highlights the incomplete consolidation of Judaism as the normative ideology of the Jews in the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, describes the Hasmonean state under Herod, and identifies the factors that contributed to state formation.
Roman historians have long used Roman legal texts – in the shape of the Twelve Tables; statutes, often preserved epigraphically; juristic writing; and the imperial codifications – as sources for economic, social, and even political history. Far less attention has been paid to questions relating to legal history and, in the case of the legal writings preserved in the late Roman codifications, how the legal texts should be used as historical sources. After a series of statutes promulgated by Augustus, emperors largely abandoned public laws as their means of legislation. Instead, for purposes of general legislation, they resorted to the edict, which as magistrates they were entitled to issue. However, as the emperor's imperium as a magistrate was for life, so his edicts too became permanent and were notionally applicable under his successors as well. As the Roman citizenship expanded, more people in the Roman Empire became subject to Roman law. The period from the accession of Diocletian in 284 to the promulgation of the Corpus Iuris Civilis by 534 saw the appearance of three legal codifications.
J. J. Aubert
This chapter concentrates less on producing and distributing goods than on storing and transporting them within and across the Roman Empire. Roman law seems to have provided an adequate legal framework for activities linked with managing storage space and organising the transport of commodities over short and long distances. This is an area of law where juristic opinions can be confronted with documentary evidence such as inscriptions (leges horreorum), tablets (Puteolan archive of the Sulpicii), and papyri (maritime loans), as well as archaeological remains. Storage and transport involved capital investment and know-how, and required special attention to the nature of the goods and the activities of people as economic actors.
This chapter examines the history of state formation in ancient Mesopotamia, focusing on the Greater Mesopotamia region. It explains the role of territorially defined urban communities and kinship-based polities or tribes in state formation, and provides examples of large states that arose slowly through a cumulative process of smaller polities coalescing into larger ones. The chapter also considers the dynamic shifts between city-state culture and imperial unification during the proto-historical period, and discusses the periods of political unification and fragmentation in Greater Mesopotamia prior to the Persian conquest.
Prices in the Roman economy were generally set by the operation of free market forces. Occasional government interventions in the form of price ceilings occurred in times of crisis, to stabilise volatile or politically important markets, or to signal moral policies. The mechanism of price formation was generally understood, but price shocks were expected to be curbed. In a similar vein, the valuation techniques developed by the Roman jurists were based on “true” prices rather than pure market prices. Even so, party autonomy in price setting was the norm. The grain market was guided to some extent for obvious political reasons, but even here there was room for private initiative. The freedom to contract was stressed as late as Diocletian, but, not much later, rampant inflation forced him to issue his edict on maximum prices, which remains an exceptional regulation in many ways.
Peter Fibiger Bang and Walter Scheidel
This introductory chapter discusses the theme of this book, which is about the history of state formation in ancient North Africa and western Eurasia. The book aims to bridge the disciplinary gap between the study of the ancient Near East and the study of the ancient Mediterranean, exploring various factors that influenced state formation, including ideologies, political power, cooperation, exploitation, and military power. The areas covered in this study include Egypt, the Mesopotamian Empires, and the Anatolian States.
This chapter examines the history of the Roman Empire as a republic, explaining the formation of the Roman republic, its durability and relative stability, and the military expansionism that allowed it to expand its territory. It also identifies the social, political, and military factors that led to the weakening of the republican system of government and its eventual replacement with the monarchy system.