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The Aegean  

Nikos Stampolidis

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter concerns the presence of the Phoenicians and Near Easterners in the Aegean, with a special focus on the Early Iron Age and dealing sporadically with later periods. Divided ... More

Agriculture  

Carlos Gómez Bellard

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Agriculture played a crucial role for the Phoenicians. Systematic study of the rural Phoenician world goes back only a few decades, thanks to archaeological surveys and excavations of ... More

The Alphabet and its Legacy  

Madadh Richey

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The alphabet employed by the Phoenicians was the inheritor of a long tradition of alphabetic writing and was itself adapted for use throughout the Mediterranean basin by numerous ... More

Archaeological Research in St Petersburg, Russia  

Petr Sorokin

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
St Petersburg, founded in 1703 and now the second largest city in Russia, has always been considered as a ‘new city’. However, it was not founded on a barren site. The land in the mouth of ... More

The Archaeology of Phoenician Cities  

Hélène Sader

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter deals with the archaeology of the Phoenician cities of the motherland, highlighting mainly recent results from Lebanon. It gives an overview of the available archaeological ... More

Armenia  

Christina Maranci

Print publication date:
Feb 2019
Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The fourth to seventh centuries were formative in the art and culture of Armenia. This era witnessed the conversion of the land to Christianity, the invention of the Armenian alphabet and ... More

Art and Iconography  

Eric Gubel

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Rooted in Late Bronze Age Levantine traditions, Phoenician art emerges in the early first millennium bce, spiced with new elements adopted and adapted from contemporary Egyptian models, ... More

Birth and Prospects of a Discipline  

Nicholas C. Vella

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
In this third introductory chapter, the author looks back at the formative years of the study of the Phoenician and Punic worlds, taking a cue from a paper written fifty years ago by the ... More

Canaanite Roots, Proto-Phoenicia, and the Early Phoenician Period: ca. 1300–1000 bce  

Ann E. Killebrew

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The origins and ethnogenesis of a cultural entity, people, and territory referred to as “Phoenician” in later biblical and Classical sources and modern scholarship remain a topic of ... More

Carthage after the Punic Wars and the Neo-Punic Legacy  

Matthew Hobson

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter provides a brief introduction to how the historiographical development of Roman studies, since mid-twentieth century decolonization, has altered our understanding of the ... More

Çatalhöyük: A Study of Light and Darkness—A Photo-essay  

Eva Bosch

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
This photo essay outlines the experimental work undertaken in summer 2007 in Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, Turkey, while the author was the artist in residence. The work done in this Neolithic ... More

Classical-Hellenistic Carthage Before the Punic Wars (479–265 bce)  

Dexter Hoyos

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Carthage in 479–265 bce reached a size and prosperity equaling any leading Greek city-state. Despite its defeat in Sicily in 480 bce, its economic reach across the Mediterranean grew, and ... More

Coins  

John W. Betlyon

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The coins of the Phoenician city-states were struck in the fifth and fourth centuries bce. Influenced by coins struck in Greece and eastern Greece, Sidon, Tyre, Byblos, and Aradus struck ... More

Cyprus  

Sabine Fourrier

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter concentrates on the Phoenician presence in the island of Cyprus in the Iron Age (from the eleventh until the end of the fourth century bce). After a brief overview, it ... More

The Early Bronze Age of the Southern Caucasus  

Giulio Palumbi

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
The aim of this article is to highlight the social and cultural developments that took place in the Southern Caucasus during the Early Bronze Age. Between 3500 and 2500 BC ca., new ... More

Early Carthage: from its foundation to the battle of Himera (ca. 814–480 bce)  

Hédi Dridi

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The history of the first centuries of Carthage can only be sketched out, given the paucity of literary sources, which are also of variable quality, and so far as the Greek and Roman ... More

Europe to Asia  

Ludmila Koryakova

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This chapter surveys cultural developments in the European part of the Russian Federation. Geographically this landscape varies from coniferous forests in the north, to steppe and ... More

From bovid to beaver: mammal exploitation in Medieval northwest Russia  

Mark Maltby

Print publication date:
Mar 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
This chapter reviews evidence for the exploitation of animals in Medieval northwest Russia, highlighting the evidence from the town of Novgorod and its hinterland. The zooarchaeological ... More

Funerary Ritual  

Mireia López-Bertran

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter explores the funerary rites in the Phoenician-Punic world from a comprehensive point of view, and it focuses on the common points arising from a large amount of data. The ... More

The Gadir–Tyre Axis  

Manuel Álvarez Martí-Aguilar

Print publication date:
Oct 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2019
This chapter focuses on the connection between Tyre and its colony Gadir via the foundational figure of Melqart and his respective temples in these cities, a relationship which is ... More

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