Eileen Brennan, Julie Rosenzweig, Pauline Jivanjee, and Lisa M. Stewart
Parents raising children and youth with special needs due to disability or compromised physical or mental health often find the exceptional care they provide results in caregiver strain and competes with workforce engagement. When parents disclose their family members’ special needs and care demands to obtain support, they can also face workplace stigma. This chapter maps research on family care demands onto studies of available family support, workplace support, and community support that may mitigate challenges and improve employment trajectories. Additionally, a cross-national comparison reveals that policy supports for parents providing exceptional care are fragmented at best in three countries: Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Finally, the chapter proposes systematic investigations that can uncover shifts in policy and practice with the potential to improve employment outcomes for this substantial segment of the workforce.
Eunae Cho and Lindsay Ciancetta
This chapter provides a critical synthesis of the literature on the relationship between parent work family experiences and child outcomes. The chapter begins by introducing a theory-driven conceptual model that organizes previous studies. Then it discusses research on the direct link between parent work family experiences and child outcomes, followed by a review of mediators and moderators of the process. It next notes limitations of the extant literature and concludes with promising directions for future research.
Julia Dietrich and Katariina Salmela-Aro
The transition from education to work is a key developmental task of emerging adulthood. In this chapter, the authors approach this transition from an engagement perspective, presenting a model of phase-adequate engagement that links career development, developmental regulation, and identity development theories in the context of the education-to-work transition. Taking a phase-adequate engagement perspective, they then review the literature on emerging adults’ transition from education to work and the role of interpersonal contexts. The authors conclude with suggestions for future research, emphasizing that a holistic view is needed in the study of emerging adults’ engagement, one taking more into account the structural, institutional, and cultural contexts that emerging adults are exposed to when transitioning from education to work.
Tammy D. Allen
Work and family constitute a contemporary topic within the field of industrial and organizational psychology that traverses disciplinary boundaries and has important implications for both individuals and organizations. As family structures have become more heterogeneous, interest in the topic has virtually exploded over the past several decades. The aim of this chapter is to review what we know about work and family interactions. The chapter is organized so that research is reviewed from various perspectives: individual, family, organization, and global. The chapter concludes with an agenda for future research.
Barbara Schneider, Guan K. Saw, and Michael Broda
Across the globe, most young people aged 15 through their early 20s work, primarily in positions that are short-term, part-time, low-pay, and low-skilled. Because work is such an enduring phenomenon in the lives of youth and young adults and often helps to shape life paths, migration patterns, and generational change, it is critical to outline the role work and work migration play in the lives of young adults. This chapter describes the types of work in which youth are typically employed and analyzes the relationships between employment opportunities and higher education attainment across nation states. Finally, the last section discusses how the pressure for employment opportunities among all youth, regardless of their education attainment, drives their migration patterns worldwide.