This article explores how American journalists cover religion in Europe, where issues of faith and church-state relations lead to differing interpretations of religio-ethnic news events, by analyzing U.S. newspaper coverage of the anti-Islamic Dutch MP Geert Wilders. A focus on Geert Wilders incorporates both the Netherlands and Britain into the analysis but also Europe more generally given that the case prompted a wider discussion of immigration and the place of Islam in European societies. After discussing the differing roles and perceptions of religion in the United States and Europe, the article considers the differing models of integration for immigrants on the two continents and demonstrates how this has played out in news coverage of Islam. An examination of the reporting of the Geert Wilders case shows how Islam in Europe is represented through a conflict frame that incorporates a discourse of immigration, cultural incompatibility, identity, liberalism, and freedom.
María Cristina Ventura
This chapter considers globalization and its relationship to women's bodies in Latin America, both the effects this new face of capitalism is having on women's bodies in this part of the world and the ways in which women construct modalities as creative resistance strategies. It goes beyond a mere analysis of the socioeconomic impact in a variety of situations to examine what women invent, represent, and endow with power in their discourse, practices, and collective quest to redefine the status of all women, and particularly of women excluded from the so-called global economic system.
The story of the Muslim press in the United States is a story of struggle: the struggle for justice, identity, and the ability to be heard. It is also a story of the evolution of the extraordinarily diverse Muslim population in the United States and American Muslims' desire to forge identities that balance the various influences in their lives. Islam has its very origins in reading: on the night that Muhammad became a prophet, he received his first revelations in written form. Though illiterate, Muhammad was visited by the angel Gabriel and ordered to read. Perplexed, Muhammad discovered in response to the angel's insistent command that he had miraculously been granted this ability. The passages that he read on that night, which Muslims commemorate every year as a sacred occasion, are the first ones revealed from the Quran. For that reason, the idea of books, of print, and of knowledge remains sacred within Islam. This article explores the development of the Muslim press and the challenges it faces as American Muslims enter a new era.
Since their expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula in 1492, the dissemination of the Jews in Europe, northern Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas has resulted not only in the production of a literature in modern Jewish languages and dialects such as Yiddish, Hebrew, Ladino, Judaeo-Italian, and Judaeo-Arabic, but also in a Jewish literature delivered in virtually every major Western tongue. These literatures in non-Jewish languages obviously fit into their respective national canons: Jewish-Portuguese authors are part of Portuguese letters, Jewish-Polish authors part of Polish letters, and so on. Five centuries after the expulsion from Spain in 1492, and more than 200 years after the Haskalah, an abundance of fiction and poetry by Jews in non-Jewish languages around the globe is produced regularly. And a solid body of literary criticism that attempts to examine its ambivalence at the national and international levels goes hand in hand with it.
The chapter falls into two parts. The first traces the history of the key translations of the Qur’an in its entirety into Western languages (mainly English, French, German, and Latin) from the Middle Ages to the present day. The emphasis is on the factors that affected the production and reception of these translations, including military conflict, religious polemics within Christianity, and the growth of Arabic and Islamic Studies as an academic field within Western institutions and centres of learning. The second part investigates some theoretical issues arising from this account, including the difficulties attendant upon translating a sacred text and pleading for the value of the literary register in understanding the Qur’an and its translation.