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Ancient Jewish Social Relations  

Seth Schwartz

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the social history of the Jews. It determines the extent Jewish communities possessed an inner-Jewish social structure and looks at the social ties that existed ... More

The Ancient Near East  

Jan N. Bremmer

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter concentrates on influence from Anatolia, as illustrated by recent discoveries regarding the Luwian, Karian, and Lycian languages. These show the survival of various divinities ... More

Art and Imagery  

Tanja Scheer

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Both in the oikos and in public spaces the Greeks encountered numerous visualizations of the divine. If we look at various representations of Athena in Classical Athens it becomes clear ... More

Augustine’s Rhetoric in Theory and Practice  

Catherine Conybeare

Print publication date:
Nov 2017
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
This chapter addresses the complex relationship of Augustine of Hippo with the tradition of classical rhetoric in which he had been educated and in which he excelled. It shows that, ... More

Bactria and India  

Rachel Mairs

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Diverse forms of religious practice coexisted in the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms. As well as Greek gods and cults imported by Greek settlers in the aftermath of the campaigns of ... More

Belief vs. Practice  

Thomas Harrison

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter discusses the contrast frequently drawn in studies of ancient Greek religion between ritual practice and belief. It looks back, first, at the early history of this contrast, ... More

Children in Athenian Religion  

Robert Garland

Print publication date:
Dec 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter investigates how Athenian children were placed under the protection of the gods and what services they performed on the gods’ behalf. The successive rituals that adults ... More

China and Greece: Comparisons and Insights  

Lisa Raphals

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This account of Chinese and Greek religion focuses on three topics that are all of significant interest to both subjects, and that lend themselves to comparison. First is cosmogony and ... More

Christian Apocrypha  

Scott Fitzgerald Johnson

Print publication date:
Dec 2017
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
This chapter considers the definition, genres, and major themes of early Christian apocrypha within the context of the Second Sophistic. Christian fiction surrounding Jesus and the ... More

Christian Society  

Adam H. Becker

Print publication date:
Feb 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the Christian society in the early Roman Empire. It shows how the Christians and Christian community were simultaneously added into and alienated from the broader ... More

Christianity  

Hagith Sivan

Print publication date:
Jun 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
A man by the name of Jesus (Yeshu), from the obscure region of the Galilee, clashed with the Jewish establishment in Judaean Jerusalem and was dispatched to his death on the orders of the ... More

Christianity in Roman Britain  

David Petts

Print publication date:
Sep 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
Although there is limited evidence for pre-Constantinian Christianity in Roman Britain, it is clear that in the fourth century ad the early church became increasingly widespread, partly ... More

Cult  

Marietta Horster

Print publication date:
Dec 2017
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
This chapter focuses upon the literary representations of the importance of rituals, religious offices, and cult traditions in the time of the Second Sophistic. The “real-life” sophists’ ... More

Daimonic Power  

Giulia Sfameni Gasparro

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter explores the nature and development of Greek daimonology, that diverse and structured combination of ideas and beliefs (involving ritual) which applies to a category of ... More

Dead or Alive?  

Emanuel Voutiras

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The ancient Greeks believed that a life-giving power, which they called psyche (literally ‘breath’; usually translated as ‘soul’), inside the human body left it at the moment of death. The ... More

Death, Burial, and Afterlife  

Steven Fine

Print publication date:
Aug 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the physical contexts of Jewish death during the Roman period and tries to determine if people believed in the afterlife. It describes the monumental tombs of the ... More

Deification—Gods or Men?  

Ivana Petrovic

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter discusses the ruler cult in the Hellenistic period, as well as earlier instances of deification and heroization, and traces theological views on deification from the Classical ... More

Deviant Origins: Hesiod’s Theogony and the Orphica  

Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Print publication date:
Sep 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Hesiod’s Theogony provides one of the most widely authoritative accounts of the origin of the cosmos, but his account has always been challenged by rivals claiming to be older, wiser, and ... More

Drama  

Claude Calame

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
As with myth, the ancient Greeks did not have a term equivalent to what we refer to as ritual. On the one hand, the heroic past of Greece was rendered as archaion or palaion, on the other, ... More

Early Christianity and the Classical Tradition  

Aaron P. Johnson

Print publication date:
Dec 2017
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Although frequently treated as a separate phenomenon in the Roman Mediterranean, the literary work produced by Christian intellectuals (especially Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Tatian, and ... More

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