The Government of British India was a colonial state and, therefore, determinants of its foreign policy were very different from those of a sovereign state. Its foreign policy was designed to serve Britain’s imperial interests. To ensure the defence of India, it maintained states in the immediate neighbourhood of India as ‘buffer states’. The British valued their Empire greatly and took far-reaching measures for its defence and of the routes to India. They perceived threat to their Indian Empire from the expansion of the Russia Empire which is often described as Russophobia. The British Government retained responsibility for relations with the states in the Indian Ocean rim (except the Aden Settlement until 1937). But substantial expenditure was met out of the Indian Treasury. The legacy of the Raj has left an indelible impact on the foreign policy of the Indian Republic.
Richard J. Aldrich
This article explores developments in the UK security state, concentrating on the intelligence and security services, together with the Whitehall machinery that connects these agencies with the core executive. It also addresses related aspects of security policing or ‘high policing’. In addition, major developments that have taken place since the end of the cold war against the background of Euro-peanization, globalization, and the so-called ‘Global War on Terror’ are described. The discussion considers some of the more important legislative changes that have introduced mechanisms for oversight and a remarkable new culture of regulation. Europe is still driving the new culture of regulation that overtook the security state in the 1990s. The formidable growth of the UK security state might be unprecedented in national terms, but viewed through a comparative lens it is hardly unique.