This article discusses anarchy and also introduces recent research from economics that models anarchy. It shows that this research has clear implications for thinking about interstate relations. There are also indications that such relations are becoming greater as well as a fruitful concern.
This essay surveys the representation of animals in folklore from the fables of Aesop to the search for Bigfoot. Unlike most of modern culture, folklore attributes great power, understanding, autonomy, and significance to animals. While folklorists have often found this deeply poetic, they were also made uncomfortable by the suggestion of magic and, to protect their claim to superior rationality, tried to distance themselves from folktales. The English demonized animal helpers in fairy tales, while the French gave these figures human form. The Grimm brothers and other romantics removed fairy tales from the context of everyday life by placing them in a remote realm such as an ancient civilization, a marginal social order, or the enchanted world of childhood. As the naturalistic paradigm, with its implicit anthropocentrism, declines, folk literature provides models for more balanced relationships between animals and human beings.
Tanja A. Börzel and Nicole Deitelhoff
Business has become an important governor in areas of limited statehood (ALS). While the shadow of hierarchy is not necessary to incentivize companies, their contributions to governance still seem to require a minimum of statehood to be effective and legitimate. These findings point to a dilemma for (business) governance in ALS: companies are most likely to provide collective goods and services beyond their purview where those are needed the least to compensate for the lack of state governance. Yet, the literature has mostly focused on multinational companies that have their headquarters in democracies with consolidated statehood. Future research should focus on business in the non-OECD world to explore whether and to what degree consolidated statehood is necessary for governance by business to be effective and legitimate.
James Mahoney and Diana Rodríguez-Franco
This article focuses on dependency theory and its influence on scholarly work in the field of international development. After tracing the roots of dependency theory, the article considers its relationship to the international economy, multinational capital, the local bourgeoisie, and the state. It then discusses dependency theory as a set of general concepts and orientations for formulating theories and explanations, as well as a set of directly testable and falsifiable hypotheses. It also emphasizes the utility of dependency theory for explaining the historical trajectories of development in Latin America, sustained robust economic growth in South Korea and Taiwan, globalization, and recent strong growth in China and some of its raw material suppliers. The article shows that dependency theory has mixed results as a testable theory but has been quite successful when used as a theoretical framework.
Jonathan Wolff and Dirk Haubrich
This article addresses the difficulties that the phases of economic evaluations give rise to in theory and practice. It provides a brief outline of the meaning of economism — as a term and a concept — and then explores the issues that are related to the measurement and monetary valuation of the items to be included in economic evaluations, otherwise known as the valuation problem. The article also deals with the commensurability problem and the intrinsic value problem. Finally, some of alternatives and recommendations that can help avoid the pitfalls of economism are discussed.
This chapter surveys the origin and development of environmental justice discourse from its early use as a civil rights strategy to resist the siting of hazardous waste facilities in the neighborhoods of poor people of color to its more contemporary usage as a directive for equity in global cooperation in pursuit of environmental sustainability. From debates among scholars and activists over the demands of justice as applied to problems of global climate change mitigation and adaptation, or climate justice, it examines three principles of justice invoked in a landmark climate treaty and later applied to the design and evaluation of international climate change policy efforts. The chapter concludes by considering potential new directions that environmental justice theorizing might take in the context of other issues in environmental politics.
This chapter explores contemporary economic policy and state–market relations in France against the backdrop of comparative political economy debates about interventionism in the economy and international political economy debates about capital mobility and policy autonomy. Charting contemporary theoretical and empirical developments in the French case and beyond, the chapter explores how to situate economic policy within institutional and ideational context, and how interests can be brought into explanation. These three “i”s, it argues, represent different but not mutually exclusive ways to explore economic policy autonomy amidst international liberalization. It argues that insights from each of the three “i”s’ literatures have enhanced understandings of French economic policy, and informed its conduct to different degrees across the decades. It concludes with the potential for “post-dirigisme” to frame future research exploring the tension between the creeping influence of rules-based policymaking, co-existing and conflicting with enduring dirigiste practices and aspirations within French economic governance.
Cohen’s book is one of the founding publications of Analytical Marxism, aiming to reconstruct and in some cases reformulate some of Marx’s core claims using the rigorous tools of contemporary philosophy. The first part of the chapter analyzes Cohen’s defense of the controversial idea of historical materialism. Can the idea that history follows some underlying law of progress, which is central to Marx’s writing, stand up to scrutiny? This part of the chapter discusses, first, the radical challenges to historical materialism formulated by rational choice Marxists such as Elster; second, a series of objections against functionalist explanation in the social sciences more generally; and, finally, some modifications Cohen made to his account of historical materialism in his later writings and in response to these critiques. The second part of the chapter analyzes Cohen’s conception of exploitation to illustrate the theoretical potential of Analytic Marxism more generally.
Green Political Economy: Beyond Orthodox Undifferentiated Economic Growth as a Permanent Feature of the Economy
This chapter outlines the main features of green political economy and how it differs from dominant orthodox neo-classical economics. Neo-classical economics is critiqued on the grounds of its false presentation of itself as “objective” and “value neutral.” Its ecologically irrational commitment to the imperative of orthodox economic growth as a permanent feature of the economy compromises its ability to offer realistic or normatively compelling guides to how we might make the transition to a sustainable economy. Green political economy is presented as an alternative form of economic thinking but one which explicitly expresses its normative/ideological value bases. It also challenges the commitment to undifferentiated economic growth as a permanent objective of the human economy. In its place, it promotes “economic security” and a post-growth economy. The latter includes the transition to a low-carbon energy economy, and is one which maximizes quality of life and actively seeks to lower socio-economic inequality.
Charles Blackorby and Walter Bossert
This article provides a short survey of the use of interpersonal comparisons in social evaluation. The focus of this discussion is on the principles for social evaluation that are welfarist, or those principles that use information about individual well-being to rank alternatives. The article reviews some of the most important characterization results for the welfarist social evaluation principles. A basic notation, along with a formal definition of social evaluation functionals, is introduced. The article then formulates some basic axioms for social evaluation orderings, and this is followed by an introduction to information invariance properties. The article also provides an overview of some important results.
Two different general claims have been made about large-scale political transformations produced by responses to environmental change. One is the claim that we are witnessing the potential emergence of a “green state,” where states internalize an ecological function as a core state imperative. Another is that we are undergoing a transition to an “environmental state.” The former claim thus envisages a radical transformation and its theory of the state based on historical sociology, while the latter is more skeptical about the capacity of states to undergo radical transformation, being informed by neo-Marxist accounts of the state. This chapter uses responses to climate change—a key test case for claims about large-scale political transformation—to suggest that some substantial transformations in the state are occurring, but that the driving forces are indeed political–economic and thus existing accounts of the “green state” need to be reformulated in this light.
This chapter explores how political economy shapes the social organization of sexuality and intimacy, in particular, modern formations of LGBT people. Political economy affects sexuality at three broad levels: (1) through the articulation of kinship and gender with the division of labor, it creates both openings and limits to same-sex relationships; (2) through demands imposed on contemporary workers, citizens, and consumers by neoliberalism, markets influence norms of conduct and success strategies even in personal relationships; (3) political economy generates hierarchies of entitlement and exclusion which impact LGBT peoples and the social constituencies around them who construct them as symbols of progress or decline. Reviewing both historical and anthropological evidence and the growing international divide between LGBT-affirming and repressing countries, the chapter contextualizes current contentions about the rise of homonationalism in a larger geopolitics of north and south.
Contemporary art has entered a stage where the animal has been degraded to the status of mere artistic material. Dehumanization, sensationalism, and the provision of moral cover by powerful art institutions are the three components of the culture of contemporary art ensuring that the moral considerability of the animal merits little serious discussion. The views of those concerned with animal welfare are pitted against those who see freedom of artistic expression as untouchable. The result is a sterile debate between polarized and irreconcilable positions. Cultural norms are changing and will likely result in changes in the culture of contemporary art. While formal censorship approaches are unlikely to be either acceptable or effective, there are opportunities for institutional changes that give the ethics of artists’ use and misuse of animals a seat at the table in the mainstream art world.
This article provides a brief overview of social choice. It concentrates on the interface between traditional notions of endstate justice and the more modern theme of strategic implementation. It outlines a general model of mechanism design and defines the classical notions of procedural and endstate justice in the context of that model. A survey of the extensive research of the last three decades that identify strategy-proof mechanisms in a variety of microeconomic problems is also included in the article.
Zareen Pervez Bharucha and Jules Pretty
This article examines the role of wild foods in food security. It discusses the continuum between “wild” and domesticated food; the management of nonagricultural environments; the nutritional and economic value of wild foods and the drivers of change in wild food availability and use. It argues that the emphasis on the contributions of cultivated species to food security has downplayed the importance of wild food species, which form a large part of the total food basket for households from agricultural, hunter, gatherer, and forager systems.