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Civic Norms and Communication Competence: Pathways to Socialization and Citizenship  

Dhavan V. Shah, Kjerstin Thorson, Chris Wells, Nam-jin Lee, and Jack McLeod

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
May 2014
The chapter examines the extant literature on political socialization, focusing on the role of communication in this process. Reviewing a wide range of approaches to socialization—from ... More

Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups  

Joseph N. Cappella, Jingwen Zhang, and Vincent Price

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
The rise of the Internet and social media reignites interest in collective intelligence. We frame collective intelligence as follows: (1) Simple aggregation of individual opinion is a poor ... More

Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects  

Kathleen Hall Jamieson

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter tracks the byways that led to the emergence of a cross-disciplinary cadre of scholars identified with the hybrid field of political communication. Concentrating on the period ... More

Cultivation Theory and the Construction of Political Reality  

Patrick E. Jamieson and Dan Romer

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
Cultivation theory hypothesizes that over time, heavy television viewers will see the world through TV’s lens. A review of nearly 1,000 media effects articles from sixteen major journals ... More

Disagreement in Political Discussion  

Lilach Nir

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
May 2014
Normative theory extols the virtues of disagreement to democracy, but evidence to support these suppositions is somewhat mixed. This chapter reviews the empirical literature on exposure to ... More

The Effects of Religion and Religiosity on Voting Behavior  

Yilmaz Esmer and Thorleif Pettersson

Print publication date:
Aug 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article attempts to define the extent to which religion influences political and voting behaviour in the contemporary world. It also tries to identify the major factors behind this ... More

Formative Mappings, Political Trappings: Racial and Ethnic Histories in the United States  

Edmund Fong and Victoria Hattam

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Contemporary scholarship on racial and ethnic politics in the United States has broadly followed three main approaches in assessing the history of race and ethnicity in the United States. ... More

Freedom of the Press: Theories and Realities  

Doris A. Graber

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Freedom of the press has become a popular idea throughout the world. The promise of free expression, however, is not necessarily realized when governments feel that security and stability ... More

Game versus Substance in Political News  

Thomas E. Patterson

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter examines the game schema in news coverage. It argues that substance is often subordinated to the competitive game, particularly during election campaigns but also in governing ... More

Globalization, Governance Gaps, and the Emergence of New Institutions for Political Consumerism  

Lars H. Gulbrandsen

Print publication date:
Feb 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
In recent decades, various nonstate governance programmes have emerged as vibrant new institutions seeking to ensure that environmental and social values inform market transactions. This ... More

The Hostile Media Effect  

Lauren Feldman

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
May 2014
The “hostile media effect” occurs when opposing partisans perceive identical news coverage of a controversial issue as biased against their own side. This is a robust phenomenon, which has ... More

How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy  

Michael Schudson

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Journalism serves multiple democratic functions identified here as information, investigation, analysis, social empathy, public forum, mobilization, and democratic education. All help make ... More

Measuring Spillovers in Markets for Local Public Affairs Coverage  

James T. Hamilton

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
This chapter explores the evidence on how media coverage generates spillovers that influence the election and actions of local politicians. If a news story influences a reader’s decisions ... More

The Media and the Fostering of Political (Dis)Trust  

Michael Barthel and Patricia Moy

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2015
Citizens’ trust in government, a vital component of any functioning democracy, can be affected by media content, but these media effects depend on numerous factors. This chapter first ... More

New Media and Political Campaigns  

Diana Owen

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
May 2014
New media have been playing an increasingly central role in American elections since they first appeared in 1992. While television remains the main source of election information for a ... More

Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature  

Roderick P. Hart and Rebecca LaVally

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
May 2014
This essay argues that political journalism more closely resembles a Second Legislature of debaters than a Fourth Estate of onlookers. Here, we examine the scholarly literature on ... More

The Personalization of Politics  

Ian McAllister

Print publication date:
Aug 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article looks at the personalization of politics, starting with a careful examination of the evidence that leaders are becoming more important. The role of electronic media in ... More

Perspectives on Political Participation  

Max Kaase

Print publication date:
Aug 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses certain perspectives on political participation, and highlights the cache of information on political science and politics that can be found in abstracts and ... More

Perspectives on Representation: Asking the Right Questions and Getting the Right Answers  

James Stimson

Print publication date:
Aug 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article provides some perspectives on representation. It first studies the normative issues that can be found in representation literature, before discussing design issues and the ... More

Political Activism and Party Members  

Susan E. Scarrow

Print publication date:
Aug 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the significance of the party members to their respective political parties. It shows the lessons provided by recent research about those who join parties and what ... More

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