This chapter focuses on the absence of certain marginal groups from the United Nations’ Women, Peace, and Security Agenda and suggests correctives to those exclusions. The chapter discusses how men and boys as victims of sexual and gender-based violence have been erased in this agenda, and the consequences of this erasure. It challenges the assumptions of militarized masculinity as a uniformly shared identity among conflict-engaged men. It also looks at the outcome of pregnancies resulting from wartime rape and shows how children born of rape are presented and treated in their communities. The chapter draws on research conducted in Peru and Colombia and shows the necessity of understanding both the perpetration and experience of violence in nuanced ways.
Henry R. Nau
There are four standard American foreign policy traditions, and they have existed since the beginning of the republic. The traditions include isolationists/nationalists like George Washington and Andrew Jackson; realists like Alexander Hamilton and Teddy Roosevelt; conservative internationalists like Thomas Jefferson and Ronald Reagan; and liberal internationalists like Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. Rooted in both the history and the logic of the American experience, the traditions are indispensable to ensure that America considers all of the elements of a changing world in meeting global challenges.
This article analyses the relationship between cities and higher levels of government. It explains the theoretical perspectives on intergovernmental relations, and examines the relationship between cities and higher levels of government in Europe and North America. The article provides evidence suggesting that globalization, regionalization, and regulation are important factors affecting intergovernmental relations and the position of cities in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, as well as in developing countries.
Nils Gilman, Doug Randall, and Peter Schwartz
Climate change represents a unique and novel security threat: it has the capacity to devastate human civilization if not humanity as a biological species, yet it is not produced by enemies intending to do harm to a particular state. The complexity in it makes it challenging for policy makers to assess climate change threats and consequently to prioritize resources for countering them. This article provides a clear framework for analyzing the full range of security threats posed by climate change, with a view to determining appropriate governmental policy responses. It suggests that most climate change-related security threats pertain to vital systems and population security, and only secondarily (that is, more remotely in time) to sovereign state security. The most immediate security threats posed by climate change will involve acute insults to and chronic compromising of critical infrastructure, including energy production and delivery systems, transportation networks, agriculture, and water supplies.
Timothy Doyle and Sanjay Chaturvedi
This article is concerned with one subcategory of the broader climate debate: the climate refugee. It uses the IPCC's (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) three climate change-related categories of human migration or population displacement — drought incidence, increased cyclone (hurricanes and typhoons) intensity and sea-level rise — to initially describe how this phenomenon is usually presented and categorized. The very concept of climate refugee is one, which is firmly entrenched in the literature of international relations. This article questions the validity of the climate refugee category, arguing that far from providing succor and solace to the most vulnerable communities within the global South, the climate refugee is a subject of securitization. Furthermore, this article introduces three theoretical frames: realist, liberal, and critical frameworks and use them as a means of coming to terms with diverse prescriptive positions, advocating very different approaches to both mitigation and adaption strategies to alleviate climate displacement and migration.
Naureen Chowdhury Fink and Alison Davidian
This chapter analyses the gender dimension of terrorism and counterterrorism efforts. It explores women’s roles as both supporters and preventers of terrorism. It tracks the increasing incorporation of gender in the counterterrorism strategy of the United Nations and the growing focus on the intersections between the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) and countering terrorism agendas. The chapter suggests that the WPS Agenda and the countering violent extremism program are convergent and complementary. At the same time, counterterrorism measures have had gendered collateral effects and continue to utilize gender stereotypes. The chapter provides suggestions for what a more gender-sensitive approach would mean for counterterrorism efforts.
This chapter places the critical analysis of global health in wider intellectual and political perspective, situating critical thinking in relation to the philosophical idea of Enlightenment and ensuing debates about the nature of power, knowledge, and freedom. After a brief genealogy of critical thought, the chapter considers some of the main sources of critical thinking in global health and provides a brief survey of critical takes on health in the era of globalisation. It then considers three influential varieties of critique—of political economy, of representation, and of biopower—while touching on other critical perspectives, including feminism and anticolonial thought. As a way of prompting further reflection, the concluding section of the chapter considers recent debates about the problems of the critical enterprise itself.
John A. Cloud and Damian Leader
This chapter explains the history and role of diplomacy in advancing U.S. interests. The State Department is discussed as the primary actor in American diplomacy. The rise of multilateral diplomacy in the 20th century is examined along with the continued applicability of bilateral approaches. The State Department’s role in forming and implementing policy, in coordination with other government agencies, is outlined as well as its role in development assistance, consular affairs, and public diplomacy. The increased role of transnational issues, including human rights, religious freedom, arms control, and nonproliferation is outlined. The structure, funding and career paths of Foreign Service officers is examined, and the increasing use of diplomats alongside the U.S. military in combat zones in recent decades. The chapter highlights the limited resources that the United States commits to diplomacy when compared with military activities.
‘The South’ for the purposes of the UNFCCC, has come to mean a diverse assemblage of 150 states. It is home to the overwhelming majority of the world's poor, and is the locus of the world's most profound development challenges. Even while the South witnesses an acceleration of economic growth in some regions, its average individual income is still only one-sixth that of the average Annex I citizen. It is against those backdrops that the South, in spite of its diversity, has hung together as a coherent force within the UNFCCC. The South does not advance a single coherent and consistently articulated discourse. Nevertheless, as this article explains, certain arguments and persistent themes do resonate deeply within the many Southern discourses, and thus arise in various forms in the rhetoric and strategies of the South. The objective of this article is to outline those fundamental commonalities of the Southern discourses.
Kerry A. Chase
Economic actors organize to influence public policy to their advantage. Geography factors into this process because the spatial distribution of economic endowments can shape what groups want, how well they organize, and how strongly their interests are represented. Political economy scholarship has long appreciated that interest-group politics has spatial dimensions, but space and place have only recently entered research designs systematically. Existing literature differs over the geography of collective action: some find that groups advance their interests best when members are concentrated—in close proximity or closely contested electorates—while others conclude that dispersion is more beneficial, leaving the advantages of geographic concentration and electoral dispersion unresolved. Another issue is the conditions under which geography cuts a line of cleavage between domestic coalitions. With advances in geographic software systems and proliferation of geocoded data, geography is poised to become a more central focus of political economy research.
Colin Polsky and Hallie Eakin
Each of the climate and society domains is multidimensional and the interactions across domains are complex, multi-scalar, and only beginning to be understood. An incomplete, yet still daunting, list of climate features to investigate includes the spatiotemporal patterns of specific weather events or associated measures of energy and moisture fluxes. Some social features to investigate include the perceptions, attitudes, impacts, and responses associated with climate variability or change — from numerous perspectives at numerous levels of decision-making. This article begins by introducing Global Change Vulnerability Assessments (GCVAs), which achieved international prominence with the publication of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). It summarizes the ground covered by the more extensive reviews of vulnerability. It then outlines the primary criteria or principles that currently are guiding Global Change Vulnerability Assessments. It also outlines challenges and opportunities for future vulnerability research.
Andrew Harmer and Jonathan Kennedy
This chapter explores the relationship between international development and global health. Contrary to the view that development implies ‘good change’, this chapter argues that the discourse of development masks the destructive and exploitative practices of wealthy countries at the expense of poorer ones. These practices, and the unregulated capitalist economic system that they are part of, have created massive inequalities between and within countries, and potentially catastrophic climate change. Both of these outcomes are detrimental to global health and the millennium development goals and sustainable development goals do not challenge these dynamics. While the Sustainable Development Goals acknowledge that inequality and climate change are serious threats to the future of humanity, they fail to address the economic system that created them. Notwithstanding, it is possible that the enormity and proximity of the threat posed by inequality and global warming will energise a counter movement to create what Kate Raworth terms ‘an ecologically safe and socially just space’ for the global population while there is still time.
Health and security are obviously related: pathogens may kill significant numbers of people, gut military forces, or significantly damage the economy. But the increased mobility of people and goods wrought by globalization, the emergence and re-emergence of a host of infectious diseases, unprecedented refugee flows, and the contemporary bioterrorist threat make disease control less susceptible to national solutions than in the past. Moreover, efforts to link health and national security tend to privilege defense against pathogens that might threaten the developed world and do little to improve global cooperation on pressing health issues. Nevertheless, early efforts to trace the national security implications of infectious disease have produced positive outcomes, including successfully attracting attention and resources to health issues and producing a wave of academic interest in health as a global governance issue.
Solomon Benatar, David Sanders, and Stephen Gill
This chapter analyses the political influences that shaped reform of healthcare service provision and financing during four decades of neoliberal capitalist dominance, with its emphasis on individualism, consumerism, competitiveness, and the capitalist market in determining social needs and healthcare priorities. New financing sources and market competition, which shaped adoption of reforms, are contrasted with earlier reform efforts that were premised on the socialisation of risk and the universalisation of healthcare provision on an equitable basis for all. Transformation of state forms promoted the market and substantially weakened capacities to provide for basic needs. Controversy over these outcomes has coincided with astounding increases in global inequality, particularly since the 2008 global financial meltdown, with devastating and unequal effects on the health of populations. The chapter concludes by returning to the quest for universal health coverage by reaffirming the “Health for All” principles of social justice and solidarity within a ‘post-Washington consensus’.
This chapter examines how the politics of global health have been shaped by globalisation. This means evaluating its effects on both the material level of political-economic integration and on the ideational level of political-cultural discourse. The former is conventionally tied through a focus on trade and travel to global public health security, and the latter is often associated with global humanitarian care. Going beyond this dualistic divide, however, this chapter argues that globalisation has spun a connective thread running through both regimes. This connective thread is the pro-market neo-liberal governance that sutures globalisation’s integrative and ideational dynamics with powerful binding implications for health. Due to these ties that bind, processes of neo-liberalisation deeply influence global health, creating global health vulnerabilities and problems through structural violence while also shaping and steering the delivery of global health responses. Global health governance remains influenced by other international and postcolonial health regimes that continue to inspire alternatives to the global expansion of neo-liberal norms. However, the same market forces that have made globalisation a synonym for processes of neo-liberalisation have also now become the dominant transnational influence shaping the ‘global’ in global health politics.
This article discusses globalization and public policy, as well as the significant tension between the two. It shows that no matter how influential the trade-off between globalization and public policy is seen to be, it is deeply problematic. The article seeks to bring to light the notion of globalization, while considering the many ways it can be seen as antithetical to public policy. The article also presents a review of the empirical evidence and the debate that has been generated.
The History of International Health: Medicine, Politics, and Two Socio-Medical Perspectives, 1851 to 2000
International health became an important activity of governments of industrialised and a few low-income countries (LICs) during the second half of the nineteenth century. Initially concentrated on improving, coordinating, and standardising quarantines; isolation of the sick in ports; and maritime health regulations, by the turn of the twentieth century it became an activity carried out by specialised institutions and a network of experts. Two socio-medical approaches coexisted in international health during the twentieth century. One was technocratic, illustrated by the malaria eradication campaign launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 1950s, which relied heavily on technology. The other was exemplified by the primary healthcare proposal made by WHO and UNICEF in the late 1970s, which prioritised a broad prevention perspective and the use of public health as a tool of social reform.
Climate change poses risks to the basic needs, human rights, and core values of individuals and communities. These risks are increasingly being described as risks to human security, which contrast with the more abstract notion that climate change poses risks to national security. This article focuses on the first of the commonly agreed climate change and security issues — that is the linkages between climate change and human security. It defines some of the key concepts of vulnerability, adaptation, and human security, which all come together in research and policy on climate change and human security. The relationship between these concepts is explained, as is the distinction between securities as is it has traditionally been understood within the discipline of political science, and human security. Furthermore this article provides an overview of the critical and applied uses of the concept of human security as it relates to climate change.
This chapter looks at the gendered dynamics of Security Council–authorized humanitarian interventions. The chapter focuses on the Libyan intervention to demonstrate the failure of the Security Council to consult women or gender experts regarding the decision to intervene. The chapter shows how the focus on women’s insecurity in humanitarian crises reinforces gendered political outcomes due to the lack of feminist consciousness within the Security Council deliberations and actions. It concludes with suggestions for feminist engagement, including consultation with communities where interventions have occurred in the past. The chapter also suggests utilizing Security Council resolution 2122 to disrupt gendered dynamics.
Foreign and defence policy overlap in most countries, and India is no exception. This chapter traces the origins of India’s national security policies and discusses key turning points. It argues that the first major shift in the country’s defence policies took place in the immediate aftermath of the 1962 Sino-Indian border war. In the wake of this conflict the country embarked upon a substantial program of military modernization. It also focuses on a series of extant threats that the country confronts, the policies and strategies that have been adopted to address them, and their limitations and prospects. The chapter also addresses the question of India’s military industrial base and its shortcomings. The final section focuses on the key challenges that confront the country and are likely to shape the course of its national security policies.